[cleanairuk_news] Health Effects of Air Quality and Noise - update March 2016

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* Health Effects of Air Quality and Noise - update March 2016 *

By Barbara Rimmington, Researcher, East End Quality of Life Initiative

(Previous edition - February 2016:
http://cleanairuk.org/pipermail/news_cleanairuk.org/2016-March/000096.html)

(Index for previous issues:
http://www.cleanairuk.org/health-air-pollution.html)

*CONTENTS*

1) Road Traffic and Railway Noise Exposures and Adiposity in Adults: A  
Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health Cohort

2) Road traffic noise effects on cardiovascular, respiratory, and  
metabolic health: An integrative model of biological mechanisms

3) Historic air pollution exposure and long-term mortality risks in  
England and Wales: prospective longitudinal cohort study

4) Air pollution: consequences and actions for the UK, and beyond

5) Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Parkinson’s Disease in Denmark: A  
Case–Control Study

6) Particulate Air Pollution Exposure and Expression of Viral and  
Human MicroRNAs in Blood: The Beijing Truck Driver Air Pollution Study

7) Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Dementia Incidence in Northern  
Sweden: A Longitudinal Study

8) Health effects of ambient levels of respirable particulate matter  
(PM) on healthy, young-adult population

9) Long-Term Trends Worldwide in Ambient NO2 Concentrations Inferred  
from Satellite Observations

10) A Satellite View of Pollution on the Ground: Long-Term Changes in  
Global Nitrogen Dioxide

11) The impact of European legislative and technology measures to  
reduce air pollutants on air quality, human health and climate

12) Ambient air pollution, lung function, and airway responsiveness in  
asthmatic children

13) Distribution of bacteria in inhalable particles and its  
implications for health risks in kindergarten children in Hong Kong

14) Every breath we take: the lifelong impact of air pollution

15) Fine particulate air pollution and systemic autoimmune rheumatic  
disease in two Canadian provinces

16) Health impact assessment of transport policies in Rotterdam:  
Decrease of total traffic and increase of electric car use

17) Oxidative burden of fine particulate air pollution and risk of  
cause-specific mortality in the Canadian Census Health and Environment  
Cohort (CanCHEC)

18) MicroRNAs are associated with blood-pressure effects of exposure  
to particulate matter: Results from a mediated moderation analysis

19) Prefrontal white matter pathology in air pollution exposed Mexico  
City young urbanites and their potential impact on neurovascular unit  
dysfunction and the development of Alzheimer's disease

20) Maternal residential proximity to major roadways at delivery and  
childhood central nervous system tumors

21) The relationship of exposure to air pollutants in pregnancy with  
surrogate markers of endothelial dysfunction in umbilical cord

22) Maternal exposure to traffic-related air pollution and birth  
defects in Massachusetts

23) Air Pollution at the American Association for the Advancement of Science

24) Children's respiratory health and oxidative potential of PM2.5:  
the PIAMA birth cohort study

25) Investigating the traffic-related environmental impacts of  
hydraulic-fracturing (fracking) operations

26) Air Pollution list of journal articles

27) Health impact metrics for air pollution management strategies

- o -

1) Road Traffic and Railway Noise Exposures and Adiposity in Adults: A  
Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health Cohort

Jeppe Schultz Christensen, Ole Raaschou-Nielsen, Anne Tjønneland, Kim  
Overvad, Rikke B. Nordsborg, Matthias Ketzel, Thorkild IA Sørensen,  
Mette Sørensen

The present study finds positive associations between residential  
exposure to road traffic and railway noise and adiposity.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1409052 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1409052/)

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2) Road traffic noise effects on cardiovascular, respiratory, and  
metabolic health: An integrative model of biological mechanisms

Alberto Recio, Cristina Linares, José Ramón Banegas, Julio Díaz
The long- and short-term associations between road traffic noise and  
health outcomes found in latest noise research may be understood in  
the light of the integrative model proposed here.

Environmental Research 146, April 2016, 359–370 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935115301985)

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3) Historic air pollution exposure and long-term mortality risks in  
England and Wales: prospective longitudinal cohort study

Anna Hansell, Rebecca E Ghosh, Marta Blangiardo, Chloe Perkins,  
Danielle Vienneau, Kayoung Goffe, David Briggs, John Gulliver

This large national study suggests that air pollution exposure has  
long-term effects on mortality that persist decades after exposure,  
and that historic air pollution exposures influence current estimates  
of associations between air pollution and mortality.

