[cleanairuk_news] Health Effects of Air Quality and Noise - update January 2015

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Tue Feb 17 15:18:00 GMT 2015


* Health Effects of Air Quality and Noise - update January 2015 *

By Barbara Rimmington, Researcher, East End Quality of Life Initiative

(Previous edition - December 2014:  
http://cleanairuk.org/pipermail/news_cleanairuk.org/2014-December/000079.html)

(Index for previous issues:  
http://www.cleanairuk.org/health-air-pollution.html)

*Notice*

Can you help Sheffield to breathe easy? Making Air Better With Open Data

If you missed the first workshop on 23 Jan, you can still register for  
the other workshops that will help the people and businesses of  
Sheffield understand how we can use open data for civic and economic  
improvement. They will take place at the Showroom Cinema on 13  
Feb and 13 Mar. For more information about the Air Quality+ project -  
including contributing your own data - please email Jag Goraya at The  
Better With Data Society (jag at betterwithdata.co) or visit  
http://betterwithdata.co/airqualityplus. 

*CONTENTS*

1) Auditory and non-auditory effects of noise on health

2) Exposure to road traffic noise and children's behavioural problems  
and sleep disturbance: Results from the GINIplus and LISAplus studies

3) Noise and health in vulnerable groups: A review

4) The cost of hypertension-related ill-health attributable to  
environmental noise

5) Cardiovascular effects of environmental noise exposure

6) Effects of solid barriers on dispersion of roadway emissions

7) Impact of traffic-related pollution on respiratory function in  
children living in London's low emission zone: A sequential cross  
sectional study

8) The risks of acute exposure to black carbon in Southern Europe:  
results from the MED-PARTICLES project

9) Commuting-Adjusted Short-Term Health Impact Assessment of Airborne  
Fine Particles with Uncertainty Quantification via Monte Carlo  
Simulation

10) “Exported” Deaths and Short-Term PM10 Exposure: Factoring the  
Impact of Commuting into Mortality Estimates

11) Modification of the Association between PM10 and Lung Function  
Decline by Cadherin 13 Polymorphisms in the SAPALDIA Cohort: A  
Genome-Wide Interaction Analysis

12) Associations between three specific a-cellular measures of the  
oxidative potential of particulate matter and markers of acute airway  
and nasal inflammation in healthy volunteers

13) Long-term exposure to outdoor air pollution and the incidence of  
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in a national English cohort

14) Making air quality indices comparable – assessment of 10 years of  
air pollutant levels in western Europe

15) Effect of Exposure to Atmospheric Ultrafine Particles on  
Production of Free Fatty Acids and Lipid Metabolites in the Mouse  
Small Intestine

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1) Auditory and non-auditory effects of noise on health

Mathias Basner, Wolfgang Babisch, Adrian Davis, Mark Brink, Charlotte  
Clark, Sabine Janssen, Stephen Stansfeld

Noise is pervasive in everyday life and can cause both auditory and  
non-auditory health effects. Noise-induced hearing loss remains highly  
prevalent in occupational settings, and is increasingly caused by  
social noise exposure (eg, through personal music players). Evidence  
of the non-auditory effects of environmental noise exposure on public  
health is growing. Observational and experimental studies have shown  
that noise exposure leads to annoyance, disturbs sleep and causes  
daytime sleepiness, affects patient outcomes and staff performance in  
hospitals, increases the occurrence of hypertension and cardiovascular  
disease, and impairs cognitive performance in schoolchildren. In this  
Review, we stress the importance of adequate noise prevention and  
mitigation strategies for public health.

The Lancet 383,9925, 1325–1332 - read abstract  
(http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(13)61613-X/abstract) (free access to article if you register, free, with The  
Lancet)

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2) Exposure to road traffic noise and children's behavioural problems  
and sleep disturbance: Results from the GINIplus and LISAplus studies

Carla M.T. Tiesler, Matthias Birk, Elisabeth Thiering, Gabriele  
Kohlböck, Sibylle Koletzko, Carl-Peter Bauer,

Dietrich Berdel, Andrea von Berg, Wolfgang Babisch, Joachim Heinrich,  
for the GINIplus and LISAplus Study Groups
Road traffic noise exposure at home may be related to increased  
hyperactivity and more emotional symptoms in children. Future  
longitudinal studies are required to explore noise exposure and  
behavioural problems in more detail, especially the role of sleep  
disturbances.

