[cleanairuk_news] Health Effects of Air Quality and Noise - update February 2015

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Thu Feb 19 17:56:19 GMT 2015


* Health Effects of Air Quality and Noise - update February 2015 *

By Barbara Rimmington, Researcher, East End Quality of Life Initiative

(Previous edition - January 2015:  
http://cleanairuk.org/pipermail/news_cleanairuk.org/2015-February/000081.html)

(Index for previous issues:  
http://www.cleanairuk.org/health-air-pollution.html)

*Notice*

Conference (25 March 2015): Hosted by Care4Air, the eighth Clearer  
Future Conference will be held in Sheffield at the Hilton Hotel,  
Victoria Quays, on Wednesday 25th March. This year’s conference will  
have a keynote presentation from Dr Ian Mudway. It is free to attend,  
and you can register here  
(https://www.eventbrite.co.uk/e/clearer-future-conference-2015-tickets-15514004806).

*CONTENTS*

1) EEB Cross border pollution

2) Associations between daily mortality in London and combined oxidant  
capacity, ozone and nitrogen dioxide

3) PM2.5 in Beijing – temporal pattern and its association with influenza

4) The relationship between air pollution and asthma in Malaysian  
schoolchildren

5) Short-term airborne particulate matter exposure alters the  
epigenetic landscape of human genes associated with the  
mitogen-activated protein kinase network: a cross-sectional study

6) Oxidative stress and air pollution exposure during pregnancy - A  
molecular assessment

7) The association of PM2.5 with full term low birth weight at  
different spatial scales

8) The effects of air pollution on adverse birth outcomes

9) Sources and contents of air pollution affecting term low birth  
weight in Los Angeles County, California, 2001–2008

10) Is air quality index associated with cardiometabolic risk factors  
in adolescents? The CASPIAN-III Study

11) The Cardiopulmonary Effects of Ambient Air Pollution and  
Mechanistic Pathways: A Comparative Hierarchical Pathway Analysis

12) Relationships Between Fine Particulate Air Pollution,  
Cardiometabolic Disorders, and Cardiovascular Mortality

13) Exposure to Air Pollution From Traffic and Neurodevelopmental  
Disorders in Swedish Twins

14) Air Pollution and Percent Emphysema Identified by Computed  
Tomography in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

15) Impacts of intercontinental transport of anthropogenic fine  
particulate matter on human mortality

16) Characterisation of nanoparticle emissions and exposure at traffic  
intersections through fast–response mobile and sequential measurements

17) Use of Satellite Observations for Long-Term Exposure Assessment of  
Global Concentrations of Fine Particulate Matter

18) Evaluation of impacts of trees on PM2.5 dispersion in urban streets

19) Indoor/outdoor air pollution relationships in ten commercial  
buildings: PM2.5 and NO2

20) Evaluation of green walls as a passive acoustic insulation system  
for buildings

21) Air Quality in the City Regions. A Transport Toolkit

22) Policy symbolism and air pollution in Toronto and Ontario, 1963–1967

23) The Power of Urban Planning on Environmental Sustainability: A  
Focus Group Study in Finland

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1) EEB Cross border pollution

The European Environment Bureau has produced illustrations for some  
European countries showing how air pollution crosses national  
boundaries, and what the impact of air pollution from PM2.5 is on  
those countries' health and economy.

http://www.eeb.org/index.cfm/activities/industry-health/air/infographics-on-cross-border-pollution/

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2) Associations between daily mortality in London and combined oxidant  
capacity, ozone and nitrogen dioxide

M. L. Williams, R. W. Atkinson, H. R. Anderson, F. J. Kelly

Our study has demonstrated that the strong interrelationship between  
daily concentrations of O3 and NO2 suggests that analysis of each  
pollutant separately does not capture adequately the combined effects  
on the population from simultaneous exposure to the two interacting  
pollutants.

Air Qual Atmos Health (2014) 7:407–414 - read article  
(http://download.springer.com/static/pdf/125/art%253A10.1007%252Fs11869-014-0249-8.pdf?auth66=1423660929_c7b48c72fa216697740b30d4b03377aa&ext=.pdf)

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3) PM2.5 in Beijing – temporal pattern and its association with influenza

Yijia Liang, Liqun Fang, Hui Pan, Kezhong Zhang, Haidong Kan, Jeffrey  
R Brook, Qinghua Sun

Ambient PM2.5 concentrations were significantly associated with human  
influenza cases in Beijing, which have important implications for  
public health and environmental actions.