Thorax 2016;71:330-338 - read article  
(http://thorax.bmj.com/content/71/4/330.full?sid=5491b7b5-32ab-435e-be37-2d73304ff367)

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4) Air pollution: consequences and actions for the UK, and beyond

Editorial in The Lancet 387:10021 817, 27 February 2016 - read article  
(http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(16)00551-1/fulltext?elsca1=etoc&elsca2=email&elsca3=0140-6736_20160227_387_10021_&elsca4=Public%20Health%7CInfectious%20Diseases%7CHealth%20Policy%7CInternal%2FFamily%20Medicine%7CGeneral%20Surgery%7CLancet)

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5) Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Parkinson’s Disease in Denmark: A  
Case–Control Study

Beate Ritz, Pei-Chen Lee, Johnni Hansen, Christina Funch Lassen,  
Matthias Ketzel, Mette Sørensen, Ole Raaschou-Nielsen

Our findings raise concerns about potential effects of air pollution  
from traffic and other sources on the risk of PD, particularly in  
populations with high or increasing exposures.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1409313 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1409313/)

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6) Particulate Air Pollution Exposure and Expression of Viral and  
Human MicroRNAs in Blood: The Beijing Truck Driver Air Pollution Study

Lifang Hou, Jitendra Barupal, Wei Zhang, Yinan Zheng, Lei Liu, Xiao  
Zhang, Chang Dou, John P. McCracken, Anaité Díaz, Valeria Motta, Marco  
Sanchez-Guerra, Katherine Rose Wolf, Pier Alberto Bertazzi, Joel D.  
Schwartz, Sheng Wang, Andrea A. Baccarelli

Short-term EC exposure was associated with the expression of human and  
viral miRNAs that may influence immune responses and other biological  
pathways. Associations between EC exposure and viral miRNA expression  
suggest that latent viral miRNAs are potential mediators of air  
pollution–associated health effects. PM2.5/PM10 exposures showed no  
consistent relationships with miRNA expression.
Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1408519 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1408519/)

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7) Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Dementia Incidence in Northern  
Sweden: A Longitudinal Study

Anna Oudin, Bertil Forsberg, Annelie Nordin Adolfsson, Nina Lind, Lars  
Modig, Maria Nordin, Steven Nordin, Rolf Adolfsson, Lars-Göran Nilsson

If the associations we observed are causal, then air pollution from  
traffic might be an important risk factor for vascular dementia and  
Alzheimer’s disease.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1408322 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1408322/)

- o -

8) Health effects of ambient levels of respirable particulate matter  
(PM) on healthy, young-adult population

William J. Shaughnessy, Mohan M. Venigalla, David Trump

Data on respiratory illnesses were obtained for three military bases  
in USA. Particulate matter (PM) concentrations for corresponding  
periods were also obtained. Ambient PM and health outcomes  
relationship among healthy young-adults was examined. Health data were  
correlated with daily/weekly PM, air quality and weather data.  
Significant adverse health effects corresponding ambient PM levels  
were observed.
Atmospheric Environment 123 A, December 2015, 102–111 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1352231015304568)

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9) Long-Term Trends Worldwide in Ambient NO2 Concentrations Inferred  
from Satellite Observations

Jeffrey A. Geddes, Randall V. Martin, Brian L. Boys, Aaron van Donkelaar

Long-term trends in satellite-derived ambient NO[2] provide new  
information about changing global exposure to ambient air pollution.  
Our estimates are publicly available at  
http://fizz.phys.dal.ca/~atmos/martin/?p​age_id=232  
(http://fizz.phys.dal.ca/~atmos/martin/?page_id=232) .

