[cleanairuk_news] Health Effects of Air Quality and Noise - update January 2017

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Sun Feb 12 11:47:24 GMT 2017


* Health Effects of Air Quality and Noise - update January 2017 *

By Barbara Rimmington, Researcher, East End Quality of Life Initiative

(Previous edition - December 2016:
http://cleanairuk.org/pipermail/news_cleanairuk.org/2016-December/000107.html)

(Index for previous issues:
http://www.cleanairuk.org/health-air-pollution.html)

*CONTENTS*

1) Urban and Transport Planning Related Exposures and Mortality: A  
Health Impact Assessment for Cities

2) Historical Prediction Modeling Approach for Estimating Long-Term  
Concentrations of PM2.5 in Cohort Studies before the 1999  
Implementation of Widespread Monitoring

3) Ambient Fine Particulate Matter, Outdoor Temperature, and Risk of  
Metabolic Syndrome

4) Estimating Causal Effects of Local Air Pollution on Daily Deaths:  
Effect of Low Levels

5) Acute respiratory response to traffic-related air pollution during  
physical activity performance

6) Air pollution, deprivation and health: understanding relationships  
to add value to local air quality management policy and practice in  
Wales, UK

7) Associations among plasma metabolite levels and short-term exposure  
to PM2.5 and ozone in a cardiac catheterization cohort

8) Differential health effects of short-term exposure to  
source-specific particles in London, U.K.

9) Mortality and emergency hospitalizations associated with  
atmospheric particulate matter episodes across the UK in spring 2014

10) Traffic-related air pollution and hyperactivity/inattention,  
dyslexia and dyscalculia in adolescents of the German GINIplus and  
LISAplus birth cohorts

11) The association between particulate air pollution and respiratory  
admissions among young children in Hanoi, Vietnam

12) Perinatal Exposure to Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Autism  
Spectrum Disorders

13) Epigenome-Wide Meta-Analysis of Methylation in Children Related to  
Prenatal NO2 Air Pollution Exposure

14) Ambient air pollution and adverse birth outcomes: Differences by  
maternal comorbidities

15) A national study of the association between traffic-related air  
pollution and adverse pregnancy outcomes in Canada, 1999–2008

16) Small for gestational age and exposure to particulate air  
pollution in the early-life environment of twins

17) Air pollution exposure and preeclampsia among US women with and  
without asthma

18) Traffic-related air pollution and childhood acute leukemia in Oklahoma

19) Association between prenatal exposure to ambient diesel  
particulate matter and perchloroethylene with children's 3rd grade  
standardized test scores

20) Ambient Air Pollution and the Risk of Central Retinal Artery Occlusion

21) Association Between Long-term Exposure to Air Pollution and  
Biomarkers Related to Insulin Resistance, Subclinical Inflammation,  
and Adipokines

22) Influence of ambient temperature on the heterogeneity of ambient  
fine particle chemical composition and disease prevalence

23) Short-term effects of air pollution on hospitalization for acute  
myocardial infarction: age effect on lag pattern

24) Seasonal and temperature modifications of the association between  
fine particulate air pollution and cardiovascular hospitalization in  
New York state

25) Associations between Source-Specific Fine Particulate Matter and  
Emergency Department Visits for Respiratory Disease in Four U.S. Cities

26) Long-term exposure to urban air pollution and the relationship  
with life expectancy in cohort of 3.5 million people in Silesia

27) Chemical components of respirable particulate matter associated  
with emergency hospital admissions for type 2 diabetes mellitus in  
Hong Kong

28) The respiratory landscape in China: a focus on air pollution

29) Long-term trend and spatial pattern of PM2.5 induced premature  
mortality in China

30) Haze, public health and mitigation measures in China: A review of  
the current evidence for further policy response

31) The air quality and health impacts of domestic trans-boundary  
pollution in various regions of China

32) Exposure to ambient ultrafine particulate matter alters the  
expression of genes in primary human neurons

