[cleanairuk_news] Health Effects of Air Quality and Noise - update April 2016

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* Health Effects of Air Quality and Noise - update April 2016 *

By Barbara Rimmington, Researcher, East End Quality of Life Initiative

(Previous edition - March 2016:
http://cleanairuk.org/pipermail/news_cleanairuk.org/2016-May/000097.html)

(Index for previous issues:
http://www.cleanairuk.org/health-air-pollution.html)

*CONTENTS*

1) Long term effects of traffic noise on mortality in the city of  
Barcelona, 2004–2007

2) Traffic-Related Air Pollution, Noise at School, and Behavioral  
Problems in Barcelona Schoolchildren: A Cross-Sectional Study

3) Smart School Siting Tool. User Guide and Workbooks

4) COMEAP: long-term exposure to air pollution and chronic bronchitis
A report by the Committee on the Medical Effects of Air Pollutants (COMEAP)

5) Paints and Surfaces for the Removal of Nitrogen Oxides

6) Ambient Particulate Matter Air Pollution Exposure and Mortality in  
the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Cohort

7) Desert Dust Outbreaks in Southern Europe: Contribution to Daily  
PM10 Concentrations and Short-Term Associations with Mortality and  
Hospital Admissions

8) School-based exposure to hazardous air pollutants and grade point  
average: A multi-level study

9) Air pollution, health and social deprivation: A fine-scale risk assessment

10) Exposure to air pollution and cognitive functioning across the  
life course – A systematic literature review

11) An examination of population exposure to traffic related air  
pollution: Comparing spatially and temporally resolved estimates  
against long-term average exposures at the home location

12) Spatial associations between socioeconomic groups and NO2 air  
pollution exposure within three large Canadian cities

13) Air pollution exposure, cause-specific deaths and hospitalizations  
in a highly polluted Italian region

14) In vitro short-term exposure to air pollution PM2.5-0.3 induced  
cell cycle alterations and genetic instability in a human lung cell  
coculture model

15) Exposure to ambient air pollution during pregnancy and preterm  
birth: A Spanish multicenter birth cohort study

16) Particulate air pollution, fetal growth and gestational length:  
The influence of residential mobility in pregnancy

17) Europeans still exposed to harmful air pollution

18) CleanSpace Pollution Tracking and Rewards App + Tag with Freevolt

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1) Long term effects of traffic noise on mortality in the city of  
Barcelona, 2004–2007

Maria Antònia Barceló, Diego Varga, Aurelio Tobias, Julio Diaz,  
Cristina Linares, Marc Saez

After adjusting for confounders environmental noise was associated  
with mortality. This association only occurred consistently in  
mortality from hypertension in women. The effect of noise on mortality  
is slightly higher than that for PM10. We conclude that environmental  
noise should be considered a major pollutant. Traffic noise control  
should be a priority in environmental decision-making.

Environmental Research 147, May 2016, 193–206 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935116300524)

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2) Traffic-Related Air Pollution, Noise at School, and Behavioral  
Problems in Barcelona Schoolchildren: A Cross-Sectional Study

Joan Forns, Payam Dadvand, Maria Foraster, Mar Alvarez-Pedrerol, Ioar  
Rivas, Mònica López-Vicente, Elisabet Suades-Gonzalez, Raquel  
Garcia-Esteban, Mikel Esnaola, Marta Cirach, James Grellier, Xavier  
Basagaña, Xavier Querol, Mònica Guxens, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen, Jordi  
Sunyer

In our study population of 7- to 11-year-old children residing in  
Barcelona, exposure to TRAPs at school was associated with increased  
behavioral problems in schoolchildren. Noise exposure at school was  
associated with more ADHD symptoms.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1409449 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1409449/)

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3) Smart School Siting Tool. User Guide and Workbooks

School locations affect community land use patterns and infrastructure  
needs. Local land use, the location and capacity of road and utility  
networks, and community investments in economic development, housing,  
and other social programs affect school surroundings and learning  
environments. Taken together, school siting and other community  
decisions influence housing and transportation choices, neighborhood  
vitality, economic development, costs of community services,  
environmental quality, and overall community health and well-being.

United States Environment Protection Agency, December 2015 - links to  
guide and workbooks  
(https://www.epa.gov/smartgrowth/smart-school-siting-tool)

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4) COMEAP: long-term exposure to air pollution and chronic bronchitis
A report by the Committee on the Medical Effects of Air Pollutants (COMEAP)

DEFRA, 5 April 2016, Ref: ISBN 978-0-85951-782-9, PDF, 1.48MB, 100  
pages - read summary and report  
(https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/comeap-long-term-exposure-to-air-pollution-and-chronic-bronchitis)

Associations of short-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution  
with cardiovascular and respiratory hospital admissions in London, UK

Evangelia Samoli, Richard W Atkinson, Antonis Analitis, Gary W Fuller,  
David C Green, Ian Mudway, H Ross Anderson, Frank J Kelly

Our results suggest that exhaust related pollutants are associated  
with increased numbers of adult cardiovascular and paediatric  
respiratory hospitalisations. More extensive monitoring in urban  
centres is required to further elucidate the associations.

