[cleanairuk_news] Health Effects of Air Quality and Noise - update July 2015

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* Health Effects of Air Quality and Noise - update July 2015 *

By Barbara Rimmington, Researcher, East End Quality of Life Initiative


(Previous edition - June 2015:
http://cleanairuk.org/pipermail/news_cleanairuk.org/2015-July/000087.html)

(Index for previous issues:
http://www.cleanairuk.org/health-air-pollution.html)

*CONTENTS*

1) Understanding the Health Impacts of Air Pollution in London

2) Exposure to traffic noise and markers of obesity

3) Road traffic noise is associated with increased cardiovascular  
morbidity and mortality and all-cause mortality in London

4) Long-Term Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter, Residential  
Proximity to Major Roads and Measures of Brain Structure

5) Effects of airborne fine particles (PM2.5) on deep vein thrombosis  
admissions in the northeastern United States

6) Differences in Birth Weight Associated with the 2008 Beijing  
Olympic Air Pollution Reduction: Results from a Natural Experiment

7) Association between Traffic-Related Air Pollution in Schools and  
Cognitive Development in Primary School Children: A Prospective Cohort  
Study

8) Long-Term Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution and Metabolic Syndrome  
in Adults

9) Carotid Intima-Media Thickness, a Marker of Subclinical  
Atherosclerosis, and Particulate Air Pollution Exposure: the  
Meta-Analytical Evidence

10) Blood Pressure and Same-Day Exposure to Air Pollution at School:  
Associations with Nano-Sized to Coarse PM in Children

11) Air Pollution and Mortality in Seven Million Adults: The Dutch  
Environmental Longitudinal Study (DUELS)

12) Combining PM2.5 Component Data from Multiple Sources: Data  
Consistency and Characteristics Relevant to Epidemiological Analyses  
of Predicted Long-Term Exposures

13) Risk of leukaemia and residential exposure to air pollution in an  
industrial area in Northern Italy: a case-control study

14) Autism Spectrum Disorder and Particulate Matter Air Pollution  
before, during, and after Pregnancy: A Nested Case–Control Analysis  
within the Nurses’ Health Study II Cohort

15) Short term exposure to air pollution and stroke: systematic review  
and meta-analysis

16) Transport transitions in Copenhagen: Comparing the cost of cars  
and bicycles

17) Air pollution at the forefront of global health

18) All choked up: did Britain's dirty air make me dangerously ill?

19) Traffic Sounds and Cycling Safety: The Use of Electronic Devices  
by Cyclists and the Quietness of Hybrid and Electric Cars

20) Driving away from diesel. Reducing air pollution from diesel vehicles

21) Local Health Profiles by Public Health England

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1) Understanding the Health Impacts of Air Pollution in London

For: Transport for London and the Greater London Authority

By: Heather Walton, David Dajnak, Sean Beevers, Martin Williams, Paul  
Watkiss and Alistair Hunt

Key results

PM2.5 burden (long-term exposure): (Section 2.1). The total mortality  
burden of anthropogenic PM2.5 for the year 2010 is estimated to be  
52,630 life-years lost, equivalent to 3,537 deaths at typical ages .  
The result is similar but slightly larger than that estimated for  
London in 2010 by Public Health England (PHE), using methods designed  
for national comparisons (Gowers et al., 2014). The estimate for PM2.5  
attributable deaths has decreased from the previous estimate (4,267  
deaths in 2008 based on 2006 concentrations) (Miller, 2010) partly due  
to a decrease in concentrations, to which policy interventions will  
have contributed, as well as some adjustments to the previous methods  
and inputs, such as using anthropogenic rather than total PM2.5 and  
declines in baseline mortality rates. Further decreases should occur  
beyond 2010 as interventions have been put in place to reduce  
emissions further, although this may or may not be apparent in a  
specific year due to variations in weather conditions affecting  
concentrations.

New estimate of the NO2 burden (long-term exposure): (Section 2.1).  
Whilst much less certain than for PM2.5., the total mortality burden  
of long-term exposure to NO2 is estimated to be up to 88,113  
life-years lost, equivalent to 5,879 deaths at typical ages (assuming  
the WHO value of up to a 30% overlap between the effects of PM2.5 and  
NO2). Some of this effect may be due to other traffic pollutants. Can  
these effects be added? (Section 2.1). The total mortality burden in  
2010 from PM2.5 and NO2 can be added to give a range from the 52,630  
life-years lost, equivalent to 3,537 deaths at typical ages from PM2.5  
alone (if only including the most established effects) to as much as  
140,743 life-years lost, equivalent to 9,416 deaths at typical agesa  
(assuming a 30% overlap between the effects of PM2.5 and NO2 and  
comparing with a zero concentration of NO2). This potentially  
increases the estimated total mortality burden considerably, compared  
with both the previous IOM and PHE reports.

