[cleanairuk_news] Health Effects of Air Quality and Noise - update February 2017

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* Health Effects of Air Quality and Noise - update February 2017 *

By Barbara Rimmington, Researcher, East End Quality of Life Initiative

(Previous edition - January 2017:
http://cleanairuk.org/pipermail/news_cleanairuk.org/2017-February/000109.html)

(Index for previous issues:
http://www.cleanairuk.org/health-air-pollution.html)

*CONTENTS*

1) Effects of environmental noise exposure on DNA methylation in the  
brain and metabolic health

2) Living near major roads and the incidence of dementia, Parkinson's  
disease, and multiple sclerosis: a population-based cohort study

3) Multiple Threats to Child Health from Fossil Fuel Combustion:  
Impacts of Air Pollution and Climate Change

4) Exposure to traffic-related air pollution and risk of development  
of childhood asthma: A systematic review and meta-analysis

5) Exposure to ambient PM10 and NO2 and the incidence of  
attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in childhood

6) Systematic review of the association between particulate matter  
exposure and autism spectrum disorders

7) Prenatal exposure to outdoor air pollution and child behavioral  
problems at school age in Japan

8) Maternal exposure to ambient air pollution and risk of early  
childhood cancers: A population-based study in Ontario, Canada

9) Children's respiratory health and oxidative potential of PM2.5: the  
PIAMA birth cohort study

10) Maternal exposure to ozone and PM2.5 and the prevalence of  
orofacial clefts in four U.S. states

11) Preterm birth and air pollution: Critical windows of exposure for  
women with asthma

12) Exposure to outdoor air pollution during trimesters of pregnancy  
and childhood asthma, allergic rhinitis, and eczema

13) Lower Placental Leptin Promoter Methylation in Association with  
Fine Particulate Matter Air Pollution during Pregnancy and Placental  
Nitrosative Stress at Birth in the ENVIRONAGE Cohort

14) Cardiovascular Benefits of Wearing Particulate-Filtering  
Respirators: A Randomized Crossover Trial

15) Traffic-derived particulate matter exposure and histone H3  
modification: A repeated measures study

16) Air pollution and cardiovascular mortality with over 25 years  
follow-up: A combined analysis of two British cohorts

17) Long-term exposure to diesel engine exhaust induces primary DNA  
damage: a population-based study

18) Long-term exposure to fine particulate matter air pollution and  
the risk of lung cancer among participants of the Canadian National  
Breast Screening Study

19) The aryl hydrocarbon receptor AhR links atopic dermatitis and air  
pollution via induction of the neurotrophic factor artemin

20) Simultaneous measurements of on-road/in-vehicle nanoparticles and  
NOx while driving: Actual situations, passenger exposure and secondary  
formations

21) A critical review of the ESCAPE project for estimating long-term  
health effects of air pollution

22) Comparison of air pollution exposures in active vs. passive travel  
modes in European cities: A quantitative review

23) Levels of ambient air pollution according to mode of transport: a  
systematic review

24) Dirty diesel

25) The association of air pollution and greenness with mortality and  
life expectancy in Spain: A small-area study

26) Scripted drives: A robust protocol for generating exposures to  
traffic-related air pollution

27) Accountability studies of air pollution and health effects:  
lessons learned and recommendations for future natural experiment  
opportunities

28) Uncertainty evaluation in air quality planning decisions: a case  
study for Northern Italy

29) Estimation of daily PM10 concentrations in Italy (2006–2012) using  
finely resolved satellite data, land use variables and meteorology

30) Effectiveness of traffic-related elements in tree bark and pollen  
abortion rates for assessing air pollution exposure on respiratory  
mortality rates

31) Can commercial low-cost sensor platforms contribute to air quality  
monitoring and exposure estimates?

32) Exposure to air pollutants during commuting in London: Are there  
inequalities among different socio-economic groups?