Environmental Research 123, May 2013, 1–8 - read article  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935113000364)

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3) Noise and health in vulnerable groups: A review

Irene van Kamp, Hugh Davies

Vulnerable or susceptible groups are mentioned in most reviews and  
documents regarding noise and health. But only a few studies address  
this issue in a concrete and focused way. Groups at risk most often  
mentioned in the literature are children, the elderly, the chronically  
ill and people with a hearing impairment. The other categories  
encountered are those of sensitive persons, shiftworkers, people with  
mental illness (e.g., schizophrenia or autism), people suffering from  
tinnitus, and fetuses and neonates. The mechanism for this  
vulnerability has not been clearly described and relevant research has  
seldom focused on the health effects of noise in these groups in an  
integrated manner. This paper summarizes the outcomes and major  
conclusions of a systematic, qualitative review of studies over the  
past 5 years. This review was prepared for the 10 th Conference on  
Noise as a Public Health Problem (ICBEN, 2011). Evidence is reviewed  
describing effects, groups assumed to be at risk, and mechanisms  
pertaining to noise sensitivity and learned helplessness.

Noise Health 2013;15:153-9 - read article  
(http://www.noiseandhealth.org/article.asp?issn=1463-1741;year=2013;volume=15;issue=64;spage=153;epage=159;aulast=van)

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4) The cost of hypertension-related ill-health attributable to  
environmental noise

Anne-Helen Harding, Gillian A Frost, Emma Tan, Aki Tsuchiya, Howard M Mason

Hypertension (HT) is associated with environmental noise exposure and  
is a risk factor for a range of health outcomes. The study aims were  
to identify key HT related health outcomes and to quantify and  
monetize the impact on health outcomes attributable to environmental  
noise-related HT. A reiterative literature review identified key HT  
related health outcomes and their quantitative links with HT. The  
health impact of increases in environmental noise above recommended  
daytime noise levels (55 dB[A]) were quantified in terms of quality  
adjusted life years and then monetized. A case study evaluated the  
cost of environmental noise, using published data on health risks and  
the number of people exposed to various bands of environmental noise  
levels in the United Kingdom (UK). Three health outcomes were selected  
based on the strength of evidence linking them with HT and their  
current impact on society: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI), stroke  
and dementia. In the UK population, an additional 542 cases of  
HT-related AMI, 788 cases of stroke and 1169 cases of dementia were  
expected per year due to daytime noise levels ≥55 dB(A). The cost of  
these additional cases was valued at around £1.09 billion, with  
dementia accounting for 44%. The methodology is dependent on the  
availability and quality of published data and the resulting  
valuations reflect these limitations. The estimated intangible cost  
provides an insight into the scale of the health impacts and  
conversely the benefits that the implementation of policies to manage  
environmental noise may confer.

Noise Health 2013;15:437-45 - read article  
(http://www.noiseandhealth.org/text.asp?2013/15/67/437/121253)

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5) Cardiovascular effects of environmental noise exposure

Thomas Münzel, Tommaso Gori, Wolfgang Babisch, Mathias Basner

The role of noise as an environmental pollutant and its impact on  
health are being increasingly recognized. Beyond its effects on the  
auditory system, noise causes annoyance and disturbs sleep, and it  
impairs cognitive performance. Furthermore, evidence from  
epidemiologic studies demonstrates that environmental noise is  
associated with an increased incidence of arterial hypertension,  
myocardial infarction, and stroke. Both observational and experimental  
studies indicate that in particular night-time noise can cause  
disruptions of sleep structure, vegetative arousals (e.g. increases of  
blood pressure and heart rate) and increases in stress hormone levels  
and oxidative stress, which in turn may result in endothelial  
dysfunction and arterial hypertension. This review focuses on the  
cardiovascular consequences of environmental noise exposure and  
stresses the importance of noise mitigation strategies for public  
health.

