[cleanairuk_news] Health Effects of Air Quality and Noise - update October 2014

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Thu Nov 20 16:47:06 GMT 2014


* Health Effects of Air Quality and Noise - update October 2014 *

By Barbara Rimmington, Researcher, East End Quality of Life Initiative

(Previous edition - September 2014:  
http://cleanairuk.org/pipermail/news_cleanairuk.org/2014-September/000075.html

Index page for Health Effects of Air Quality and Noise:  
http://www.cleanairuk.org/health-air-pollution.html)

*CONTENTS*

1) Air pollution and biomarkers of systemic inflammation and tissue  
repair in COPD patients

2) Increased ultrafine particles and carbon monoxide concentrations  
are associated with asthma exacerbation among urban children

3) Short-term exposure to high levels of air pollution as a risk  
factor for acute isolated pulmonary embolism

4) Traffic-related air pollution and obesity formation in children: a  
longitudinal, multilevel analysis

5) Comparison of the regulated air pollutant emission characteristics  
of real-world driving cycle and ECE cycle for motorcycles

6) Study of PM10 and PM2.5 levels in three European cities: Analysis  
of intra and inter urban variations

7) Traffic-Related Air Pollution and the Onset of Myocardial  
Infarction: Disclosing Benzene as a Trigger? A Small-Area  
Case-Crossover Study

8) Increased Risk of Dementia in Patients Exposed to Nitrogen Dioxide  
and Carbon Monoxide: A Population-Based Retrospective Cohort Study

9) Modifying Effect of a Common Polymorphism in the Interleukin-6  
Promoter on the Relationship between Long-Term Exposure to  
Traffic-Related Particulate Matter and Heart Rate Variability

10) Air pollution and decreased semen quality: A comparative study of  
Chongqing urban and rural areas

11) Combined effects of road traffic noise and ambient air pollution  
in relation to risk for stroke?

12) Sources of Fine Particulate Matter and Risk of Preterm Birth in  
Connecticut, 2000–2006: A Longitudinal Study

13) Proximity to Traffic, Ambient Air Pollution, and Community Noise  
in Relation to Incident Rheumatoid Arthritis

14) A national case-crossover analysis of the short-term effect of  
PM2.5 on hospitalizations and mortality in subjects with diabetes and  
neurological disorders

15) Ozone and Daily Mortality Rate in 21 Cities of East Asia: How Does  
Season Modify the Association?

16) Ozone levels in European and USA cities are increasing more than  
at rural sites, while peak values are decreasing

17) Effectiveness of Low Emission Zones: Large Scale Analysis of  
Changes in Environmental NO2, NO and NOx Concentrations in 17 German  
Cities

18) The impact of an urban park on air pollution and noise levels in  
the Mediterranean city of Tel-Aviv, Israel

19) Urban snow indicates pollution originating from road traffic

20) Determinants of personal exposure to some carcinogenic substances  
and nitrogen dioxide among the general population in five Swedish cities

21) Benefits of investing in cycling

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1) Air pollution and biomarkers of systemic inflammation and tissue  
repair in COPD patients

Payam Dadvand, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen, Àlvar Agustí, Jordi de Batlle,  
Marta Benet, Rob Beelen, Marta Cirach, David Martinez, Gerard Hoek,  
Xavier Basagaña, Antoni Ferrer, Jaume Ferrer, Robert Rodriguez-Roisin,  
Jaume Sauleda, Stefano Guerra, Josep M. Antó, Judith Garcia-Aymerich

These results show that exposure to ambient NO2 increases systemic  
inflammation in COPD patients, especially in former smokers.

ERJ September 1, 2014 vol. 44 no. 3 603-613 - read abstract  
(http://erj.ersjournals.com/content/44/3/603.abstract)

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2) Increased ultrafine particles and carbon monoxide concentrations  
are associated with asthma exacerbation among urban children

Kristin A. Evans, Jill S. Halterman, Philip K. Hopke, Maria Fagnano,  
David Q. Rich

Case-crossover design used to study associations between air  
pollutants and pediatric asthma. Ultrafine particles and carbon  
monoxide increased exacerbation risk in urban children. Stronger  
effects were observed among children receiving daily preventive  
medication. Some asthmatic children may be more susceptible to effects  
of pollutants.

