[cleanairuk_news] Health Effects of Air Quality and Noise - update June 2015

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* Health Effects of Air Quality and Noise - update June 2015 *

By Barbara Rimmington, Researcher, East End Quality of Life Initiative

(Previous edition - May 2015:
http://cleanairuk.org/pipermail/news_cleanairuk.org/2015-June/000086.html)

(Index for previous issues:
http://www.cleanairuk.org/health-air-pollution.html)

*CONTENTS*

1) Willingness to pay to avoid health risks from road-traffic-related  
air pollution and noise across five countries

2) Ambient Air Pollution and Adult Asthma Incidence in Six European  
Cohorts (ESCAPE)

3) Air Pollution and Atherosclerosis: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of  
Four European Cohort Studies in the ESCAPE Study

4) A Study of the Combined Effects of Physical Activity and Air  
Pollution on Mortality in Elderly Urban Residents: The Danish Diet,  
Cancer, and Health Cohort

5) Associations of Mortality with Long-Term Exposures to Fine and  
Ultrafine Particles, Species and Sources: Results from the California  
Teachers Study Cohort

6) Markers of Inflammation and Coagulation after Long-Term Exposure to  
Coarse Particulate Matter: A Cross-Sectional Analysis from the  
Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

7) Effects of Ambient Coarse, Fine, and Ultrafine Particles and Their  
Biological Constituents on Systemic Biomarkers: A Controlled Human  
Exposure Study

8) Association of Stillbirth With Ambient Air Pollution in a  
California Cohort Study

9) Performance of optimised SCR retrofit buses under urban driving and  
controlled conditions

10) Gaseous emissions from a heavy-duty engine equipped with SCR  
aftertreatment system and fuelled with diesel and biodiesel:  
Assessment of pollutant dispersion and health risk

11) Smoke and Mirrors: How Europe’s biggest polluters became their own  
regulators

12) WHO adopts ‘landmark’ resolution on air pollution

13) Higher ambitions needed for NEC

14) Satellite study to look at South Yorkshire air pollution

15) New study to look at impact of car fumes on air pollution in Sheffield

16) Latest Euro 6 diesel car emissions ‘still above limit’

17) Editorial: New NEC directive should clear the air

18) Cities’ air quality efforts ranked

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1) Willingness to pay to avoid health risks from road-traffic-related  
air pollution and noise across five countries

Tifanny Istamto, Danny Houthuijs, Erik Lebret

WTP to avoid air pollution and noise effects substantially varied by  
country. Risk perceptions and environmental concerns affected WTP  
estimates. Perception and concern differences affected between-country  
differences in WTP. Air pollution WTP is higher than for noise if only  
qualitative information is given. WTP to avoid severe annoyance was  
higher than for 1/2 year change in life expectancy.

Science of The Total Environment 497–498, 1 November 2014, 420–429 -  
read article  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969714011474)

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2) Ambient Air Pollution and Adult Asthma Incidence in Six European  
Cohorts (ESCAPE)

Bénédicte Jacquemin, Valérie Siroux, Margaux Sanchez, Anne-Elie  
Carsin, Tamara Schikowski, Martin Adam, Valeria Bellisario, Anna  
Buschka, Roberto Bono, Bert Brunekreef, Yutong Cai, Marta Cirach,  
Françoise Clavel-Chapelon, Christophe Declercq, Roberto de Marco,  
Audrey de Nazelle, Regina E. Ducret-Stich, Virginia Valeria Ferretti,  
Margaret W. Gerbase, Rebecca Hardy, Joachim Heinrich, Christer Janson,  
Deborah Jarvis, Zaina Al Kanaani, Dirk Keidel, Diana Kuh, Nicole Le  
Moual, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen, Alessandro Marcon, Lars Modig, Isabelle  
Pin, Thierry Rochat, Christian Schindler, Dorothea Sugiri, Morgane  
Stempfelet, Sofia Temam, Ming-Yi Tsai, Raphaëlle Varraso, Danielle  
Vienneau, Andrea Vierkötter, Anna L. Hansell, Ursula Krämer, Nicole M.  
Probst-Hensch, Jordi Sunyer, Nino Künzli, Francine Kauffmann