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1409567 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1409567/)

- o -

10) A Satellite View of Pollution on the Ground: Long-Term Changes in  
Global Nitrogen Dioxide

Nate Seltenrich

NO2 is one of six criteria pollutants regulated by the U.S.  
Environmental Protection Agency. Generated primarily from vehicle  
exhaust, but also by power plants and heavy equipment, the compound  
causes a variety of adverse respiratory effects and contributes to the  
formation of ozone, another harmful criteria pollutant.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.124-A56 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/124-A56/)

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11) The impact of European legislative and technology measures to  
reduce air pollutants on air quality, human health and climate

S T Turnock, E W Butt, T B Richardson, G W Mann, C L Reddington, P M  
Forster, J Haywood, M Crippa, G Janssens-Maenhout, C E Johnson

Our results show that the implementation of European legislation and  
technological improvements to reduce the emission of air pollutants  
has improved air quality and human health over Europe, as well as  
having an unintended impact on the regional radiative balance and  
climate.

Environmental Research Letters, 11:2 February 2016 - read article  
(http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-9326/11/2/024010)

- o -

12) Ambient air pollution, lung function, and airway responsiveness in  
asthmatic children

Despo Ierodiakonou, Antonella Zanobetti, Brent A. Coull, Steve Melly,  
Dirkje S. Postma, H. Marike Boezen, Judith M. Vonk, Paul V. Williams,  
Gail G. Shapiro, Edward F. McKone, Teal S. Hallstrand, Jane Q. Koenig,  
Jonathan S. Schildcrout, Thomas Lumley, Anne N. Fuhlbrigge, Petros  
Koutrakis, Joel Schwartz, Scott T. Weiss, Diane R. Gold, for the  
Childhood Asthma Management Program Research Group

Air pollution adversely influences lung function and PC20 in asthmatic  
children. Treatment with controller medications might not protect but  
rather worsens the effects of CO on PC20. This clinical trial design  
evaluates modification of pollution effects by treatment without  
confounding by indication.

Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 137:2 390-399 - read  
abstract  
(http://www.jacionline.org/article/S0091-6749(15)00769-1/abstract)

- o -

13) Distribution of bacteria in inhalable particles and its  
implications for health risks in kindergarten children in Hong Kong

Wenjing Deng, Yemao Chai, Huiying Lin, Winnie W.M. So, K.W.K. Ho,  
A.K.Y. Tsui, R.K.S. Wong

The bacterial distribution and concentration in PM2.5 in kindergartens  
are detected with a molecular biology method. Inhalable bacteria  
genera are compared in indoor and outdoor samples. Health risks from  
airborne bacteria to kindergarten children are analyzed.

Atmospheric Environment 128, March 2016, 268–275 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1352231016300255)

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14) Every breath we take: the lifelong impact of air pollution

Working party report

This report from the RCP and the RCPCH examines the impact of exposure  
to air pollution across the course of a lifetime.

February 2016 - read summary and reports  
(https://www.rcplondon.ac.uk/projects/outputs/every-breath-we-take-lifelong-impact-air-pollution)

- o -

15) Fine particulate air pollution and systemic autoimmune rheumatic  
disease in two Canadian provinces

Sasha Bernatsky, Audrey Smargiassi, Cheryl Barnabe, Lawrence W.  
Svenson, Allan Brand, Randall V. Martin, Marie Hudson, Ann E. Clarke,  
Paul R. Fortin, Aaron van Donkelaar, Steven Edworthy, Patrick Bélisle,  
Lawrence Joseph

We assessed PM2.5 and systemic autoimmune rheumatic disease (SARDs).  
We adjusted for the imperfect nature of administrative data. PM2.5 was  
independently associated with SARDs. Our study is one of the first to  
ever estimate this effect.

Environmental Research 146, April 2016, 85–91 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935115301833)

- o -

16) Health impact assessment of transport policies in Rotterdam:  
Decrease of total traffic and increase of electric car use

Myriam Tobollik, Menno Keuken, Clive Sabel, Hilary Cowie, Jouni  
Tuomisto, Denis Sarigiannis, Nino Künzli, Laura Perez, Pierpaolo Mudu

We estimated co-benefits of greenhouse gas reduction policies from  
2010 to 2020. The city scale health impact assessment base on real  
transport policy scenarios. Effects of particulate matter, elemental  
carbon and noise on health are assessed. The effects are rather small  
but still positive for the planned scenarios.