Environmental Research 129, February 2014, 11–19 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935113002028)

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3) Short-term exposure to high levels of air pollution as a risk  
factor for acute isolated pulmonary embolism

Luca Spiezia, Elena Campello, Maria Bon, Sara Maggiolo, Elena  
Pelizzaro, Paolo Simioni

Our results, although preliminary, identify short-term (i.e. one  
month) exposure to elevate levels of air pollutants as a possible risk  
factor for the development of acute isolated PE. Larger studies are  
needed to confirm our results.
Thrombosis Research 134;2, 259–263, August 2014 - read abstract  
(http://www.thrombosisresearch.com/article/S0049-3848(14)00276-X/abstract)

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4) Traffic-related air pollution and obesity formation in children: a  
longitudinal, multilevel analysis

Michael Jerrett, Rob McConnell, Jennifer Wolch, Roger Chang, Claudia  
Lam, Genevieve Dunton, Frank Gilliland, Fred Lurmann, Talat Islam,  
Kiros Berhane

Traffic pollution was positively associated with growth in BMI in  
children aged 5–11 years. Traffic pollution may be controlled via  
emission restrictions; changes in land use that promote jobs-housing  
balance and use of public transit and hence reduce vehicle miles  
traveled; promotion of zero emissions vehicles; transit and  
car-sharing programs; or by limiting high pollution traffic, such as  
diesel trucks, from residential areas or places where children play  
outdoors, such as schools and parks. These measures may have  
beneficial effects in terms of reduced obesity formation in children.

Environmental Health 2014, 13:49  - read article  
(http://www.ehjournal.net/content/13/1/49)

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5) Comparison of the regulated air pollutant emission characteristics  
of real-world driving cycle and ECE cycle for motorcycles

Hung-Lung Chiang, Pei-Hsiu Huang, Yen-Ming Lai, Ting-Yi Lee

Motorcycles are an important source of transportation and emissions in  
urban areas. The motorcycle population has increased significantly in  
recent years. A GPS determines the speed–time data of motorcycle  
driving characteristics. An on-board air pollutant analyzer determines  
the instant exhaust concentration.

Atmospheric Environment 87, April 2014, 1–9 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S135223101300976X)

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6) Study of PM10 and PM2.5 levels in three European cities: Analysis  
of intra and inter urban variations

P.A. Kassomenos, S. Vardoulakis, A. Chaloulakou, A.K. Paschalidou, G.  
Grivas, R. Borge, J. Lumbreras

Sources and factors affecting PM are investigated in Athens, London  
and Madrid. EU PM limit values are frequently breached forming a  
potential public health hazard. Contribution of secondary/natural PM  
in summertime is higher in Athens and Madrid. Contribution of  
non-combustion sources varies among cities, sites and seasons.  
Non-combustion fraction of both PM metrics is higher during summer at  
all sites.

Atmospheric Environment 87, April 2014, 153–163 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1352231014000132)

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7) Traffic-Related Air Pollution and the Onset of Myocardial  
Infarction: Disclosing Benzene as a Trigger? A Small-Area  
Case-Crossover Study

Denis Bard Wahida Kihal, Charles Schillinger, Christophe Fermanian,  
Claire Ségala, Sophie Glorion, Dominique Arveiler, Christiane Weber

We have observed that benzene in ambient air is strongly associated  
with the triggering of MI. This novel finding needs confirmation. If  
so, this would mean that not only diesel vehicles, the main  
particulate matter emitters, but also gasoline-fueled cars –main  
benzene emitters–, should be taken into account for public health  
action.

Plos One June 16, 2014DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0100307 - read article  
(http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0100307)

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8) Increased Risk of Dementia in Patients Exposed to Nitrogen Dioxide  
and Carbon Monoxide: A Population-Based Retrospective Cohort Study

Kuang-Hsi Chang, Mei-Yin Chang, Chih-Hsin Muo, Trong-Neng Wu,  
Chiu-Ying Chen, Chia-Hung Kao

The results of this large retrospective, population-based study  
indicate that exposure to NO2 and CO is associated with an increased  
risk of dementia in the Taiwanese population.

Plos One August 12, 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0103078 - read  
article  
(http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0103078)

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9) Modifying Effect of a Common Polymorphism in the Interleukin-6  
Promoter on the Relationship between Long-Term Exposure to  
Traffic-Related Particulate Matter and Heart Rate Variability

Martin Adam, Medea Imboden, Eva Boes, Emmanuel Schaffner, Nino Künzli,  
Harish Chandra Phuleria, Florian Kronenberg, Jean-Michel Gaspoz, David  
Carballo, Nicole Probst-Hensch

Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that traffic-related  
air pollution decreases heart rate variability through inflammatory  
mechanisms.

