[cleanairuk_news] Health Effects of Air Quality and Noise - update December 2014

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Wed Dec 31 14:21:12 GMT 2014


* Health Effects of Air Quality and Noise - update December 2014 *

By Barbara Rimmington, Researcher, East End Quality of Life Initiative

(Previous edition - November 2014:  
http://cleanairuk.org/pipermail/news_cleanairuk.org/2014-December/000078.html

Index page for Health Effects of Air Quality and Noise:  
http://www.cleanairuk.org/health-air-pollution.html)

*CONTENTS*

1) Impacts of intercontinental transport of anthropogenic fine  
particulate matter on human mortality

2) Short-term impacts of particulate matter (PM10, PM10–2.5, PM2.5) on  
mortality in nine French cities

3) Early-Life Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and ADHD  
Behavior Problems

4) Socioeconomic Position and Low Birth Weight among Mothers Exposed  
to Traffic-Related Air Pollution

5) Exhaust particles of modern gasoline vehicles: A laboratory and an  
on-road study

6) Association of short-term increases in ambient air pollution and  
timing of initial asthma diagnosis among medicaid-enrolled children in  
a metropolitan area

7) Fine particulate matter air pollution and blood pressure: The  
modifying role of psychosocial stress

8) Cycleways and footpaths: What separation is needed for equivalent  
air pollution dose between travel modes?

9) Inside Beijing's airpocalypse – a city made 'almost uninhabitable'  
by pollution
Oliver Wainwright

10) Air quality targets much cheaper than expected

11) Air pollution ‘kills 7,500 Londoners each year’

12) 447,000 premature deaths/year in EU due to bad air quality

13) School pupils and hospital patients at risk of killer pollution, say MPs

14) Erratum: “Performance of Multi-City Land Use Regression Models for  
Nitrogen Dioxide and Fine Particles”

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1) Impacts of intercontinental transport of anthropogenic fine  
particulate matter on human mortality

Susan C. Anenberg, J. Jason West, Hongbin Yu, Mian Chin, Michael  
Schulz, Dan Bergmann, Isabelle Bey, Huisheng Bian, Thomas Diehl,  
Arlene Fiore, Peter Hess, Elina Marmer, Veronica Montanaro, Rokjin  
Park, Drew Shindell, Toshihiko Takemura, Frank Dentener

Fine particulate matter with diameter of 2.5 μm or less (PM2.5) is  
associated with premature mortality and can travel long distances,  
impacting air quality and health on intercontinental scales.

Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health 7:3 369-379  - read abstract  
(http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11869-014-0248-9)

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2) Short-term impacts of particulate matter (PM10, PM10–2.5, PM2.5) on  
mortality in nine French cities

Mathilde Pascal, Grégoire Falq, Vérène Wagner, Edouard Chatignoux,  
Magali Corso, Myriam Blanchard, Sabine Host, Laurence Pascal, Sophie  
Larrieu

PM2.5 and PM10–2.5 have a significant short-term impact on mortality.  
For all PM metrics, the largest impacts were observed during summer.  
Results indicate a possible interaction between PM and temperature on  
mortality. Daily regulatory values for PM2.5 and PM10–2.5 would  
protect human health.

Atmospheric Environment 95, October 2014, 175–184 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1352231014004762)

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3) Early-Life Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and ADHD  
Behavior Problems

Frederica P. Perera, Hsin-wen Chang, Deliang Tang, Emily L. Roen,  
Julie Herbstman, Amy Margolis, Tzu-Jung Huang, Rachel L. Miller,Shuang  
Wang, Virginia Rauh

The results suggest that exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons  
encountered in New York City air may play a role in childhood  
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder behavior problems.

PlosOne November 05, 2014DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0111670 - read  
article  
(http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0111670)

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4) Socioeconomic Position and Low Birth Weight among Mothers Exposed  
to Traffic-Related Air Pollution

Mateus Habermann, Nelson Gouveia

This study found an unexpected decreased risk of LBW associated with  
traffic related air pollution. Mothers with advantaged socioeconomic  
position (SEP) although residing in areas of higher vehicular traffic  
might not in fact be more expose to air pollution. It can also be that  
the protection against LBW arising from a better SEP is stronger than  
the effect of exposure to air pollution, and this exposure may not be  
sufficient to increase the risk of LBW for these mothers.

PlosOne November 26, 2014DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0113900 - read  
article  
(http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0113900)

- o -

5) Exhaust particles of modern gasoline vehicles: A laboratory and an  
on-road study

Panu Karjalainen, Liisa Pirjola, Juha Heikkilä, Tero Lähde, Theodoros  
Tzamkiozis, Leonidas Ntziachristos, Jorma Keskinen, Topi Rönkkö

Four types of exhaust particles were observed in the exhaust of GDI  
vehicles. Nonvolatile particle size distribution consisted of two  
modes. GDI vehicles emitted particles also during engine braking  
conditions. Semivolatile nucleation particles were in the exhaust at  
high load conditions. Particle emissions were in real-world  
qualitatively similar as in the laboratory.