33) Evaluating the impacts of the clean cities program

34) Air quality in Europe — 2016 report

35) Planting Healthy Air

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1) Urban and Transport Planning Related Exposures and Mortality: A  
Health Impact Assessment for Cities

Natalie Mueller, David Rojas-Rueda, Xavier Basagaña, Marta Cirach, Tom  
Cole-Hunter, Payam Dadvand, David Donaire-Gonzalez, Maria Foraster,  
Mireia Gascon, David Martinez, Cathryn Tonne, Margarita Triguero-Mas,  
Antònia Valentín, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen

PA factors and environmental exposures can be modified by changes in  
urban and transport planning. We emphasize the need for a) the  
reduction of motorized traffic through the promotion of active and  
public transport and b) the provision of green infrastructure, both of  
which are suggested to provide opportunities for PA and for mitigation  
of air pollution, noise, and heat.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/EHP220 - read article  
(https://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/EHP220/)

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2) Historical Prediction Modeling Approach for Estimating Long-Term  
Concentrations of PM2.5 in Cohort Studies before the 1999  
Implementation of Widespread Monitoring

Sun-Young Kim, Casey Olives, Lianne Sheppard, Paul D. Sampson, Timothy  
V. Larson, Joshua P. Keller, Joel D. Kaufman

Our prediction modeling approach will allow health effects estimation  
associated with long-term exposures to PM2.5 over extended time  
periods ≤ 30 years.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/EHP131 - read article  
(https://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/EHP131/)

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3) Ambient Fine Particulate Matter, Outdoor Temperature, and Risk of  
Metabolic Syndrome

Rachel S. Wallwork, Elena Colicino, Jia Zhong, Itai Kloog, Brent A.  
Coull, Pantel Vokonas, Joel D. Schwartz, Andrea A. Baccarelli

Men living in neighborhoods with worse air quality—with higher PM2.5  
levels and/or temperatures than average—showed increased risk of  
developing metabolic dysfunctions.

Am. J. Epidemiol. (2017) 185 (1): 30-39 - read abstract  
(http://aje.oxfordjournals.org/content/185/1/30.abstract?etoc)

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4) Estimating Causal Effects of Local Air Pollution on Daily Deaths:  
Effect of Low Levels

Joel Schwartz, Marie-Abele Bind, Petros Koutrakis

We conclude that there is a causal association of local air pollution  
with daily deaths at concentrations below U.S. EPA standards. The  
estimated attributable risk in Boston exceeded 1,800 deaths during the  
study period, indicating that important public health benefits can  
follow from further control efforts.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/EHP232 - read article  
(https://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/EHP232/)

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5) Acute respiratory response to traffic-related air pollution during  
physical activity performance

Florian Matt, Tom Cole-Hunter, David Donaire-Gonzalez, Nadine Kubesch,  
David Martínez, Glòria Carrasco-Turigas, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen

Study design allows disentangling respiratory effects on a single  
pollutant level. PA acutely increases lung function even in highly  
polluted environments. PA and TRAP pre-exposure modify lung function  
measurements. PA modifies the acute respiratory effects of air  
pollution. PA has the potential to alleviate acute negative effects of  
PM upon respiratory airways.

Environment International 97, December 2016, 45–55 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412016305797?dgcid=raven_sd_via_email)

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6) Air pollution, deprivation and health: understanding relationships  
to add value to local air quality management policy and practice in  
Wales, UK

H. Brunt, J. Barnes, S.J. Jones, J.W.S. Longhurst, G. Scally, E. Hayes

There is a need to reduce air pollution-related risks for all.  
However, it is also the case that greater health gains can result from  
considering local air pollution problems and solutions in the context  
of wider health-determinants and acting on a better understanding of  
relationships. Informed and co-ordinated air pollution mitigation and  
public health action in high deprivation and pollution areas can  
reduce risks and inequalities. To achieve this, greater public health  
integration and collaboration in local air quality management policy  
and practice is needed.