- o -

1) Effects of environmental noise exposure on DNA methylation in the  
brain and metabolic health

Liqiong Guo, Peng-hui Li, Hua Li, Elena Colicino, Silvia Colicino, Yi  
Wen, Ruiping Zhang, Xiaotian Feng, Timothy M. Barrow, Akin Cayir,  
Andrea A. Baccarelli, Hyang-Min Byun

Gene-specific changes in DNA methylation in the brain with noise  
exposure. Decreased blood pressure with long-term noise exposure. DNA  
methylation changes in the brain following noise exposure are  
associated with decreased body weight.
Environmental Research 153, February 2017, 73–82 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935116304364?dgcid=raven_sd_via_email)

- o -

2) Living near major roads and the incidence of dementia, Parkinson's  
disease, and multiple sclerosis: a population-based cohort study

Hong Chen, Jeffrey C Kwong, Ray Copes, Karen Tu, Paul J Villeneuve,  
Aaron van Donkelaar, Perry Hystad, Randall V Martin, Brian J Murray,  
Barry Jessiman, Andrew S Wilton, Alexander Kopp, Richard T Burnett

In this large population-based cohort, living close to heavy traffic  
was associated with a higher incidence of dementia, but not with  
Parkinson's disease or multiple sclerosis.

The Lancet DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(16)32399-6  
(http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(16)32399-6/fulltext) - read article  
(http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(16)32399-6/fulltext)

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3) Multiple Threats to Child Health from Fossil Fuel Combustion:  
Impacts of Air Pollution and Climate Change

Frederica P. Perera

Going beyond the powerful scientific and economic arguments for urgent  
action to reduce the burning of fossil fuels is the strong moral  
imperative to protect our most vulnerable populations.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/EHP299 - read article  
(https://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/EHP299/)

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4) Exposure to traffic-related air pollution and risk of development  
of childhood asthma: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Haneen Khreis, Charlotte Kelly, James Tate, Roger Parslow, Karen  
Lucas, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen

Whether children's exposure to traffic-related air pollution  
contributes to their development of asthma is an unresolved question.  
We conducted a systematic review and a meta-analysis of observational  
studies published until 8 September 2016 investigating this question.  
Forty-one studies met our eligibility criteria and there was an  
epidemic growth in publications after 2014. Overall, there was notable  
variability in asthma definitions, TRAP exposure assessment and  
confounder adjustment. The meta-analysis showed positive and  
statistically significant associations between asthma onset and the  
exposure to BC, NO2, PM2.5 and PM10, with the least heterogeneity  
detected in the BC and PM analyses and the most detected in the NO2  
and NOx analyses.

Environment International 100, March 2017, 1–31 - read abstract  
(https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412016307838?dgcid=raven_sd_via_email)

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5) Exposure to ambient PM10 and NO2 and the incidence of  
attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in childhood

Jin-young Min, Kyoung-bok Min

Ambient PM10 and NO2 is considered as a source of neurodevelopmental  
toxicants. We followed up the risk of childhood ADHD on exposure to  
air pollution in infancy. Infancy exposed to high air pollution had an  
increased risk for childhood ADHD.

Environment International 99, February 2017, 221–227 - read abstract  
(https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412016308881?dgcid=raven_sd_via_email)

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6) Systematic review of the association between particulate matter  
exposure and autism spectrum disorders

María Morales-Suárez-Varela, Isabel Peraita-Costa, Agustín Llopis- González

Studies on the relation between PM and ASD are scarce. There is a size  
dependent link between PM exposure and ASD. Further research,  
specially including confounding variables, is needed.

Environmental Research 153, February 2017, 150–160 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935116311343?dgcid=raven_sd_via_email)

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7) Prenatal exposure to outdoor air pollution and child behavioral  
problems at school age in Japan

Takashi Yorifuji, Saori Kashima, Midory Higa Diez, Yoko Kado, Satoshi  
Sanada, Hiroyuki Doi

Evaluated associations between prenatal air pollution exposure and  
neurodevelopment. We observed adverse effects of PM on behavioral  
problems at age 8 years. The problems were related to attention and  
delinquent or aggressive behavior.

Environment International 99, February 2017, 192–198 - read abstract  
(https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S016041201630811X?dgcid=raven_sd_via_email)

- o -

8) Maternal exposure to ambient air pollution and risk of early  
childhood cancers: A population-based study in Ontario, Canada

Éric Lavigne, Marc-André Bélair, Minh T. Do, David M. Stieb, Perry  
Hystad, Aaron van Donkelaar, Randall V. Martin, Daniel L. Crouse, Eric  
Crighton, Hong Chen, Jeffrey R. Brook, Richard T. Burnett, Scott  
Weichenthal, Paul J. Villeneuve, Teresa To, Sabit Cakmak, Markey  
Johnson, Abdool S. Yasseen III, Kenneth C. Johnson, Marianna Ofner,  
Lin Xie, Mark Walker

Ambient air pollution in pregnancy increases the risk of childhood  
cancers. PM2.5 exposure in first trimester was associated with risk of  
astrocytoma. First trimester exposure to NO2 increased risk of acute  
lymphoblastic leukemia.