Occup Environ Med 2016;73:300-307 doi:10.1136/oemed-2015-103136 - read  
article (http://oem.bmj.com/content/73/5/300.full)

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5) Paints and Surfaces for the Removal of Nitrogen Oxides

Air Quality Expert Group

Taken as a whole, there is little current evidence to suggest the  
widespread use of photocatalytic surfaces will reduce ambient  
concentrations of NO2. Furthermore, there is a risk that these  
materials will result in the production of other undesirable species  
such as nitrous acid and formaldehyde, which can have wider impacts on  
atmospheric chemistry as well as adverse health impacts.

DEFRA, 13 April 2016, 28 pages - read report  
(https://uk-air.defra.gov.uk/assets/documents/reports/cat11/1604130958_PB14425_Paints_and_Surfaces_for_the_Removal_of_Nitrogen_Oxides.pdf)

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6) Ambient Particulate Matter Air Pollution Exposure and Mortality in  
the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Cohort

George D. Thurston, Jiyoung Ahn, Kevin R. Cromar, Yongzhao Shao,  
Harmony R. Reynolds, Michael Jerrett, Chris C. Lim, Ryan Shanley,  
Yikyung Park, Richard B. Hayes

Long-term exposure to PM2.5 air pollution was associated with an  
increased risk of total and CVD mortality, providing an independent  
test of the PM2.5–mortality relationship in a new large U.S.  
prospective cohort experiencing lower post-2000 PM2.5 exposure levels.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1509676 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1509676/)

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7) Desert Dust Outbreaks in Southern Europe: Contribution to Daily  
PM10 Concentrations and Short-Term Associations with Mortality and  
Hospital Admissions

Massimo Stafoggia, Stefano Zauli-Sajani, Jorge Pey, Evangelia Samoli,  
Ester Alessandrini, Xavier Basagaña, Achille Cernigliaro, Monica  
Chiusolo, Moreno Demaria, Julio Díaz, Annunziata Faustini, Klea  
Katsouyanni, Apostolos G. Kelessis, Cristina Linares, Stefano  
Marchesi, Sylvia Medina, Paolo Pandolfi, Noemí Pérez, Xavier Querol,  
Giorgia Randi, Andrea Ranzi, Aurelio Tobias, Francesco Forastiere, and  
the MED-PARTICLES Study Group

PM10 originating from the desert was positively associated with  
mortality and hospitalizations in Southern Europe. Policy measures  
should aim at reducing population exposure to anthropogenic airborne  
particles even in areas with large contribution from desert dust  
advections.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1409164 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1409164/)

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8) School-based exposure to hazardous air pollutants and grade point  
average: A multi-level study

Sara E. Grineski, , Stephanie E. Clark-Reyna , Timothy W. Collins

School-level hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) impact children's  
academic performance. Interquartile range increases in HAPs were  
linked to 0.1–0.4 point decreases in GPA. Respiratory risk from HAPs  
had a larger effect on GPA than did diesel PM risk. Mother's level of  
education had the strongest effect on GPA.

Environmental Research 147, May 2016, 164–171 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935116300469)

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9) Air pollution, health and social deprivation: A fine-scale risk assessment

Xavier Morelli, Camille Rieux, Josef Cyrys, Bertil Forsberg, Rémy Slama

We assessed the attributable risk of PM2.5 using a fine-scale exposure  
model. 3–8% of deaths and 3–10% of lung cancer cases were attributable  
to PM2.5 exposure. PM2.5 levels from background monitoring stations  
yielded lower attributable cases. The attributable risk estimate was  
stratified according to social deprivation. Middle and low-class  
neighborhoods carried a larger part of the health burden.

Environmental Research 147, May 2016, 59–70 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935116300287)

- o -

10) Exposure to air pollution and cognitive functioning across the  
life course – A systematic literature review

Angela Clifford, Linda Lang, Ruoling Chen, Kaarin J. Anstey, Anthony Seaton

The evidence to date is coherent in that exposure to a range of  
largely traffic-related pollutants has been associated with  
quantifiable impairment of brain development in the young and  
cognitive decline in the elderly. There is insufficient evidence at  
present to comment on consistency, in view of the different indices of  
pollution and end-points measured, the limited number of studies, and  
the probability at this stage of publication bias. However, plausible  
toxicological mechanisms have been demonstrated and the evidence as a  
whole suggests that vehicular pollution, at least, contributes to  
cognitive impairment, adding to pressure on governments and  
individuals to continue to reduce air pollution.