Plos One August 18, 2014DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0104978 - read  
article  
(http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0104978)

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10) Air pollution and decreased semen quality: A comparative study of  
Chongqing urban and rural areas

Niya Zhou, Zhihong Cui, Sanming Yang, Xue Han, Gangcai Chen, Ziyuan  
Zhou, Chongzhi Zhai, Mingfu Ma, Lianbing Li, Min Cai, Yafei Li, Lin  
Ao, Weiqun Shu, Jinyi Liu

We investigate the distributions of PM10, SO2 and NO2 in urban and  
rural areas in Chongqing, China. We explore the associations of air  
pollution and male semen quality. The concentrations of PM10, SO2, and  
NO2 are significantly higher in urban areas. Median values of some  
semen quality parameters in rural male were higher than urban male.  
PM10, SO2, and NO2 were negatively associated with semen quality  
parameters.

Environmental Pollution 187, April 2014, 145–152 - read abstract (http://
www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0269749114000062)

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11) Combined effects of road traffic noise and ambient air pollution  
in relation to risk for stroke?

Mette Sørensen, Pernille Lühdorf, Matthias Ketzel, Zorana J. Andersen,  
Anne Tjønneland, Kim Overvad, Ole Raaschou-Nielsen

Cohort study with historical residential address information from 1987  
to 2009. Modelled exposure to ambient air pollution and road traffic  
noise at all addresses. In mutually adjusted models road traffic noise  
and not air pollution was associated ischemic stroke. Air pollution  
and not road traffic noise was associated with increased risk for  
fatal stroke. Indications of combined effects of the two exposures at  
highest exposures in relation to ischemic stroke.

Environmental Research 133, August 2014, 49–55 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935114001650)

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12) Sources of Fine Particulate Matter and Risk of Preterm Birth in  
Connecticut, 2000–2006: A Longitudinal Study

Gavin Pereira, Michelle L. Bell, Hyung Joo Lee, Petros Koutrakis,  
Kathleen Belanger

This was the first study of PM2.5 sources and preterm birth, and the  
first matched analysis, that better addresses individual-level  
confounding potentially inherent in all past studies. There was  
insufficient evidence to suggest that sources were statistically  
significantly associated with preterm birth. However, elevated central  
estimates and previously observed associations with mass concentration  
motivate the need for further research. Future studies would benefit  
from high source exposure settings and longitudinal study designs,  
such as that adopted in this study.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1307741 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1307741/)

13) Proximity to Traffic, Ambient Air Pollution, and Community Noise  
in Relation to Incident Rheumatoid Arthritis

Anneclaire J. De Roos, Mieke Koehoorn, Lillian Tamburic, Hugh W.  
Davies, Michael Brauer

Our study confirms a previously observed association of RA risk with  
proximity to traffic and suggests that neither noise levels nor  
traffic-related air pollutants are responsible for this relationship.  
Additional investigation of neighborhood and individual correlates of  
residence near roadways may provide new insight into risk factors for  
RA.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1307413 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1307413/)

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14) A national case-crossover analysis of the short-term effect of  
PM2.5 on hospitalizations and mortality in subjects with diabetes and  
neurological disorders

Antonella Zanobetti, Francesca Dominici, Yun Wang, Joel D Schwartz

We found that short-term exposure to fine particles increased the risk  
of hospitalizations for Parkinson’s disease and diabetes, and of  
all-cause mortality. While the association between short term exposure  
to PM2.5 and mortality was higher among Medicare enrollees that had a  
previous admission for diabetes and neurological disorders than among  
Medicare enrollees that did not had a prior admission for these  
diseases, the effect modification was not statistically significant.  
We believe that these results provide useful insights regarding the  
mechanisms by which particles may affect the brain. A better  
understanding of the mechanisms will enable the development of new  
strategies to protect individuals at risk and to reduce detrimental  
effects of air pollution on the nervous system.

Environmental Health 2014, 13:38 - read article  
(http://www.ehjournal.net/content/13/1/38)

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15) Ozone and Daily Mortality Rate in 21 Cities of East Asia: How Does  
Season Modify the Association?

Renjie Chen, Jing Cai, Xia Meng, Ho Kim, Yasushi Honda, Yue Leon Guo,  
Evangelia Samoli, Xin Yang, Haidong Kan

We found significant associations between short-term exposure to ozone  
and higher mortality rate in East Asia that varied considerably from  
season to season with a significant trough in winter.

Am. J. Epidemiol. (2014) 180 (7): 729-736 - read abstract  
(http://aje.oxfordjournals.org/content/180/7/729.abstract?etoc)

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16) Ozone levels in European and USA cities are increasing more than  
at rural sites, while peak values are decreasing

Elena Paoletti, Alessandra De Marco, David C.S. Beddows, Roy M.  
Harrison, William J. Manning

We compared trends over 1990–2010 at paired urban and rural sites from  
USA and Europe. Peaks decreased at both station types, with no  
differences between types. Annual averages increased at both site  
types, with a faster rate at urban centers. The overall trend was for  
convergence between urban and rural data. Criteria for protection of  
people and vegetation were exceeded at both site types.