Environment International 100, March 2017, 139–147 - read article  
(https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412017300466?dgcid=raven_sd_via_email)

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9) Children's respiratory health and oxidative potential of PM2.5: the  
PIAMA birth cohort study

Aileen Yang, Nicole A H Janssen, Bert Brunekreef, Flemming R Cassee,  
Gerard Hoek, Ulrike Gehring

Respiratory health was more strongly associated with OPDTT than with  
PM2.5 mass; OPDTT associations with lung function, but not symptoms,  
were sensitive to adjustment for NO2.

Occup Environ Med 2016;73:154-160 - read abstract  
(http://oem.bmj.com/content/73/3/154)

- o -

10) Maternal exposure to ozone and PM2.5 and the prevalence of  
orofacial clefts in four U.S. states

Ying Zhou, Suzanne M. Gilboa, Michele L. Herdt, Philip J. Lupo, W.  
Dana Flanders, Yang Liu, Mikyong Shin, Mark A. Canfield, Russell S.  
Kirby

This is a large study with about 4.7 million births and 7000 orofacial  
cleft cases. PM2.5 significantly increased the risk of cleft palate  
alone. PM2.5 did not change the incidence of cleft lip with or without  
palate. Ozone levels did not correlate with incidence of orofacial  
clefts.

Environmental Research 153, February 2017, 35–40 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935116306326?dgcid=raven_sd_via_email)

- o -

11) Preterm birth and air pollution: Critical windows of exposure for  
women with asthma

Pauline Mendola, Maeve Wallace, Beom Seuk Hwang, Danping Liu, Candace  
Robledo, Tuija Männistö, Rajeshwari Sundaram, Seth Sherman, Qi Ying,  
Katherine L. Grantz

Mothers with asthma may experience a higher risk for PTB after  
exposure to traffic-related pollutants such as CO and NOx,  
particularly for exposures 3-months preconception and in the early  
weeks of pregnancy.

Journal of Allergy & Clinical Immunology August 2016 138:2 432–440 -  
read article  
(http://www.jacionline.org/article/S0091-6749(16)00087-7/fulltext)

- o -

12) Exposure to outdoor air pollution during trimesters of pregnancy  
and childhood asthma, allergic rhinitis, and eczema

Qihong Deng, Chan Lu, Yuguo Li, Jan Sundell, Dan Norbäck

The present study endorsed fetal origins of childhood allergic  
diseases. Exposure to air pollution during pregnancy was associated  
with childhood allergy. Traffic-related air pollutant (NO2) is related  
to the development of allergic diseases. Allergic diseases in children  
may be related to maternal exposure in specific trimester.

Environmental Research 150, October 2016, 119–127 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935116302225)

- o -

13) Lower Placental Leptin Promoter Methylation in Association with  
Fine Particulate Matter Air Pollution during Pregnancy and Placental  
Nitrosative Stress at Birth in the ENVIRONAGE Cohort

Nelly D. Saenen, Karen Vrijens, Bram G. Janssen, Harry A. Roels,  
Kristof Y. Neven, Wim Vanden Berghe, Wilfried Gyselaers, Charlotte  
Vanpoucke, Wouter Lefebvre, Patrick De Boever, Tim S. Nawrot

LEP methylation status in the placenta was negatively associated with  
PM2.5 exposure during the second trimester, and with placental 3-NTp,  
a marker of oxidative/nitrosative stress. Additional research is  
needed to confirm our findings and to assess whether  
oxidative/nitrosative stress might contribute to associations between  
PM2.5 and placental epigenetic events. Potential consequences for  
health during the neonatal period and later in life warrant further  
exploration.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/EHP38 - read article  
(https://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/EHP38/)

- o -

14) Cardiovascular Benefits of Wearing Particulate-Filtering  
Respirators: A Randomized Crossover Trial

Jingjin Shi, Zhijing Lin, Renjie Chen, Cuicui Wang, Changyuan Yang,  
Jing Cai, Jingyu Lin, Xiaohui Xu, Jennifer A. Ross, Zhuohui Zhao,  
Haidong Kan

Short-term wearing of particulate-filtering respirators may produce  
cardiovascular benefits by improving autonomic nervous function and  
reducing BP.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/EHP73 - read article  
(https://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/EHP73/)

- o -

15) Traffic-derived particulate matter exposure and histone H3  
modification: A repeated measures study