Environmental Health 2014, 13:102 - read article  
(http://www.ehjournal.net/content/13/1/102)

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4) The relationship between air pollution and asthma in Malaysian  
schoolchildren

Emilia Zainal Abidin, Sean Semple, Irniza Rasdi, Sharifah Norkhadijah  
Syed Ismail, Jon G. Ayres

Exposure to traffic-related air pollution may be linked to asthma  
symptoms among children in Malaysia.
Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health December 2014, 7,4, 421-432 - read  
abstract (http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11869-014-0252-0)

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5) Short-term airborne particulate matter exposure alters the  
epigenetic landscape of human genes associated with the  
mitogen-activated protein kinase network: a cross-sectional study

Juan Jose Carmona, Tamar Sofer, John Hutchinson, Laura Cantone, Brent  
Coull, Arnab Maity, Pantel Vokonas, Xihong Lin, Joel Schwartz, Andrea  
A Baccarelli

Exposure to short-term air pollution components resulted in  
quantifiable epigenetic changes in the promoter areas of MAPK pathway  
genes. Bioinformatic mapping of single- vs. multi-exposure-associated  
epigenetic changes suggests that these alterations might affect  
biological pathways in nuanced ways that are not simply additive or  
fully predictable via individual-level exposure assessments.

Environmental Health 2014, 13:94  - read article  
(http://www.ehjournal.net/content/13/1/94)

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6) Oxidative stress and air pollution exposure during pregnancy - A  
molecular assessment

S Nagiah, A Phulukdaree, D Naidoo, K Ramcharan, RN Naidoo, D Moodley,  
A Chuturgoon

Chronic air pollution exposure during pregnancy can cause oxidative  
stress leading to adverse birth outcomes. Pregnant women exposed to  
higher air pollutant levels showed increased markers for oxidative  
stress and compromised DNA integrity and repair.

Hum Exp Toxicol November 17, 2014 0960327114559992 - read abstract  
(http://het.sagepub.com/content/early/2014/11/13/0960327114559992.abstract)

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7) The association of PM2.5 with full term low birth weight at  
different spatial scales

Gerald Harris, W. Douglas Thompson, Edward Fitzgerald, Daniel Wartenberg

We consider the association of low birth weight with PM2.5 exposure  
during pregnancy. We examine factors that may affect the association  
between LBW and PM2.5 exposure. We find that the association depends  
on the gestation period when exposed. We find that the association  
depends on the spatial and temporal data resolution.

Environmental Research 134, October 2014, 427–434 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S001393511400200X)

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8) The effects of air pollution on adverse birth outcomes

Sandie Ha, Hui Hu, Dikea Roussos-Rosb, Kan Haidonc, Jeffrey Rotd, Xiaohui Xu

Prenatal exposure to PM2.5 may increase the risk of term LBW, PTD and  
VPTD. The effects of PM2.5 on ABOs are strongest during the second  
trimester. Prenatal O3 exposure may increase the risk of PTD and VPTD.  
The protective association between O3 and term LBW needs further  
investigation.

Environmental Research 134, October 2014, 198–204 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S001393511400259X)

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9) Sources and contents of air pollution affecting term low birth  
weight in Los Angeles County, California, 2001–2008

Olivier Laurent, Jianlin Hu, Lianfa Li, Myles Cockburn, Loraine  
Escobedo, Michael J. Kleeman, Jun Wu

The first study of low birth weight (LBW) and ultrafine particulate  
matter (PM). Increased LBW risks are associated with total mass of  
primary fine and ultrafine PM. Gasoline, woodsmoke and meat cooking  
are the sources most associated with LBW risk. Several chemical  
species in fine and ultrafine PM are also associated with LBW risk.  
Risks are higher for women with hypertension, diabetes and a high body  
mass index.

Environmental Research 134, October 2014, 488–495 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935114001546)

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10) Is air quality index associated with cardiometabolic risk factors  
in adolescents? The CASPIAN-III Study

Parinaz Poursafa, Marjan Mansourian, Mohammad-Esmaeil Motlagh, Gelayol  
Ardalan, Roya Kelishadi

Air pollution was associated with some cardiometabolic risk factors in  
adolescents. Low air quality had positive correlations with total  
cholesterol, LDL-C, and TG. Low air quality had negative correlations  
with HDL-C. Low air quality had positive correlations with systolic  
blood pressure. These associations were independent of age, gender,  
anthropometric and lifestyle factors.

Environmental Research 134, October 2014,  105–109 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935114002412)

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11) The Cardiopulmonary Effects of Ambient Air Pollution and  
Mechanistic Pathways: A Comparative Hierarchical Pathway Analysis

Ananya Roy, Jicheng Gong, Duncan C. Thomas, Junfeng Zhang, Howard M.  
Kipen, David Q. Rich, Tong Zhu, Wei Huang, Min Hu, Guangfa Wang,  
Yuedan Wang, Ping Zhu, Shou-En Lu, Sandrah P. Eckel

These findings suggest that, among this healthy young adult  
population, the pulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress pathway is  
the first to respond to ambient air pollution exposure (within 24  
hours) and the hemostasis pathway responds gradually over a 2–3 day  
period. The initial pulmonary response may contribute to the more  
gradual systemic changes that likely ultimately involve the  
cardiovascular system.