J Public Health (2016) doi: 10.1093/pubmed/fdw084 - read abstract  
(http://jpubhealth.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2016/10/11/pubmed.fdw084.abstract)

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7) Associations among plasma metabolite levels and short-term exposure  
to PM2.5 and ozone in a cardiac catheterization cohort

Susanne Breitner, Alexandra Schneider, Robert B Devlin, Cavin K  
Ward-Caviness, David Diaz-Sanchez, Lucas M Neas, Wayne E Cascio,  
Annette Peters, Elizabeth R Hauser, Svati H Shah, William E Kraus

We explored associations between short-term exposures to PM2.5 and  
ozone with plasma metabolite concentrations. PM2.5 and ozone were  
associated with changes in plasma metabolite levels. Strongest  
association was seen for PM2.5 with a lag of one day and decreased  
mean glycine concentrations. Our findings might help to understand the  
link between air pollution and cardiovascular disease.

Environment International 97, December 2016, 76–84 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412016305864?dgcid=raven_sd_via_email)

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8) Differential health effects of short-term exposure to  
source-specific particles in London, U.K.

Evangelia Samoli, Richard W Atkinson, Antonis Analitis, Gary W Fuller,  
David Beddows, David C Green, Ian S Mudway, Roy M Harrison, H Ross  
Anderson, Frank J Kelly

No associations between source specific particles and mortality. No  
associations between source specific particles and admissions among  
the elderly. CVD admissions (15–64 years) associated with traffic or  
background urban particles. Most particle sources were associated with  
pediatric respiratory admissions. Fuel oil PM10 strongly associated  
with pediatric respiratory hospitalizations.

Environment International 97, December 2016, 246–253 - read article  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412016304512?dgcid=raven_sd_via_email)

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9) Mortality and emergency hospitalizations associated with  
atmospheric particulate matter episodes across the UK in spring 2014

Helen L. Macintyre, Clare Heaviside, Lucy S. Neal, Paul Agnew, John  
Thornes, Sotiris Vardoulakis

In March–April 2014, local and regional PM2.5 air pollution built up  
over the UK. PM2.5 during episode days was associated with ~ 600  
deaths brought forward in total. Emergency hospitalizations from  
exposure to PM2.5 during the episodes were ~ 1500. Short-term health  
impact of PM2.5 was 2.0 to 2.7 times that of average spring levels.  
Planning for health impacts of PM2.5 episodes may help manage  
healthcare resources.

Environment International 97, December 2016, 108–116 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412016302847?dgcid=raven_sd_via_email)

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10) Traffic-related air pollution and hyperactivity/inattention,  
dyslexia and dyscalculia in adolescents of the German GINIplus and  
LISAplus birth cohorts

Elaine Fuertes, Marie Standl, Joan Forns, Dietrich Berdel, Judith  
Garcia-Aymerich, Iana Markevych, Gerd Schulte-Koerne, Dorothea Sugiri,  
Tamara Schikowski, Carla M T Tiesler, Joachim Heinrich

Few studies have examined the link between air pollution and  
neurodevelopment. PM2.5 mass and absorbance were associated with  
hyperactivity in German adolescents. No consistent associations were  
found with dyslexia or dyscalculia. Traffic-related air pollution may  
adversely affect neurodevelopment.

Environment International 97, December 2016, 85–92 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412016306201?dgcid=raven_sd_via_email)

- o-

11) The association between particulate air pollution and respiratory  
admissions among young children in Hanoi, Vietnam

Ly M.T. Luong, Dung Phung, Peter D. Sly, Lidia Morawska, Phong K. Thai

First study on human health impact of air pollution in the north of  
Vietnam. Elevated levels of PM10, PM2.5 or PM1 were associated

with respiratory admissions. The smaller PM could have stronger impact  
on children respiratory admission. Urgent intervention measures are  
needed to control air pollution in Vietnam.