Yinan Zheng, Marco Sanchez-Guerra, Zhou Zhang, Brian T. Joyce, Jia  
Zhong, Jacob K. Kresovich, Lei Liu, Wei Zhang, Tao Gao, Dou Chang,  
Citlalli Osorio-Yanez, Juan Jose Carmona, Sheng Wang, John P.  
McCracken, Xiao Zhang, Yana Chervona, Anaite Díaz, Pier A. Bertazzi,  
Petros Koutrakis, Choong-Min Kang, Joel Schwartz, Andrea A.  
Baccarelli, Lifang Hou

We assessed effects of PM exposures on histone H3 modification in  
human leukocyte. Traffic-derived PM may induce short-term changes in  
histone H3 modifications. Occupation and sex may modify effects of PM  
exposures on histone H3 modifications.

Environmental Research 153, February 2017, 112–119 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935116310970?dgcid=raven_sd_via_email)

- o -

16) Air pollution and cardiovascular mortality with over 25 years  
follow-up: A combined analysis of two British cohorts

Our results support a detrimental long-term effect for air pollutants  
on cardiovascular mortality.

Environment International, 99, February 2017, 275-281 - read article  
(https://ac.els-cdn.com/S0160412016309503/1-s2.0-S0160412016309503-main.pdf?_tid=d7da85de-e87c-11e6-a13d-00000aacb35f&acdnat=1485953537_3e1567d629f733bb6114f9143d538f4c)

- o -

17) Long-term exposure to diesel engine exhaust induces primary DNA  
damage: a population-based study

Huawei Duan, Xiaowei Jia, Qingfeng Zhai, Lu Ma, Shan Wang, Chuanfeng  
Huang, Haisheng Wang, Yong Niu, Xue Li, Yufei Dai, Shanfa Yu, Weimin  
Gao, Wen Chen, Yuxin Zheng

These findings suggest that DEE exposure mainly induces DNA damage,  
which might be used as an early biomarker for risk assessment of DEE  
exposure.

Occup Environ Med 2016;73:83-90 - read abstract  
(http://oem.bmj.com/content/73/2/83)

- o -

18) Long-term exposure to fine particulate matter air pollution and  
the risk of lung cancer among participants of the Canadian National  
Breast Screening Study

Anna Tomczak, Anthony B. Miller, Scott A. Weichenthal, Teresa To,  
Claus Wall, Aaron van Donkelaar, Randall V. Martin, Dan Lawson Crouse,  
Paul J. Villeneuve

Our findings are consistent with previous epidemiological  
investigations of long-term exposure to PM2.5 and lung cancer.  
Importantly, they suggest associations persist at lower concentrations  
such as those currently found in Canadian cities.

International Journal of Cancer 139:9 November 2016 1958–1966 - read  
abstract (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ijc.30255/full)

- o -

19) The aryl hydrocarbon receptor AhR links atopic dermatitis and air  
pollution via induction of the neurotrophic factor artemin

Takanori Hidaka, Eisaku Ogawa, Eri H Kobayashi, Takafumi Suzuki, Ryo  
Funayama, Takeshi Nagashima, Taku Fujimura, Setsuya Aiba, Keiko  
Nakayama, Ryuhei Okuyama, Masayuki Yamamoto

We propose a mechanism of air-pollution-induced atopic dermatitis via  
activation of AhR.

Nature Immunology 18, 64–73 (2017) - read abstract  
(http://www.nature.com/ni/journal/v18/n1/full/ni.3614.html)

- o -

20) Simultaneous measurements of on-road/in-vehicle nanoparticles and  
NOx while driving: Actual situations, passenger exposure and secondary  
formations

Hiroyuki Yamada, Rumiko Hayashi, Kenichi Tonokura

On-road / In-vehicle air qualities were monitored simultaneously  
during driving. PNCs, particle size distributions, NO and NO2 were  
measured. Air qualities seem to have a relation to levels of heavy  
duty traffic. On-road concentrations of NO2 and PNCs with particle  
sizes over 50 nm were quite high in the long tunnel. In-vehicle NO2  
often exceeds the 1-hour WHO standard with fresh air AC mode.
Science of The Total Environment 563–564, 1 September 2016, 944–955 -  
read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969715310743)

- o -

21) A critical review of the ESCAPE project for estimating long-term  
health effects of air pollution