European Heart Journal 2014 DOI:  
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehu030 829-836 - read article  
(http://eurheartj.oxfordjournals.org/content/35/13/829)

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6) Effects of solid barriers on dispersion of roadway emissions

Nico Schulte, Michelle Snyder, Vlad Isakov, David Heist, Akula Venkatram

Roadside barriers mitigate the impact of vehicular emissions on near  
road air quality. The concentration reduction is largest during stable  
conditions. The primary effect of barriers is to mix pollutants over  
the barrier height. A simple model that incorporates enhanced mixing  
describes observations.
Atmospheric Environment 97, November 2014, 286–295 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1352231014006207)

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7) Impact of traffic-related pollution on respiratory function in  
children living in London's low emission zone: A sequential cross  
sectional study

Chris Griffiths, Ian Mudway, Helen Wood, Isobel Dundas, Louise Cross,  
Nadine Marlin, Jeenath Jamaludin, Stephen Bremner, Robert Walton,  
Andrew Grieve, Jonathan Grigg, Chinedu Nwokoro, Rossa Brugha, Sean  
Beevers, Seif Shaheen, Tak Lee, Frank Kelly

We found no improvement in children's respiratory health in the  
initial years of London's LEZ. We observed evidence of reduced lung  
volume related to long term exposure to traffic pollutants consistent  
with impaired lung growth.

ERJ September 1, 2013 vol. 42 no. Suppl 57 P3621 - read abstract  
(http://erj.ersjournals.com/content/42/Suppl_57/P3621.short)

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8) The risks of acute exposure to black carbon in Southern Europe:  
results from the MED-PARTICLES project

Bart Ostro, Aurelio Tobias, Angeliki Karanasiou, Evangelia Samoli,  
Xavier Querol, Sophia Rodopoulou, Xavier Basagaña, Kostas  
Eleftheriadis, Evangelia Diapouli, Stergios Vratolis, Benedicte  
Jacquemin, Klea Katsouyanni, Jordi Sunyer, Francesco Forastiere,  
Massimo Stafoggia9 and the MED-PARTICLES Study Group

Our findings suggest that BC, derived in western industrialised  
nations primarily from diesel engines and biomass burning, poses a  
significant burden to public health, particularly in European cities  
with high-traffic density.

Occup Environ Med 2015;72:123-129 - read abstract  
(http://oem.bmj.com/content/72/2/123.abstract?etoc)

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9) Commuting-Adjusted Short-Term Health Impact Assessment of Airborne  
Fine Particles with Uncertainty Quantification via Monte Carlo  
Simulation

Michela Baccini, Laura Grisotto, Dolores Catelan, Dario Consonni, Pier  
Alberto Bertazzi, Annibale Biggeri

Our estimates, which incorporated uncertainty quantification, indicate  
that the short-term impact of PM10 on mortality in Lombardy in 2007  
was notable, and that reduction in air pollution would have had a  
substantial beneficial effect on population health. Using commuting  
data helped to identify critical areas for prioritizing intervention.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1408218/)

10) “Exported” Deaths and Short-Term PM10 Exposure: Factoring the  
Impact of Commuting into Mortality Estimates

Julia R. Barrett

Exposure to coarse particulate matter (PM10) has been associated with  
increased mortality. Reliable health impact assessments are difficult,  
however, because existing exposure data may be incomplete, and  
exposures and effects alike typically are predicted rather than  
observed. A new report in EHP estimates mortality attributable to  
short-term PM10 exposure using sophisticated models to account for two  
of the chief obstacles to assessing health impact—namely, data  
uncertainty and mobility of the population.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/123-A22/)

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11) Modification of the Association between PM10 and Lung Function  
Decline by Cadherin 13 Polymorphisms in the SAPALDIA Cohort: A  
Genome-Wide Interaction Analysis

Medea Imboden, Ashish Kumar, Ivan Curjuric, Martin Adam, Gian Andri  
Thun, Margot Haun, Ming-Yi Tsai, Marco Pons, Robert Bettschart,  
Alexander Turk, Thierry Rochat, Nino Künzli, Christian Schindler,  
Florian Kronenberg, Nicole M. Probst-Hensch