Environmental Research 147, May 2016, 383–398 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935116300172)

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11) An examination of population exposure to traffic related air  
pollution: Comparing spatially and temporally resolved estimates  
against long-term average exposures at the home location

Maryam Shekarrizfard, Ahmadreza Faghih-Imani, Marianne Hatzopoulou

A detailed, dynamic analysis of individual exposure to air pollution  
is developed. Exposures calculated using a Temporally dependent  
surface are different than exposures based on 24-hour averages.  
Commuters are exposed to daily NO2 concentrations higher than the 24-h  
average at their home. Commute-level exposures contribute  
significantly to daily exposures.

Environmental Research 147, May 2016, 435–444 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935116300809)

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12) Spatial associations between socioeconomic groups and NO2 air  
pollution exposure within three large Canadian cities

Lauren Pinault, Daniel Crouse, Michael Jerrett, Michael Brauer,  
Michael Tjepkema
In 3 Canadian cities, NO2 exposure was positively associated with SES  
variables. Greater % tenants, non-English/French speakers were  
associated with higher NO2 exposure. In Toronto, areas with greater %  
persons living alone had higher NO2 exposure. In Vancouver, areas with  
greater % unmarried had higher NO2 exposure. Associations between  
exposure and SES differed between CT and DA scales.

Environmental Research 147, May 2016, 373–382 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935116300755)

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13) Air pollution exposure, cause-specific deaths and hospitalizations  
in a highly polluted Italian region

Michele Carugno, Dario Consonni, Giorgia Randi, Dolores Catelan, Laura  
Grisotto, Pier Alberto Bertazzi, Annibale Biggeri, Michela Baccini

All-cause and cause-specific mortality is associated with PM10 and NO2  
exposure. Cause-specific hospitalizations increase with increasing  
levels of air pollution. Air pollution effects on deaths and  
hospitalizations are more evident in the summer. The effect of PM10 on  
respiratory hospitalizations increases with age. Air pollution effects  
on cerebrovascular hospitalizations are greater before age 75.

Environmental Research 147, May 2016, 415–424 - read article  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935116300834)

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14) In vitro short-term exposure to air pollution PM2.5-0.3 induced  
cell cycle alterations and genetic instability in a human lung cell  
coculture model

Imane Abbas, Anthony Verdin, Fabienne Escande, Françoise  
Saint-Georges, Fabrice Cazier, Philippe Mulliez, Dominique Courcot,  
Pirouz Shirali, Pierre Gosset, Guillaume Garçon

Better knowledge on health adverse effects of air pollution PM2.5.  
Human alveolar macrophage and normal human epithelial lung cell  
coculture. Molecular abnormalities from TP53-RB gene signaling  
pathway. Loss of heterozygosity and microsatellite instability.  
Pathologic changes in morphology and number of cells in relation to  
airway remodeling.

Environmental Research 147, May 2016, 146–158 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935116300408)

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15) Exposure to ambient air pollution during pregnancy and preterm  
birth: A Spanish multicenter birth cohort study

Marisa Estarlich, Ferran Ballester, Payam Davdand, Sabrina Llop, Ana  
Esplugues, Ana Fernández-Somoano, Aitana Lertxundi, Mònica Guxens,  
Mikel Basterrechea, Adonina Tardón, Jordi Sunyer, Carmen Iñiguez

Relation between maternal air pollution exposure and preterm birth is  
assessed in Spain. Biggest cohort study examining benzene exposure and  
preterm birth conducted to date. Our results suggest an association  
between traffic-related air pollution and preterm birth.

Environmental Research 147, May 2016, 50–58 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935116300354)

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16) Particulate air pollution, fetal growth and gestational length:  
The influence of residential mobility in pregnancy

Gavin Pereira, Michael B. Bracken, Michelle L. Bell

PM10 exposure was associated with risk of low birth weight and small  
for gestational age, but not preterm birth. Effect estimates did not  
differ after accounting for residential mobility in pregnancy. Women  
who moved during pregnancy tended to move to areas with lower levels  
of PM10. Exposure assessment and buffer size influenced estimates more  
than mobility.

Environmental Research 147, May 2016, 269–274 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935116300445)

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17) Europeans still exposed to harmful air pollution

Air pollution shortens people’s lifespan and contributes to serious  
illnesses such as heart disease, respiratory problems and cancer.  
Between 2011 and 2013, up to 93 per cent of the EU urban population  
was exposed to levels of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exceeding the  
air quality guidelines established by the World Health Organization  
(WHO) to protect people’s health. And about 98 per cent of EU urban  
citizens were exposed to ozone levels above the WHO’s guideline value.

Acid News 2016 No. 1, April 2016 - read article  
(http://airclim.org/acidnews/europeans-still-exposed-harmful-air-pollution)

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18) CleanSpace Pollution Tracking and Rewards App + Tag with Freevolt  
- watch video for more information  
(https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GNHZNn-ArR4)

- o -

----------------------------------------------------------

Compiler and Editor: Barbara Rimmington, Researcher, East End Quality
of Life Initiative

10 Montgomery Terrace Road

Sheffield S6 3BU

Tel. 0114 285 9931

Fax 0114 278 7173

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(https://sheffieldeastend.wordpress.com/)  We are setting up an  
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