Environmental Research 146, April 2016, 350–358 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935116300147)

- o -

17) Oxidative burden of fine particulate air pollution and risk of  
cause-specific mortality in the Canadian Census Health and Environment  
Cohort (CanCHEC)

Scott Weichenthal, Daniel L. Crouse, Lauren Pinault, Krystal  
Godri-Pollitt, Eric Lavigne, Greg Evans, Aaron van Donkelaar, Randall  
V. Martin, Rick T. Burnett

We examined the relationship between PM2.5 oxidative burden and  
mortality. Our cohort study included 193,300 people in Ontario,  
Canada. Glutathione-related oxidative burden was associated with  
cause-specific mortality. Lung cancer was most strongly associated  
with glutathione-related oxidative burden.

Environmental Research 146, April 2016, 92–99 - read article  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935115301742)

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18) MicroRNAs are associated with blood-pressure effects of exposure  
to particulate matter: Results from a mediated moderation analysis

Valeria Motta, Chiara Favero, Laura Dioni, Simona Iodice, Cristina  
Battaglia, Laura Angelici, Luisella Vigna, Angela Cecilia Pesatori,  
Valentina Bollati
We investigated whether the effects of PM10 on BP are mediated by  
microRNAs. PM10 exposure was associated with increased systolic and  
diastolic BP. Nine blood miRNAs were associated with PM10 levels 48 h  
after exposure. miR-101 mediated the effects of particle exposure on  
diastolic BP.

Environmental Research 146, April 2016, 274–281 - read article  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S001393511630010X)

- o -

19) Prefrontal white matter pathology in air pollution exposed Mexico  
City young urbanites and their potential impact on neurovascular unit  
dysfunction and the development of Alzheimer's disease

Lilian Calderón-Garcidueñas, Rafael Reynoso-Robles, Javier Vargas-  
Martínez, Aline Gómez-Maqueo-Chew, Beatriz Pérez-Guillé, Partha S.  
Mukherjee, Ricardo Torres-Jardón, George Perry, Angélica Gónzalez-Maciel

The prefrontal white matter is a target of air pollution. Tight  
junctions, key neurovascular unit elements, are abnormal in young  
urbanites. Identifying neurovascular dysfunction biomarkers is key for  
pediatric neuroprotection. Early characterization of NVU damage may  
provide a fresh insight into AD pathogenesis.

Environmental Research 146, April 2016, 404–417 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935115301936)

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20) Maternal residential proximity to major roadways at delivery and  
childhood central nervous system tumors

Heather E. Danysh, Kai Zhang, Laura E. Mitchell, Michael E. Scheurer,  
Philip J. Lupo

High roadway density is associated with having any childhood CNS  
tumor. High roadway density is strongly associated with having an  
ependymoma. Roadway density has dose-response relationship with any  
CNS tumor and ependymoma. Traffic-related air pollution may play a  
role the etiology of childhood CNS tumors.

Environmental Research 146, April 2016, 315–322 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935116300123)

- o -

21) The relationship of exposure to air pollutants in pregnancy with  
surrogate markers of endothelial dysfunction in umbilical cord

Parinaz Poursafa, Sadegh Baradaran-Mahdavi, Bita Moradi, Shaghayegh  
Haghjooy Javanmard, Mohammadhasan Tajadini, Ferdous Mehrabian, Roya  
Kelishadi

Exposure to air pollutants is associated with fetal endothelial  
dysfunction. Particulate matter, O3, SO2,and CO increase fetal  
endothelial dysfunction. Air quality improvement is necessary for  
prevention of chronic diseases.

Environmental Research 146, April 2016, 154–160 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935115301808)

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22) Maternal exposure to traffic-related air pollution and birth  
defects in Massachusetts

Mariam S. Girguis, Matthew J. Strickland, Xuefei Hu, Yang Liu, Scott  
M. Bartell, Verónica M. Vieira

Improved PM2.5 satellite measures enable advantage of a statewide  
birth cohort. Some evidence of association of patent foramen ovale and  
patent ductus arteriosus with air pollution. Limited evidence linking  
neural tube defects with air pollution. Limited evidence linking  
orofacial defects with air pollution. Atrial septal defects display  
significant spatial variation.