Frederick W. Lipfert

ESCAPE: pooled epidemiological analyses of up to 19 cohorts in 13  
countries. 25 papers on associations of health indicators with up to 8  
air pollutants. One cohort with about half of the total subjects was  
considered separately. 16 of 125 pollutant-health endpoint  
combinations were significant (p < 0.05). Significant mortality  
associations: CVD, none; total, PM2.5 (only species tested)

Environment International 99, February 2017, 87–96 - read abstract  
(https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412016309047?dgcid=raven_sd_via_email)

- o -

22) Comparison of air pollution exposures in active vs. passive travel  
modes in European cities: A quantitative review

Audrey de Nazelle, Olivier Bode, Juan Pablo Orjuela

A quantitative review provides average ratios of exposures between  
travel modes. Pedestrians are on average less exposed than car and bus  
users and cyclists. Car users are more exposed than cyclists and  
pedestrians on average. Cyclist and bus rider exposure contrasts  
depend on pollutant but are similar. Ratios can be used to assess  
travel mode choice impacts on exposures and health.

Environment International 99, February 2017, 151–160 - read abstract  
(https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412016304585?dgcid=raven_sd_via_email)

- o -

23) Levels of ambient air pollution according to mode of transport: a  
systematic review

Magda Cepeda, Josje Schoufour, Rosanne Freak-Poli, Chantal M Koolhaas,  
Klodian Dhana, Wichor M Bramer, Oscar H Franco

Proximity to traffic and high air interchange increased the exposure  
to air pollution of commuters using motorised transport. Larger  
inhalation rates and commuting time increased inhaled dose among  
active commuters. Benefits of active commuting from physical activity  
are larger than the risk from an increased inhaled dose of fine  
particles.

The Lancet DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2468-2667(16)30021-4- read  
article  
(http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lanpub/article/PIIS2468-2667(16)30021-4/fulltext)

- o -

24) Dirty diesel

Robin Russell-Jones

Cities and citizens choke while the government looks the other way. In  
the 19th century, John Snow correctly identified the Broad Street pump  
as the source of a cholera outbreak in Soho, but a subsequent inquiry  
by the Board of Health decided that there was no reason to act. The  
response of the UK government to air pollution displays a similar lack  
of foresight. The main problem is diesel.

BMJ 2016;355:i6726 - read editorial  
(http://www.bmj.com/content/355/bmj.i6726?utm_medium=email&utm_campaign_name=20170113&utm_source=etoc_weekly)

- o -

25) The association of air pollution and greenness with mortality and  
life expectancy in Spain: A small-area study

Carmen de Keijzer, David Agis, Albert Ambrós, Gustavo Arévalo, Jose M  
Baldasano, Stefano Bande, Jose Barrera-Gómez, Joan Benach, Marta  
Cirach, Payam Dadvand, Stefania Ghigo, Èrica Martinez-Solanas, Mark  
Nieuwenhuijsen, Ennio Cadum, Xavier Basagaña, on behalf of the  
MED-HISS Study group

This ecological small-area study included mortality data for all  
Spain. PM10, PM2.5, NO2 and O3 were associated with increased  
mortality risk. A 5 µg/m3 increase in PM10 was associated with a  
reduction of ten months of life. Greenness only showed a protective  
association for mortality in low SES areas.

Environment International 99, February 2017, 170–176 - read abstract  
(https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412016307553?dgcid=raven_sd_via_email)

- o -

26) Scripted drives: A robust protocol for generating exposures to  
traffic-related air pollution

Allison P. Patton, Robert Laumbach, Pamela Ohman-Strickland, Kathy  
Black, Shahnaz Alimokhtari, Paul J. Lioy, Howard M. Kipen

Scripted drives on the NJ Turnpike and local roads on 190 days over 8  
years. Measured PM2.5, PNC, CO, BC, and NO2 in the car cabin. Higher  
concentrations on NJ Turnpike (NJT) compared to local roads. NJT  
exposure increase robust to season, traffic congestion, and ventilation.

Atmospheric Environment 143, October 2016, 290–299 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1352231016306318)

- o -

27) Accountability studies of air pollution and health effects:  
lessons learned and recommendations for future natural experiment  
opportunities

David Q. Rich

Natural experiments assess if regulatory actions resulted in lower air  
pollution. Natural experiments also assess if beneficial health  
effects were observed. Strengths and limitations of past designs can  
inform future study designs.