PlosOne December 12, 2014DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0114913 - read  
article  
(http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0114913)

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12) Relationships Between Fine Particulate Air Pollution,  
Cardiometabolic Disorders, and Cardiovascular Mortality

C. Arden Pope III, Michelle C. Turner, Richard T. Burnett, Michael  
Jerrett, Susan M. Gapstur, W. Ryan Diver, Daniel Krewski, Robert D.  
Brook

Pollution-induced CVD mortality risk is observed for those with and  
without existing cardiometabolic disorders. Long-term exposure may  
also contribute to the development or exacerbation of cardiometabolic  
disorders, increasing risk of CVD, and cardiometabolic disease  
mortality.

Circulation Research 2015; 116: 108-115 - read abstract  
(http://circres.ahajournals.org/content/116/1/108.abstract)

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13) Exposure to Air Pollution From Traffic and Neurodevelopmental  
Disorders in Swedish Twins

Tong Gong, Catarina Almqvist, Sven Bölte, Paul Lichtenstein, Henrik  
Anckarsäter, Tomas Lind, Cecilia Lundholm, Göran Pershagen

Our data do not provide support for an association between pre- or  
postnatal exposure to air pollution from road traffic and  
neurodevelopmental disorders in children.
Twin Research and Human Genetics 17,06 December 2014, 553-562 - read  
abstract  
(http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=9445424&fulltextType=RA&fileId=S1832427414000589)

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14) Air Pollution and Percent Emphysema Identified by Computed  
Tomography in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

Sara D. Adar, Joel D. Kaufman, Ana V. Diez-Roux, Eric A. Hoffman,  
Jennifer D’Souza, Karen H. Stukovsky, Stephen S. Rich, Jerome I.  
Rotter, Xiuqing Guo, Leslie J. Raffel, Paul D. Sampson, Assaf P. Oron,  
Trivellore Raghunathan, R. Graham Bar

Associations between ambient air pollution and percentage of  
emphysema-like lung were inconclusive in this cross-sectional study,  
thus longitudinal analyses may better clarify these associations with  
percent emphysema.
Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1307951 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1307951/)

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15) Impacts of intercontinental transport of anthropogenic fine  
particulate matter on human mortality

Susan C. Anenberg, J. Jason West, Hongbin Yu, Mian Chin, Michael  
Schulz, Dan Bergmann, Isabelle Bey, Huisheng Bian, Thomas Diehl,  
Arlene Fiore, Peter Hess, Elina Marmer, Veronica Montanaro, Rokjin  
Park, Drew Shindell, Toshihiko Takemura, Frank Dentener

Compared with a previous study of 20 % ozone precursor emission  
reductions, we find that despite greater transport efficiency for  
ozone, absolute mortality impacts of intercontinental PM2.5 transport  
are comparable or greater for neighboring source-receptor pairs, due  
to the stronger effect of PM2.5 on mortality. However, uncertainties  
in modeling and concentration-response relationships are large for  
both estimates.

Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health September 2014, 7, 3, 369-379 - read  
abstract (http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11869-014-0248-9)

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16) Characterisation of nanoparticle emissions and exposure at traffic  
intersections through fast–response mobile and sequential measurements

Anju Goel, Prashant Kumar

Particle number size distributions were measured inside and outside  
the car. Peak number concentration at traffic signal was 29-fold of  
those during free–flow. Size-resolved inside to outside concentration  
ratio follows a power-law fit form. Number concentration is  
exponentially dependent on driving speed at intersections. About 2% of  
total commuting time at intersections corresponded to ∼25% of total  
doses.

Atmospheric Environment Available online 3 February 2015, Corrected  
Proof  - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1352231015001193)

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17) Use of Satellite Observations for Long-Term Exposure Assessment of  
Global Concentrations of Fine Particulate Matter

Aaron van Donkelaar, Randall V. Martin, Michael Brauer, Brian L. Boys

Satellite observations provide insight into global long-term changes  
in ambient PM2.5 concentrations. Satellite-derived estimates and  
ground-based PM2.5 observations from this study are available for  
public use.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1408646 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1408646/)

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18) Evaluation of impacts of trees on PM2.5 dispersion in urban streets

Sijia Jin, Jiankang Guo, Stephen Wheeler, Liyan Kan, Shengquan Che

PM2.5 concentrations in urban street canyons with or without trees  
were compared. The decrease of PM2.5 reduction rates was quantified.  
Canopy density and leaf area index were identified as key predictors  
for PM2.5. An optimized tree-planting strategy was suggested for a  
minimum PM2.5 accumulation.