Short-term exposure and hospital admissions: (Section 2.2). Mortality  
is not the only air pollution related health effect – in 2010 PM2.5  
and NO2 were associated with approximately 1990 and 420 respiratory  
hospital admissions respectively with an additional 740 cardiovascular  
hospital admissions associated with PM2.5.

Economic costs: (Section 4.2). The estimated economic costs of the  
above health impacts ranged from £1.4 billion (long-term exposure to  
PM2.5 and mortality; short-term exposure to PM2.5 and hospital  
admissions; short-term exposure to NO2 and both deaths brought forward  
and hospital admissions) to £3.7 billion (replacing short-term  
exposure to NO2 and deaths brought forward with long-term exposure to  
NO2 and mortality). Inclusion of other less well established health  
outcomes would increase the economic costs although this has not been  
estimated in this report.

Kings College London, July 2015, 129pp - read report  
(https://www.london.gov.uk/sites/default/files/HIAinLondon_KingsReport_14072015_final_0.pdf)

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2) Exposure to traffic noise and markers of obesity

Andrei Pyko, Charlotta Eriksson, Bente Oftedal, Agneta Hilding,  
Claes-Göran Östenson, Norun Hjertager Krog, Bettina Julin, Gunn Marit  
Aasvang, Göran Pershagen

Our results suggest that traffic noise exposure can increase the risk  
of central obesity. Combined exposure to different sources of traffic  
noise may convey a particularly high risk.

Occup Environ Med 2015;72:594-601 - read article  
(http://oem.bmj.com/content/72/8/594.full)

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3) Road traffic noise is associated with increased cardiovascular  
morbidity and mortality and all-cause mortality in London

Jaana I. Halonen, Anna L. Hansell, John Gulliver, David Morley, Marta  
Blangiardo, Daniela Fecht, Mireille B. Toledano, Sean D. Beevers, Hugh  
Ross Anderson, Frank J. Kelly, Cathryn Tonne

Long-term exposure to road traffic noise was associated with small  
increased risks of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality  
and morbidity in the general population, particularly for stroke in  
the elderly.

European Heart Journal June 2015 - read article  
(http://eurheartj.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2015/06/07/eurheartj.ehv216)

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4) Long-Term Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter, Residential  
Proximity to Major Roads and Measures of Brain Structure

Elissa H. Wilker, Sarah R. Preis, Alexa S. Beiser, Philip A. Wolf,  
Rhoda Au, Itai Kloog, Wenyuan Li, Joel Schwartz, Petros Koutrakis,  
Charles DeCarli, Sudha Seshadri, Murray A. Mittleman

Exposure to elevated levels of PM2.5 was associated with smaller total  
cerebral brain volume, a marker of age-associated brain atrophy, and  
with higher odds of covert brain infarcts. These findings suggest that  
air pollution is associated with insidious effects on structural brain  
aging even in dementia- and stroke-free persons.

Stroke 2015; 46: 1161-1166 - read abstract  
(http://stroke.ahajournals.org/content/46/5/1161.abstract)

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5) Effects of airborne fine particles (PM2.5) on deep vein thrombosis  
admissions in the northeastern United States

I. Kloog, A. Zanobetti, F. Nordio, B. A. Coull, A. A. Baccarelli, J. Schwartz

Our findings showed that PM2.5 exposure was associated with deep vein  
thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) hospital admissions and  
that current standards are not protective of this result.

Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis 13,5 768–774, May 2015 - read  
abstract (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jth.12873/abstract)

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6) Differences in Birth Weight Associated with the 2008 Beijing  
Olympic Air Pollution Reduction: Results from a Natural Experiment

David Q. Rich, Kaibo Liu, Jinliang Zhang, Sally W. Thurston, Timothy  
P. Stevens, Ying Pan, Cathleen Kane, Barry Weinberger, Pamela  
Ohman-Strickland, Tracey J. Woodruff, Xiaoli Duan, Vanessa  
Assibey-Mensah, Junfeng Zhang

Short-term decreases in air pollution late in pregnancy in Beijing  
during the 2008 Summer Olympics, a normally heavily polluted city,  
were associated with higher birth weight.

Environ Health Perspect; April 2015 DOI:10.1289/ehp.1408795 - read  
abstract (http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1408795/)

7) Association between Traffic-Related Air Pollution in Schools and  
Cognitive Development in Primary School Children: A Prospective Cohort  
Study

Jordi Sunyer, Mikel Esnaola, Mar Alvarez-Pedrerol, Joan Forns, Ioar  
Rivas, Mònica López-Vicente, Elisabet Suades-González, Maria Foraster,  
Raquel Garcia-Esteban, Xavier Basagaña, Mar Viana, Marta Cirach,  
Teresa Moreno, Andrés Alastuey, Núria Sebastian-Galles, Mark  
Nieuwenhuijsen, Xavier Querol

Children attending schools with higher traffic-related air pollution  
had a smaller improvement in cognitive development.