Atmospheric Environment 97, November 2014, 262–270 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1352231014006190)

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6) Association of short-term increases in ambient air pollution and  
timing of initial asthma diagnosis among medicaid-enrolled children in  
a metropolitan area

Judy K. Wendt, Elaine Symanski, Thomas H. Stock, Wenyaw Chan, Xianglin L. Du

Short-term air pollution exposure is associated with asthma symptoms  
in children.

Whether these exposures impact the timing of initial asthma diagnosis  
is unknown. Asthma diagnosis was more likely after periods of higher  
air pollution exposure. Acute air pollution exposure may be a proximal  
trigger of initial asthma symptoms.
Environmental Research 131, May 2014, 50–58 - read abstract (http://

www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935114000401)

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7) Fine particulate matter air pollution and blood pressure: The  
modifying role of psychosocial stress

Margaret T. Hicken, J. Timothy Dvonch, Amy J. Schulz, Graciela Mentz, Paul Max

Work suggests that psychosocial stress increases vulnerability to the  
effects of air pollution in certain contexts. We examined the  
modifying role of psychosocial stress on the hypertensive effects of  
PM2.5. In Southwest Detroit, high stress was associated with stronger  
PM2.5–BP associations.

Environmental Research 133, August 2014, 195–203 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935114001935)

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8) Cycleways and footpaths: What separation is needed for equivalent  
air pollution dose between travel modes?

Stuart K. Grange, Kim N. Dirks, Seosamh B. Costello, Jennifer A. Salmond

Active mode commuters travelling on a road receive larger doses of CO  
than motorists. A method is presented for estimating the appropriate  
separation of cycleways and footpaths. Even a modest increase in  
separation can result in considerable reductions in dose. Distances  
from the road centre to cycleway or footpath ranged from 5.8 to 14.2 m.

Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment 32, October  
2014, 111–119 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1361920914000996)

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9) Inside Beijing's airpocalypse – a city made 'almost uninhabitable'  
by pollution
Oliver Wainwright

The 21 million inhabitants of China’s capital appear to be engaged in  
a city-wide rehearsal for life on an inhospitable planet. Only it’s  
not a rehearsal: the poisonous atmosphere is already here

Guardian, 16 Dec 2014 - read article  
(http://www.theguardian.com/cities/2014/dec/16/beijing-airpocalypse-city-almost-uninhabitable-pollution-china)

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10) Air quality targets much cheaper than expected

Christer Ågren

The EU’s new climate and energy policy for 2030 opens the way for more  
ambitious clean air targets. The air pollution limits for 2030  
proposed by the Commission last December could be achieved at €5.5bn  
less cost per year when the climate and energy package for 2030 is  
factored in.

Acid News 2014 No. 4, December 2014 - read article  
(http://www.airclim.org/acidnews/air-quality-targets-much-cheaper-expected)

11) Air pollution ‘kills 7,500 Londoners each year’

Clean Air in London estimates number of deaths in capital caused PM2.5  
and NO2 based on data published by Mayor

Air Quality News, 2 Dec 2014 - read article  
(http://www.airqualitynews.com/2014/12/02/air-pollution-kills-7500-londoners-each-year/)

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12) 447,000 premature deaths/year in EU due to bad air quality

Christer Ågren

Elevated levels of air pollutants, primarily fine particulate matter  
and ground-level ozone, are the top environmental cause of premature  
death in Europe.
In 2012, about 92 per cent of the EU urban population was exposed to  
levels of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exceeding the air quality  
guidelines established by the World Health Organization to protect  
people’s health. And about 98 per cent of EU urban citizens were  
exposed to ozone levels exceeding the WHO’s guideline value.

Acid News 2014 No. 4, December 2014 - read article  
(http://www.airclim.org/acidnews/447000-premature-deathsyear-eu-due-bad-air-quality)

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13) School pupils and hospital patients at risk of killer pollution, say MPs

John Vidal

The Commons environmental audit Committee says it is unacceptable a  
whole generation could have health seriously impaired by air pollution  
above EU limits

Guardian, 8 Dec 2014 - read article  
(http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2014/dec/08/school-pupils-hospital-patients-risk-killer-pollution-mps)

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14) Erratum: “Performance of Multi-City Land Use Regression Models for  
Nitrogen Dioxide and Fine Particles”

Wang et al. discovered an error in their article “Performance of  
Multi-City Land Use Regression Models for Nitrogen Dioxide and Fine  
Particles” [Environ Health Perspect 122:843–849 (2014);  
http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307271]. In Table 3, beta values for  
the NO2 model were incorrect. The corrected table appears below.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.122-A322 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/122-A322/)

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Compiler and Editor: Barbara Rimmington, Researcher, East End Quality
of Life Initiative

10 Montgomery Terrace Road

Sheffield S6 3BU

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