Both air pollution and genetic variation have been shown to affect  
lung function. Their interaction has not been studied on a genome-wide  
scale to date. CDH13 is functionally linked to the adipokine  
adiponectin, an inflammatory regulator. Future studies need to confirm  
the interaction and assess how the result relates to previously  
observed interactions between air pollution and obesity on respiratory  
function.
Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1307398/)

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12) Associations between three specific a-cellular measures of the  
oxidative potential of particulate matter and markers of acute airway  
and nasal inflammation in healthy volunteers

Nicole A H Janssen, Maciej Strak, Aileen Yang, Bryan Hellack, Frank J  
Kelly, Thomas A J Kuhlbusch, Roy M Harrison, Bert Brunekreef, Flemming  
R Cassee, Maaike Steenhof, Gerard Hoek

We found significant associations between three a-cellular measures of  
OP of PM and markers of airway and nasal inflammation. However,  
consistency of these effects in two-pollutant models depended on how  
measurements at the underground site were considered. Lung function  
and vascular inflammatory and coagulation parameters in blood were not  
consistently associated with OP. Our study, therefore, provides  
limited support for a role of OP in predicting acute health effects of  
PM in healthy young adults.

Occup Environ Med 2015;72:49-56 - read abstract  
(http://oem.bmj.com/content/72/1/49.abstract?etoc)

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13) Long-term exposure to outdoor air pollution and the incidence of  
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in a national English cohort

R W Atkinson, I M Carey, A J Kent, T P van Staa, H R Anderson, D G Cook

This large population-based cohort study found limited, inconclusive  
evidence for associations between air pollution and COPD incidence.  
Further work, utilising improved estimates of air pollution over time  
and enhanced socioeconomic indicators, is required to clarify the  
association between air pollution and COPD incidence.

Occup Environ Med 2015;72:42-48 - read article  
(http://oem.bmj.com/content/72/1/42.full)

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14) Making air quality indices comparable – assessment of 10 years of  
air pollutant levels in western Europe

Hanna Leona Lokys, Jürgen Junk, Andreas Krein

To address the incomparability of the large number of existing air  
quality indices, we propose a new normalization method that is suited  
to directly compare air quality indices based on the common European  
World Health Organization (WHO) air quality guidelines for NO2, O3,  
and PM10. Using this method, we compared three air quality indices  
based on the European guidelines, related them to another air quality  
index based on the relative risk concept, and used them to assess the  
air quality and its trends in northwest central Europe. The average  
air quality in the area of investigation is below the recommended  
European guidelines. The majority of index values exceeding this  
threshold are caused by PM10, which is also, in most cases,  
responsible for the degrading trends in air quality. Eleven out of 29  
stations tested showed significant trends, of which eight indicated  
trends towards better air quality.

International Journal of Environmental Health Research 25:1, 2015  
52-66 - read abstract  
(http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09603123.2014.893568#.VJLb6tKsWN9)

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15) Effect of Exposure to Atmospheric Ultrafine Particles on  
Production of Free Fatty Acids and Lipid Metabolites in the Mouse  
Small Intestine

Rongsong Li, Kaveh Navab, Greg Hough, Nancy Daher, Min Zhang, David  
Mittelstein, Katherine Lee, Payam Pakbin, Arian Saffari, May  
Bhetraratana, Dawoud Sulaiman, Tyler Beebe, Lan Wu, Nelson Jen, Eytan  
Wine, Chi-Hong Tseng, Jesus A. Araujo, Alan Fogelman, Constantinos  
Sioutas, Mohamed Navab, Tzung K. Hsiai

Exposure to UFP promotes lipid metabolism, villus shortening, and  
inflammatory responses in mouse small intestine, whereas  
administration of D-4F attenuated these effects. Our findings provide  
a basis to further assess the mechanisms underlying UFP-mediated lipid  
metabolism in the digestive system with clinical relevance to gut  
homeostasis and diseases.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1307036/)


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---------------------------------------------------------------------

Compiler and Editor: Barbara Rimmington, Researcher, East End Quality
of Life Initiative

10 Montgomery Terrace Road

Sheffield S6 3BU

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Fax 0114 278 7173

Email: barbara at sheffieldct.co.uk

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