Plos Medicine March 2015 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001792 - read  
article  
(http://journals.plos.org/plosmedicine/article?id=10.1371/journal.pmed.1001792)

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8) Long-Term Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution and Metabolic Syndrome  
in Adults

Ikenna C. Eze, Emmanuel Schaffner, Maria Foraster, Medea Imboden,  
Arnold von Eckardstein, Margaret W. Gerbase, Thomas Rothe, Thierry  
Rochat, Nino Künzli, Christian Schindler, Nicole Probst-Hensch

The observed associations between air pollutants (AP) exposure and  
metabolic syndrome (MetS) were sensitive to MetS definitions.  
Regarding the MetS components, we observed strongest associations with  
impaired fasting glycemia, and positive but weaker associations with  
hypertension and waist-circumference-based obesity. Cardio-metabolic  
effects of AP may be majorly driven by impairment of glucose  
homeostasis, and to a less-strong extent, visceral adiposity.  
Well-designed prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings.

Plos ONE June 2015 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0130337 - read article  
(http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0130337)

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9) Carotid Intima-Media Thickness, a Marker of Subclinical  
Atherosclerosis, and Particulate Air Pollution Exposure: the  
Meta-Analytical Evidence

Eline B. Provost, Narjes Madhloum, Luc Int Panis, Patrick De Boever,  
Tim S. Nawrot

Studies on the association between atherosclerosis and long-term  
exposure to ambient air pollution suggest that carotid intima-media  
thickness (CIMT), a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis, is  
positively associated with particulate matter (PM) exposure. However,  
there is heterogeneity between the different studies concerning the  
magnitude of this association. We performed a meta-analysis to  
determine the strength of the association between CIMT and particulate  
air pollution.

Plos ONE May 2015 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0127014 - read article  
(http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0127014)

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10) Blood Pressure and Same-Day Exposure to Air Pollution at School:  
Associations with Nano-Sized to Coarse PM in Children

Nicky Pieters, Gudrun Koppen, Martine Van Poppel, Sofie De Prins,  
Bianca Cox, Evi Dons, Vera Nelen, Luc Int Panis, Michelle Plusquin,  
Greet Schoeters, Tim S. Nawrot

Children attending school on days with higher ultrafine particles  
(UFP) concentrations (diameter < 100 nm) had higher systolic blood  
pressure. The association was dependent on UFP size, and there was no  
association with the PM2.5 mass concentration.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1408121 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1408121/)

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11) Air Pollution and Mortality in Seven Million Adults: The Dutch  
Environmental Longitudinal Study (DUELS)

Paul H. Fischer, Marten Marra, Caroline B. Ameling, Gerard Hoek, Rob  
Beelen, Kees de Hoogh, Oscar Breugelmans, Hanneke Kruize, Nicole A.H.  
Janssen, Danny Houthuijs

Long-term exposure to PM10 and NO2 was associated with nonaccidental  
and cause-specific mortality in the Dutch population of ≥ 30 years of  
age.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1408254 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1408254/)

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12) Combining PM2.5 Component Data from Multiple Sources: Data  
Consistency and Characteristics Relevant to Epidemiological Analyses  
of Predicted Long-Term Exposures

Sun-Young Kim, Lianne Sheppard, Timothy V. Larson, Joel D. Kaufman,  
Sverre Vedal

Regulatory monitoring data have been the exposure data resource most  
commonly applied to studies of the association between long-term PM2.5  
components and health. However, data collected for regulatory purposes  
may not be compatible with epidemiological studies. Investigators  
conducting epidemiological studies of long-term PM2.5 components need  
to be mindful of the features of the monitoring data and incorporate  
this understanding into the design of their monitoring campaigns and  
the development of their exposure prediction models.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1307744 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1307744/)

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13) Risk of leukaemia and residential exposure to air pollution in an  
industrial area in Northern Italy: a case-control study

Stefano Parodi, Irene Santi, Claudia Casella, Antonella Puppo, Fabio  
Montanaro, Vincenzo Fontana, Massimiliano Pescetto, Emanuele Stagnaro

Results suggest a possible aetiological role of residential air  
pollution from industrial sites on the risk of developing leukaemia in  
adult populations. However, the proportion of eligible subjects  
excluded from the study and the lack of any measure of air pollution  
prevent definitive conclusions from being drawn.