Science of The Total Environment 578, 1 February 2017, 249–255 - read  
abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969716316965)

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12) Perinatal Exposure to Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Autism  
Spectrum Disorders

Tong Gong, Christina Dalman, Susanne Wicks, Henrik Dal, Cecilia  
Magnusson, Cecilia Lundholm, Catarina Almqvist, Göran Pershagen

Early-life exposure to low levels of NOx and PM10 from road traffic  
does not appear to increase the risk of ASD.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/EHP118 - read article  
(https://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/EHP118/)

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13) Epigenome-Wide Meta-Analysis of Methylation in Children Related to  
Prenatal NO2 Air Pollution Exposure

Olena Gruzieva, Cheng-Jian Xu, Carrie V. Breton, Isabella  
Annesi-Maesano, Josep M. Antó, Charles Auffray, Stéphane Ballereau,  
Tom Bellander, Jean Bousquet, Mariona Bustamante, Marie-Aline Charles,  
Yvonne de Kluizenaar, Herman T. den Dekker, Liesbeth Duijts, Janine F.  
Felix, Ulrike Gehring, Mònica Guxens, Vincent V.W. Jaddoe, Soesma A.  
Jankipersadsing, Simon Kebede Merid, Juha Kere, Ashish Kumar,  
Nathanael Lemonnier, Johanna Lepeule, Wenche Nystad, Christian Magnus  
Page, Sviatlana Panasevich, Dirkje Postma, Rémy Slama, Jordi Sunyer,  
Cilla Söderhäll, Jin Yao, Stephanie J. London, Göran Pershagen, Gerard  
H. Koppelman, Erik Melén

NO2 exposure during pregnancy was associated with differential  
offspring DNA methylation in mitochondria-related genes. Exposure to  
NO2 was also linked to differential methylation as well as expression  
of genes involved in antioxidant defense pathways.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/EHP36 - read article  
(https://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/EHP36/)

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14) Ambient air pollution and adverse birth outcomes: Differences by  
maternal comorbidities

Eric Lavigne, Abdool S. Yasseen III, David M. Stieb, Perry Hystad,  
Aaron van Donkelaar, Randall V. Martin, Jeffrey R. Brook, Daniel L.  
Crouse, Richard T. Burnett, Hong Chen, Scott Weichenthal, Markey  
Johnson, Paul J. Villeneuve, Mark Walker

Prenatal exposure to air pollution is associated with adverse birth  
outcomes. Effects of PM2.5 and NO2 on preterm birth are higher among  
diabetic mothers. Effects of ozone on preterm birth are higher among  
mothers with asthma.

Environmental Research 148, July 2016, 457–466 - read article  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935116301517)

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15) A national study of the association between traffic-related air  
pollution and adverse pregnancy outcomes in Canada, 1999–2008

David M. Stieb, Li Chen, Perry Hystad, Bernardo S. Beckerman, Michael  
Jerrett, Michael Tjepkema, Daniel L. Crouse, D. Walter Omariba, Paul  
A. Peters, Aaron van Donkelaar, Randall V. Martin, Richard T. Burnett,  
Shiliang Liu, Marc Smith-Doiron, Rose M. Dugandzic

Study of approximately 2.5 million Canadian births between 1999 and  
2008. Employed a national nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure model. NO2  
associated with small for gestational age (SGA) and reduced term birth  
weight. Associations remained significant after adjustment for PM2.5.  
Traffic-related air pollution may increase risk of SGA and reduce term  
birth weight.

Environmental Research 148, July 2016, 513–526 - read article  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935116301487)

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16) Small for gestational age and exposure to particulate air  
pollution in the early-life environment of twins

Esmée M. Bijnens, Catherine Derom, Marij Gielen, Ellen Winckelmans,  
Frans Fierens, Robert Vlietinck, Maurice P. Zeegers, Tim S. Nawrot

Exposure to air pollution is associated with restricted fetal growth  
in singletons. No studies have investigated the association of air  
pollution with birth weight and small for gestational age in twins.  
Maternal air pollution (PM10 and NO2) exposure was estimated over  
various time windows during pregnancy in 4,760 twins. Air pollution is  
associated with small for gestational age and birth weight in moderate  
to late preterm born twins. The within-pair difference in birth weight  
increases with higher air pollution exposure during the last month of  
pregnancy.