Atmospheric Environment 99, December 2014, 277–287 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1352231014007791)

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19) Indoor/outdoor air pollution relationships in ten commercial  
buildings: PM2.5 and NO2

Avril Challoner, Laurence Gill

NO2 & PM2.5 air quality monitored outside and inside commercial  
buildings in Dublin. Indoor/outdoor PM2.5 ratios were all found to be  
close to or above 1. Naturally ventilated buildings had lowest NO2  
concentrations indoors. Strong diurnal NO2 relationships between  
outdoor and indoor air quality. Indoor/outdoor ratios increased  
overnight as outdoor concentrations reduced.

Building and Environment 80, October 2014, 159–173 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0360132314001826)

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20) Evaluation of green walls as a passive acoustic insulation system  
for buildings

Z. Azkorra, G. Pérez, J. Coma, L.F. Cabeza, S. Bures, J.E. Álvaro, A.  
Erkoreka, M. Urrestarazu

Weighted sound reduction index of 15 db were obtained by green wall.  
Weighted sound absorption coefficient of 0.40 were found by green  
wall. Green wall have significant potential sound insulation for  
vegetal architecture.

Applied Acoustics 89, March 2015, 46–56 Reuniting Health with Planning
This is a special issue  
(http://www.tcpa.org.uk/data/files/Health_and_planning/2014_Health_edition_journal/83-11_November_2014.pdf)of Town & Country Planning, November 2014, which examines the current position and helps readers to better understand both the influence of the built and natural environments on our health and the role of spatial planning in shaping places that help us to maintain good  
health.

Includes the following articles:

Jessica Allen: Planning – a powerful tool for reducing health inequalities

Adrian Davis: Public health evidence to support transport planning

Angie Jukes: Better together – embedding health into all stages of the  
planning process at Stockport

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21) Air Quality in the City Regions. A Transport Toolkit

This document has been produced in response to the health and economic  
impacts of poor air quality in the UK’s city regions. It has been  
written for the public authority professionals who do not work  
day-to-day in a local air quality management or environmental health  
function, but do have a role to play in improving matters. This could  
be through transport, planning, energy efficiency, fleet management or  
procurement functions. It contains a comprehensive set of guidance,  
references, signposts and case study examples relevant to managing  
local air pollution in the UK city regions.

Passenger Transport Executive Group - download toolkit  
(http://www.pteg.net/system/files/general-docs/Air%20quality%20toolkit%2011.08.14%20v2.pdf)  
(80pp)

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22) Policy symbolism and air pollution in Toronto and Ontario, 1963–1967

Owen Temby

In 1967, jurisdiction over clean air policy in Toronto and the rest of  
Ontario's municipalities was transferred to the provincial government.  
Even though the municipalities had obtained extensive authority to  
regulate air pollution within their own boundaries nine years earlier,  
the vast majority (apart from Toronto) had not developed clean air  
programmes. Yet air pollution was a highly salient issue that aroused  
considerable public attention and local activism. This paper provides  
an account of the provincial takeover in air pollution, focusing on  
two factors enabling the Ontario government to pass two statutes  
transferring authority from municipalities to the provincial  
Department of Health. First, despite resistance in Toronto, the policy  
change was favoured by industry, which had more influence in the  
provincial government than across municipalities. Second, the  
inherently symbolic features of clean air policy allowed the  
provincial government to satisfy public demand for action while not  
appreciably creating more stringent regulations. These findings are  
consistent with studies of US clean air policy displaying a similar  
tendency among industry to support regulatory standardization across  
broad political scales.

Planning Perspectives 30,2, 2015 271-284 - read abstract  
(http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02665433.2014.956782#.VNtBN-asWN8)

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23) The Power of Urban Planning on Environmental Sustainability: A  
Focus Group Study in Finland

Eeva-Sofia Säynäjoki, Jukka Heinonen, Seppo Junnila

This study suggests that land use planners are not by themselves able  
to deploy the full potential power of urban planning to impact  
environmental sustainability. Attempts to reduce private driving and  
the heating energy use in buildings through higher urban density may  
lead to situations where the alternative patterns of land use are  
ruled out—patterns that could potentially support sustainable  
lifestyles and reduce the overall environmental burden of all  
consumption. Purposeful co-operation, ambitious and jointly-held  
environmental objectives, critique on prioritising short-term economic  
considerations over long-term environmental concerns and better  
quantification of environmental sustainability through  
consumption-based approach to the environmental evaluation of land use  
are all needed to create better futures in the form of sustainable  
communities.

Sustainability 2014, 6(10), 6622-6643 - read article  
(http://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/6/10/6622/htm)

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---------------------------------------------------------------------

Compiler and Editor: Barbara Rimmington, Researcher, East End Quality
of Life Initiative

10 Montgomery Terrace Road

Sheffield S6 3BU

Tel. 0114 285 9931

Fax 0114 278 7173

Email: barbara at sheffieldct.co.uk

Web: www.sheffieldeastend.org.uk

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