Environmental Pollution 192, September 2014, 295–299 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0269749114002073)

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17) Effectiveness of Low Emission Zones: Large Scale Analysis of  
Changes in Environmental NO2, NO and NOx Concentrations in 17 German  
Cities

Peter Morfeld, David A. Groneberg, Michael F. Spallek

This is the first study investigating comprehensively the  
effectiveness of LEZs to reduce NO2, NO, and NOx concentrations  
controlling for most relevant potential confounders. Our analyses  
indicate that there is a statistically significant, but rather small  
reduction of NO2, NO, and NOx concentrations associated with LEZs.
Plos One August 12, 2014DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0102999 - read  
article  
(http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0102999)

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18) The impact of an urban park on air pollution and noise levels in  
the Mediterranean city of Tel-Aviv, Israel

Pninit Cohen, Oded Potchter, Izhak Schnell

The impact of an urban park on air pollution and noise levels is  
examined. The urban park is an effective tool for noise and air  
pollution mitigation. Urban parks can reduce noise, NOx, CO and PM10  
values and increase O3 levels. Park's mitigation effect is greater at  
higher NOx and PM10 levels. Tree impact on dust mitigation is most  
effective during dust flow episodes.

Environmental Pollution 195, December 2014, 73–83 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0269749114003546)

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19) Urban snow indicates pollution originating from road traffic

Kirsi Kuoppamäki, , Heikki Setälä, Anna-Lea Rantalainen, D. Johan Kotze

This study revealed traffic-derived pollutants in urban snow. Most  
metals, PAHs and nutrients showed the same pattern of deposition.  
Consistent increase of pollutants with low, intermediate and high  
intensity traffic. Significantly more pollution next to roads than at  
5 m from the road bank. This study provides useful information for  
managing pollution in cold climates.

Environmental Pollution 195, December 2014, 56–63 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0269749114003583)

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20) Determinants of personal exposure to some carcinogenic substances  
and nitrogen dioxide among the general population in five Swedish cities

Annika Hagenbjörk-Gustafsson, Andreas Tornevi, Eva M Andersson, Sandra  
Johannesson, Tom Bellander, Anne-Sophie Merritt, Håkan Tinnerberg,  
Håkan Westberg, Bertil Forsberg, Gerd Sallsten

Environmental levels of airborne carcinogenic and related substances  
are comparatively better known than individual exposure and its  
determinants. We report on a personal monitoring program involving  
five Swedish urban populations. The aim of the program was to  
investigate personal exposure to benzene, 1,3-butadiene, formaldehyde,  
and nitrogen dioxide (NO2).

Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology 24, 437-443  
(July/August 2014) - read abstract  
(http://www.nature.com/jes/journal/v24/n4/full/jes201357a.html)

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21) Benefits of investing in cycling

Rachel Aldred

Investing in cycling will generate benefits for the whole country, not  
just those using a bike to get around. Eleven benefits are summarised  
here which can help solve a series of health, social and economic  
problems. This report shows how investing in cycling is good for our  
transport systems as a whole, for local economies, for social  
inclusion, and for public health.

British Cycling, 2014, 24pp - read report  
(http://www.britishcycling.org.uk/zuvvi/media/bc_files/campaigning/BENEFITS_OF_INVESTING_IN_CYCLING_DIGI_FINAL.pdf)

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22) Bike share’s impact on car use: Evidence from the United States,  
Great Britain, and Australia

Elliot Fishman, Simon Washington, Narelle Haworth

Examines the degree to which bike share replaces car trips. Bike share  
operator vehicle use (for bike redistribution) is calculated. An  
estimate of bike share’s overall contribution to changes in vehicle  
kilometres traveled is made. Bike share is shown to reduce car use in  
all cities included in the analysis, with the exception of London.  
Bike share’s effectiveness is dependent on whether it replaces car use.

Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment
31, August 2014, 13–20 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1361920914000480)  
or article  
(http://www.sensibletransport.org.au/sites/sensibletransport.org.au/files/Does%20bike%20share%20reduce%20car%20use%3F.pdf)

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---------------------------------------------------------------------

Compiler and Editor: Barbara Rimmington, Researcher, East End Quality
of Life Initiative

10 Montgomery Terrace Road

Sheffield S6 3BU

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Fax 0114 278 7173

Email: barbara at sheffieldct.co.uk

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