Environmental Research 148, July 2016, 39–45 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S001393511630086X)

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17) Air pollution exposure and preeclampsia among US women with and  
without asthma

Pauline Mendola, Maeve Wallace, Danping Liu, Candace Robledo, Tuija  
Mӓnnistӧ, Katherine L. Grantz

Asthma is common in pregnancy and asthmatic women have increased  
preeclampsia risk. Air pollution could differentially increase  
preeclampsia risk for asthmatic women. Preeclampsia risk was higher  
for asthmatics than non-asthmatics after VOC exposure. Asthmatics also  
had higher risk after whole pregnancy exposure to elemental carbon.  
Pregnant women with asthma appear to be particularly vulnerable to air  
pollutants.

Environmental Research 148, July 2016, 248–255 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935116301281)

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18) Traffic-related air pollution and childhood acute leukemia in Oklahoma

Amanda E. Janitz, Janis E. Campbell, Sheryl Magzamen, Anne Pate, Julie  
A. Stoner, Jennifer D. Peck

Association between traffic-related air pollution and childhood  
leukemia. Novel measurement of nitrogen dioxide using satellite-based  
model. First to observe association between nitrogen dioxide and acute  
myeloid leukemia.

Environmental Research 148, July 2016, 102–111 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935116301177)

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19) Association between prenatal exposure to ambient diesel  
particulate matter and perchloroethylene with children's 3rd grade  
standardized test scores

Jeanette A. Stingone, Katharine H. McVeigh, Luz Claudio

We assessed associations between diesel and perchloroethylene on  
children's test scores. Greater prenatal exposure to both pollutants  
was associated with lower math scores. Combined effects of individual  
pollutants may additively impact children's health.

Environmental Research 148, July 2016, 144–153 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935116301165)

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20) Ambient Air Pollution and the Risk of Central Retinal Artery Occlusion

Hui-Chen Cheng, Ren-Hao Pan, Huan-Jui Yeh, K. Robert Lai, May-Yung  
Yen, Chien-Lung Chan, An-Guor Wang

These results demonstrated a positive association between air  
pollution and CRAO onset, particularly in patients with diabetes or  
hypertension and those older than 65 years.

Opthalmology December 2016 123,12, 2603–2609 - read abstract  
(http://www.aaojournal.org/article/S0161-6420(16)31093-4/fulltext)

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21) Association Between Long-term Exposure to Air Pollution and  
Biomarkers Related to Insulin Resistance, Subclinical Inflammation,  
and Adipokines

Kathrin Wolf, Anita Popp, Alexandra Schneider, Susanne Breitner,  
Regina Hampel, Wolfgang Rathmann, Christian Herder, Michael Roden,  
Wolfgang Koenig, Christa Meisinger, Annette Peters

Our results suggested an association between long-term exposure to air  
pollution and IR in the general population was attributable mainly to  
individuals with diabetes.

Diabetes 2016 Nov; 65(11): 3314-3326 - read abstract  
(http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/65/11/3314)

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22) Influence of ambient temperature on the heterogeneity of ambient  
fine particle chemical composition and disease prevalence

Ilias G. Kavouras, Marie-Cecile G. Chalbot

Ambient temperature may manipulate fine particulate composition. These  
differences may be augmented by rising temperatures due to changing  
climate. Considering the causal associations between particulate  
pollution and pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases, changes in the  
composition of particulate pollution may imply adjustments on the  
human health impacts.

International Journal of Environmental Health Research 27:1, 2017  
27-39 - read abstract  
(http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/09603123.2016.1257704)

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23) Short-term effects of air pollution on hospitalization for acute  
myocardial infarction: age effect on lag pattern

Philippe Collart, Michele Dramaix, Alain Levêque, Yves Coppieters

This study indicates that age plays a major role in the lag pattern.  
Younger people have delayed effects, but they are nevertheless  
sensitive to air pollution.