International Journal of Environmental Health Research 25, 4, 2015  
393-404 - read abstract  
(http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09603123.2014.958136)

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14) Autism Spectrum Disorder and Particulate Matter Air Pollution  
before, during, and after Pregnancy: A Nested Case–Control Analysis  
within the Nurses’ Health Study II Cohort

Raanan Raz, Andrea L. Roberts, Kristen Lyall, Jaime E. Hart, Allan C.  
Just, Francine Laden, Marc G. Weisskopf

Higher maternal exposure to PM2.5 during pregnancy, particularly the  
third trimester, was associated with greater odds of a child having ASD.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1408133 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1408133/)

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15) Short term exposure to air pollution and stroke: systematic review  
and meta-analysis

Anoop S V Shah, Kuan Ken Lee, David A McAllister, Amanda Hunter,  
Harish Nair, William Whiteley, Jeremy P Langrish, David E Newby,  
Nicholas L Mills

Gaseous and particulate air pollutants have a marked and close  
temporal association with admissions to hospital for stroke or  
mortality from stroke. Public and environmental health policies to  
reduce air pollution could reduce the burden of stroke.

The BMJ 2015; 350 doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.h1295 - read  
article (http://www.bmj.com/content/350/bmj.h1295)

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16) Transport transitions in Copenhagen: Comparing the cost of cars  
and bicycles

Stefan Gössling, Andy S. Choi

Cycling usually omitted in transport cost benefit analysis (CBA). City  
of Copenhagen uses CBA to compare cost of transport modes. Cost of car  
driving is six times higher than cycling. Considering only  
externalities, cycling represents a benefit to society. Infrastructure  
change in favor of the bicycle economically justified

Ecological Economics 113, May 2015, 106–113 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921800915000907)

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17) Air pollution at the forefront of global health

Air pollution and the associated health risks have been addressed for  
the first time by the World Health Assembly (WHA) in a landmark  
resolution passed on May 27, 2015. The resolution underscores the  
importance of indoor and outdoor air quality, not just as an  
environmental issue but also as a major factor in global health.  
Member states have called for WHO to strengthen its technical  
capabilities to provide help to countries in implementing guidelines  
on air quality.

The Lancet 385, 9984, 2224, 6 June 2015 - read editorial  
(http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(15)61047-9/fulltext)

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18) All choked up: did Britain's dirty air make me dangerously ill?

John Vidal

This year, environment correspondent John Vidal had heart bypass  
surgery – a wake-up call that prompted him to investigate the state of  
the air we breathe. With 29,000 UK deaths a year attributed to  
pollution, is it time we cleaned up our act?

The Guardian, 20 June 2015 - read article  
(http://www.theguardian.com/global/2015/jun/20/britain-london-pollution-air-quality-health)

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19) Traffic Sounds and Cycling Safety: The Use of Electronic Devices  
by Cyclists and the Quietness of Hybrid and Electric Cars

Agnieszka Stelling-Kończak, Marjan Hagenzieker, Bert Van Wee

Results suggest that the concerns regarding the use of electronic  
devices while cycling and the advent of hybrid and electric vehicles  
are justified. Listening to music and conversing on the phone  
negatively influence cyclists’ auditory perception, self-reported  
crash risk and cycling performance. With regard to electric cars, a  
recurring problem is their quietness at low speeds. Implications of  
these findings in terms of cycling safety are discussed.

Transport Reviews 35, 4, 2015 422-444 - read abstract  
(http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01441647.2015.1017750)

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20) Driving away from diesel. Reducing air pollution from diesel vehicles

London Assembly Environment Committee

London, like most large cities, has high levels of pollutants. These  
include tiny airborne toxic particles (PM) and the toxic gas nitrogen  
dioxide (NO2), both emitted in vehicle exhaust, especially diesel.  
Though air quality has improved over the decades, it has not improved  
enough and in recent years NO2 and PM levels have remained largely  
static. In places, London’s air quality is among the worst in Europe.
There is a major public health impact. Official scientific estimates  
are that there are thousands more deaths each year in London as a  
result: more than obesity or alcohol and second only to smoking. In  
financial terms this equates to billions of pounds.

Greater London Authority, July 2015, 34pp - read report  
(https://www.london.gov.uk/sites/default/files/Driving%20away%20from%20diesel%20report_0.pdf)

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21) Local Health Profiles by Public Health England  
(http://www.apho.org.uk/default.aspx?QN=P_HEALTH_PROFILES) and Child  
Health Profiles  
(http://atlas.chimat.org.uk/IAS/dataviews/childhealthprofile) at ward  
level, which are available to download.

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---------------------------------------------------------------------

Compiler and Editor: Barbara Rimmington, Researcher, East End Quality
of Life Initiative

10 Montgomery Terrace Road

Sheffield S6 3BU

Tel. 0114 285 9931

Fax 0114 278 7173

Email: barbara at sheffieldct.co.uk

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