Environmental Research 146, April 2016, 1–9 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935115301729)

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23) Air Pollution at the American Association for the Advancement of Science

Feb 11-15 2016 in Washington DC - view conference presentations with  
links to   
(https://aaas.confex.com/aaas/2016/webprogram/#srch=words%7Cair%20pollution%7Cmethod%7Cand%7Cpge%7C1) abstracts  
(https://aaas.confex.com/aaas/2016/webprogram/#srch=words%7Cair%20pollution%7Cmethod%7Cand%7Cpge%7C1)

Ambient Air Pollution Exposure Estimation for the Global Burden of  
Disease 2013
Michael Brauer, Greg Freedman, Joseph Frostad, Aaron van Donkelaar,  
Randall V. Martin, Frank Dentener, Rita van Dingenen, Kara Estep,  
Heresh Amini, Joshua S. Apte, Kalpana Balakrishnan, Lars Barregard,  
David Broday, Valery Feigin, Santu Ghosh, Philip K. Hopke, Luke D.  
Knibbs, Yoshihiro Kokubo, Yang Liu, Stefan Ma, Lidia Morawska, José  
Luis Texcalac Sangrador, Gavin Shaddick, H. Ross Anderson, Theo Vos,  
Mohammad H. Forouzanfar, Richard T. Burnett, Aaron Cohen

In 2013, 87% of the world’s population lived in areas exceeding the  
World Health Organization (WHO) Air Quality Guideline of 10 μg/m3  
PM2.5 (annual average). Between 1990 and 2013, decreases in  
population-weighted mean concentrations of PM2.5 were evident in most  
high-income countries, in contrast to increases estimated in South  
Asia, throughout much of Southeast Asia, and in China.  
Population-weighted mean concentrations of ozone increased in most  
countries from 1990–2013, with modest decreases in North America,  
parts of Europe, and several countries in Southeast Asia.

Environ. Sci. Technol., 2016, 50 (1), 79–88 - read abstract  
(http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acs.est.5b03709)

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24) Children's respiratory health and oxidative potential of PM2.5:  
the PIAMA birth cohort study

Aileen Yang, Nicole A H Janssen, Bert Brunekreef, Flemming R Cassee,  
Gerard Hoek, Ulrike Gehring

Respiratory health was more strongly associated with OPDTT (oxidative  
potential dithiothreitol assay) than with PM2.5 mass; OPDTT  
associations with lung function, but not symptoms, were sensitive to  
adjustment for NO2.

Occup Environ Med 2016;73:154-160 doi:10.1136/oemed-2015-103175 - read  
abstract (http://oem.bmj.com/content/73/3/154.abstract?etoc)

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25) Investigating the traffic-related environmental impacts of  
hydraulic-fracturing (fracking) operations

Paul S. Goodman, Fabio Galatioto, Neil Thorpe, Anil K. Namdeo, Richard  
J. Davies, Roger N. Bird

Traffic-related environmental impacts of fracking studied using a  
novel Traffic Impact Model. Model estimates greenhouse gas, local air  
quality, noise and axle loading impacts on roads. Single well pad  
creates substantial increases in local air quality pollutants during  
peak activity. Short-duration/large-magnitude events may adversely  
affect local ambient air quality and noise. Daily NOx emissions may  
increase by over 30% and hourly noise levels can double (+ 3.4 dBA)

Environment International Available online 24 February 2016 - read  
article  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412016300277)

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26) Air Pollution list of journal articles

University of Michigan Center for Occupational Health and Safety  
Engineering - references  
(http://cohse.umich.edu/academics/publications/airpollution/)

27) Health impact metrics for air pollution management strategies

Sheena E. Martenies, Donele Wilkins, Stuart A. Batterman

HIAs have used many metrics, including avoided cases, DALYs and  
monetized impacts. There is a need to identify appropriate metrics for  
use in urban-scale air pollution HIA. Metrics should be comprehensive,  
spatially and temporally resolved, and account for vulnerability.  
Metrics should evaluate and clearly present uncertainty. The use of  
multiple metrics is suggested to fully characterize the impacts of a  
proposed policy.

Environment International 85, December 2015, 84–95 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412015300404)

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----------------------------------------------------------

Compiler and Editor: Barbara Rimmington, Researcher, East End Quality
of Life Initiative

10 Montgomery Terrace Road

Sheffield S6 3BU

Tel. 0114 285 9931

Fax 0114 278 7173

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