International Journal of Environmental Health Research 27:1, 2017  
68-81 - read abstract  
(http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/09603123.2016.1268678)

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24) Seasonal and temperature modifications of the association between  
fine particulate air pollution and cardiovascular hospitalization in  
New York state

Wan-Hsiang Hsu, Syni-An Hwang, Patrick L. Kinney, Shao Lin

The short-term PM2.5 effect on CVDs is identified, with its seasonal  
pattern and modification by temperature. NYC, Long Island & Hudson has  
year-round PM2.5 effect on CVDs. The strongest PM2.5 effect on CVDs  
exists in winter and at low temperature days. Importance of their  
joint effect is shown and also provides insight into the health impact  
from a public health perspective.

Science of The Total Environment 578, 1 February 2017, 626–632 - read  
abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969716324391)

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25) Associations between Source-Specific Fine Particulate Matter and  
Emergency Department Visits for Respiratory Disease in Four U.S. Cities

Jenna R. Krall, James A. Mulholland, Armistead G. Russell, Sivaraman  
Balachandran, Andrea Winquist, Paige E. Tolbert, Lance A. Waller,  
Stefanie Ebelt Sarnat

We introduced an approach for comparing the chemical compositions of  
PM2.5 sources across cities and conducted one of the first multicity  
studies of source-specific PM2.5 and ED visits. Across four U.S.  
cities, among the primary PM2.5 sources assessed, biomass burning  
PM2.5 was most strongly associated with respiratory health.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/EHP271 - read article  
(https://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/EHP271/)

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26) Long-term exposure to urban air pollution and the relationship  
with life expectancy in cohort of 3.5 million people in Silesia

Grzegorz Dziubanek, Anna Spychała, Ewa Marchwińska-Wyrwał, Monika  
Rusin, Ilona Hajok, Małgorzata Ćwieląg-Drabek, Agata Piekut

We analyzed the impact of air pollutants on the length of life of the  
3.5 million people from the Silesia province in Poland. There is a  
statistically significant correlation between chronic exposure to PM10  
and benzo(a)pyrene and the length of life. Long-term inhalation  
exposure to the mixture of PM10, BaP, Cd and Pb showed the highest  
correlation with the length of life. Reduction of the annual average  
concentration of PM10 by 1 μg/m3 results in life expectancy prolonged  
by 0.1 of the year.

Science of The Total Environment 580, 15 February 2017, 1–8 - read  
abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969716326845)

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27) Chemical components of respirable particulate matter associated  
with emergency hospital admissions for type 2 diabetes mellitus in  
Hong Kong

Shengzhi Sun, Hong Qiu, Kin-Fai Ho, Linwei Tian

Few studies have investigated PM10 components on T2DM emergency  
hospitalization. EC and NO3− were associated with T2DM emergency  
hospitalization. Traffic, marine vessels, industrial and agricultural  
combustion may be targeted on.

Environment International 97, December 2016, 93–99 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S016041201630650X?dgcid=raven_sd_via_email)

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28) The respiratory landscape in China: a focus on air pollution

Yadan Ouyang

The 2010 Global Burden of Disease Study found that outdoor air  
pollution contributed to 1·2 million premature deaths in China, making  
it the fourth leading risk factor for deaths, following dietary risks,  
high blood pressure and smoking.

The Lancet 5:1, 16–17, January 2017 - read article  
(http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lanres/article/PIIS2213-2600(16)30445-3/fulltext)

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29) Long-term trend and spatial pattern of PM2.5 induced premature  
mortality in China

Rong Xie, Clive E. Sabel, Xi Lu, Weimo Zhu, Haidong Kan, Chris P.  
Nielsen, Haikun Wang

Spatio-temporal variations of health impacts of PM2.5 in China were  
analyzed. Premature deaths attributed to ambient PM2.5 have grown
42% during 2000–2010. Urbanization attracted people migrating into  
urban areas with higher PM2.5 levels. Health burdens of ambient PM2.5  
exacerbated in some poor inner provinces.