Environment International 100, March 2017, 62–78 - read abstract  
(https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412016310534?dgcid=raven_sd_via_email)

- o -

28) Uncertainty evaluation in air quality planning decisions: a case  
study for Northern Italy

C. Carnevale, J. Douros, G. Finzi, A. Graff, G. Guariso, Z. Nahorski,  
E. Pisoni, J-L. Ponche, E. Real, E. Turrini, Ch. Vlachokostas

In recent years, evaluating the robustness of environmental models  
results has become essential in order to effectively support decision  
makers to define suitable emission control strategies. The results  
show how the uncertainty on Drivers of emissions propagates on the  
whole modelling chain characterizing an integrated assessment study.

Environmental Science & Policy 65, November 2016, 39–47 - read  
abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1462901116300193)

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29) Estimation of daily PM10 concentrations in Italy (2006–2012) using  
finely resolved satellite data, land use variables and meteorology

Massimo Stafoggia, Joel Schwartz, Chiara Badaloni, Tom Bellander,  
Ester Alessandrini, Giorgio Cattani, Francesca de' Donato, Alessandra  
Gaeta, Gianluca Leone, Alexei Lyapustin, Meytar Sorek-Hamer, Kees de  
Hoogh, Qian Di, Francesco Forastiere, Itai Kloog

Estimates of air pollution levels at fine spatiotemporal scale are  
lacking in Italy. We combined satellite data with land use variables  
and ground-level PM10 measurements. We estimated daily PM10  
concentrations at a 1-km2 grid over Italy, 2006-2012. Our model  
displayed good cross-validation fitting (R2 = 0.65) and negligible  
bias. Spatiotemporal predictions will allow estimation of short and  
long term health effects of PM10

Environment International 99, February 2017, 234–244 - read abstract  
(https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412016308960?dgcid=raven_sd_via_email)

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30) Effectiveness of traffic-related elements in tree bark and pollen  
abortion rates for assessing air pollution exposure on respiratory  
mortality rates

Regiani Carvalho-Oliveira, Luís F. Amato-Lourenço, Tiana C.L. Moreira,  
Douglas R. Rocha Silva, Bruna D. Vieira, Thais Mauad, Mitiko Saiki,  
Paulo H. Nascimento Saldiva

Effectiveness of elements in tree barks to determine air pollution  
risk was assessed. Effectiveness of pollen abortion to determine air  
pollution risk was assessed. Strong correlation between mortality  
rates and pollen abortion was found. Strong correlation between  
mortality and traffic related elements was found. Strong correlation  
between pollen abortion and traffic related elements was found.

Environment International 99, February 2017, 161–169 - read abstract  
(https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412016303919?dgcid=raven_sd_via_email)

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31) Can commercial low-cost sensor platforms contribute to air quality  
monitoring and exposure estimates?

Nuria Castell, Franck R. Dauge, Philipp Schneider, Matthias Vogt, Uri  
Lerner, Barak Fishbain, David Broday, Alena Bartonova

We find challenges associated with sensor robustness and measurement  
repeatability. Field performance evaluation under diverse  
environmental conditions is necessary. We show low-cost sensors are  
not ready for applications that require high accuracy. Low-cost  
sensors can provide coarse information about the observed air quality.

Environment International 99, February 2017, 293–302 - read article  
(https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412016309989?dgcid=raven_sd_via_email)

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32) Exposure to air pollutants during commuting in London: Are there  
inequalities among different socio-economic groups?

Ioar Rivas, Prashant Kumar, Alex Hagen-Zanker

No systematic relationship between income deprivation and pollutant  
level was found. Modes hierarchy for PM concentrations in London  
observed as underground » bus > car. Highest PNCs were measured in  
London buses, followed by car and underground train. BC was 23% higher  
in London buses than cars and influenced by Fe in underground. Air  
quality in trains depended on open/closed windows and  
above/underground tracks.

Environment International Available online 8 February 2017 - read  
article  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412016305803)

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----------------------------------------------------------


Compiler and Editor: Barbara Rimmington, Researcher, East End Quality
of Life Initiative

10 Montgomery Terrace Road

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(https://sheffieldeastend.wordpress.com/newsletters/handsworth-community-forum/)

Reports (https://sheffieldeastend.wordpress.com/reports/)  produced by  
East End Quality of Life Initiative and others

Presentations and reports  
(https://sheffieldeastend.wordpress.com/sheffield-air-quality-conferences/)  
from Sheffield Air Quality Conferences

Media coverage (https://sheffieldeastend.wordpress.com/home/) on air pollution





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