Environment International 97, December 2016, 180–186 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412016303397?dgcid=raven_sd_via_email)

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30) Haze, public health and mitigation measures in China: A review of  
the current evidence for further policy response

Jinghong Gao, Alistair Woodward, Sotiris Vardoulakis, Sari Kovats,  
Paul Wilkinson, Liping Li, Lei Xu, Jing Li, Jun Yang, Jing Li, Lina  
Cao, Xiaobo Liu, Haixia Wu, Qiyong Liu

The relationship between haze pollution and public health in China was  
reviewed for the first time. The sources and formation of haze episode  
were described. The existing mitigation measures and challenges faced  
China were summarized. The potential policy options and future  
research directions were discussed. Individual prevention measures  
during haze events from the public aspects were further suggested.

Science of The Total Environment 578, 1 February 2017, 148–157 - read  
abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969716324299)

31) The air quality and health impacts of domestic trans-boundary  
pollution in various regions of China

Y. Gu, S.H.L. Yim

Concentration-response functions are established for Chinese health  
assessments. TBI, on average, accounts for 27% of the total PM2.5 in  
China. TBI accounts for 18% of premature mortalities (160,000) due to  
air pollution in China. 22% of Taiwan premature mortalities due to air  
pollution are caused by TBI from China.

Environment International 97, December 2016, 117–124 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S016041201630294X?dgcid=raven_sd_via_email)

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32) Exposure to ambient ultrafine particulate matter alters the  
expression of genes in primary human neurons

Parrisa Solaimani, Arian Saffari, Constantinos Sioutas, Stephen C.  
Bondy, Arezoo Campbell

Aqueous ultrafine particles change expression of noncoding RNAs in  
human neurons. Metallothionein 1A and 1F expression was increased by  
exposure to particulate matter. Particle-induced genetic changes may  
lead to neurodevelopmental abnormalities.

NeuroToxicology 58, January 2017, 50–57 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0161813X1630225X)

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33) Evaluating the impacts of the clean cities program

Shiyong Qiu, Nikhil Kaza

The clean cities program is effective in promoting alternative fueling  
stations. The program has potentially shifted travel behaviors from  
driving to riding transit. Counties in the program experienced larger  
improvements in air quality. In these counties, fewer commuters drive  
to work and more use transit.

Science of The Total Environment 579, 1 February 2017, 254–262 - read  
abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969716325736)

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34) Air quality in Europe — 2016 report

The present analysis indicates that air-quality policies have  
delivered, and continue to deliver, many improvements. Reduced  
emissions have improved air quality in Europe, and, for a number of  
pollutants, exceedances of European standards are rare. However,  
substantial challenges remain and considerable impacts on human health  
and on the environment persist. A large proportion of European  
populations and ecosystems are still exposed to air pollution that  
exceeds European standards and, especially, World Health Organization  
(WHO) Air Quality Guidelines (AQGs).

European Environment Agency 2016 88pp - read report  
(http://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/air-quality-in-europe-2016)

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35) Planting Healthy Air

Street trees can be a part of a cost-effective portfolio of  
interventions aimed at controlling particulate matter pollution and  
mitigating high temperatures in cities. While trees cannot and should  
not replace other strategies to make air healthier, trees can be used  
in conjunction with these other strategies to help clean and cool the  
air. Moreover, trees provide a multitude of other benefits beyond  
healthier air. In the right spot, trees can both help make our air  
healthier and our cities more verdant and livable.

The Nature Conservancy 2016 136pp - read report  
(https://thought-leadership-production.s3.amazonaws.com/2016/10/28/17/17/50/0615788b-8eaf-4b4f-a02a-8819c68278ef/20160825_PHA_Report_FINAL.pdf)

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----------------------------------------------------------

Compiler and Editor: Barbara Rimmington, Researcher, East End Quality
of Life Initiative

10 Montgomery Terrace Road

Sheffield S6 3BU

Tel. 0114 285 9931

Fax 0114 278 7173

Visit/Like our blog / archive
(https://sheffieldeastend.wordpress.com/)  We are setting up an  
archive of our website (for the day when we are no longer actively
updating it).

Facebook https://www.facebook.com/barbara.rimmington.3

Twitter (https://www.twitter.com/b_rimm/)

Website (http://www.sheffieldeastend.org.uk/index.htm)

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