Results suggest a deleterious effect of ambient air pollution on  
asthma incidence in adults. Further research with improved  
personal-level exposure assessment (vs. residential exposure  
assessment only) and phenotypic characterization is needed.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1408206 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1408206/)

- o -

3) Air Pollution and Atherosclerosis: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of  
Four European Cohort Studies in the ESCAPE Study

Laura Perez, Kathrin Wolf, Frauke Hennig, Johanna Penell, Xavier  
Basagaña, Maria Foraster, Inmaculada Aguilera, David Agis, Rob Beelen,  
Bert Brunekreef, Josef Cyrys, Kateryna B. Fuks, Martin Adam, Damiano  
Baldassarre, Marta Cirach, Roberto Elosua, Julia Dratva, Regina  
Hampel, Wolfgang Koenig, Jaume Marrugat, Ulf de Faire, Göran  
Pershagen, Nicole M. Probst-Hensch, Audrey de Nazelle, Mark J.  
Nieuwenhuijsen, Wolfgang Rathmann, Marcela Rivera, Jochen Seissler,  
Christian Schindler, Joachim Thiery, Barbara Hoffmann, Annette Peters,  
Nino Künzli

Using a standardized exposure and analytical protocol in four European  
cohorts, we found that cross-sectional associations between CIMT and  
the eight ESCAPE markers of long-term residential air pollution  
exposure did not reach statistical significance. The additional  
meta-analysis of CIMT and PM2.5 across all published studies also was  
positive but not significant.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1307711 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1307711/)

- o -

4) A Study of the Combined Effects of Physical Activity and Air  
Pollution on Mortality in Elderly Urban Residents: The Danish Diet,  
Cancer, and Health Cohort

Zorana Jovanovic Andersen, Audrey de Nazelle, Michelle Ann Mendez,  
Judith Garcia-Aymerich, Ole Hertel, Anne Tjønneland, Kim Overvad, Ole  
Raaschou-Nielsen, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen

In general, exposure to high levels of traffic-related air pollution  
did not modify associations, indicating beneficial effects of physical  
activity on mortality. These novel findings require replication in  
other study populations.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1408698 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1408698/)

- o -

5) Associations of Mortality with Long-Term Exposures to Fine and  
Ultrafine Particles, Species and Sources: Results from the California  
Teachers Study Cohort

Bart Ostro, Jianlin Hu, Debbie Goldberg, Peggy Reynolds, Andrew Hertz,  
Leslie Bernstein, Michael J. Kleeman

Using an emissions-based model with a 4-km spatial scale, we observed  
significant positive associations between ischemic heart disease (IHD)  
mortality and both fine and ultrafine particle species and sources.  
Our results suggest that the exposure model effectively measured local  
exposures and facilitated the examination of the relative toxicity of  
particle species.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1408565 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1408565/)

- o -

6) Markers of Inflammation and Coagulation after Long-Term Exposure to  
Coarse Particulate Matter: A Cross-Sectional Analysis from the  
Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

Sara D. Adar, Jennifer D’Souza, Kari Mendelsohn-Victor, David R.  
Jacobs Jr., Mary Cushman, Lianne Sheppard, Peter S. Thorne, Gregory L.  
Burke, Martha L. Daviglus, Adam A. Szpiro, Ana V. Diez Roux, Joel D.  
Kaufman, Timothy V. Larson

Our cross-sectional analysis provided some evidence that long-term  
PM10–2.5 exposure was associated with inflammation and coagulation,  
but associations were modest and depended on particle composition.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1308069 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1308069/)

- o -

7) Effects of Ambient Coarse, Fine, and Ultrafine Particles and Their  
Biological Constituents on Systemic Biomarkers: A Controlled Human  
Exposure Study

Ling Liu, Bruce Urch, Raymond Poon, Mieczyslaw Szyszkowicz, Mary  
Speck, Diane R. Gold, Amanda J. Wheeler, James A. Scott, Jeffrey R.  
Brook, Peter S. Thorne, Frances S. Silverman

Ambient particles with various sizes/constituents may influence  
systemic biomarkers differently. Endotoxin in ambient particles may  
contribute to vascular mediator changes and oxidative stress.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1408387 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1408387/)

- o -

8) Association of Stillbirth With Ambient Air Pollution in a  
California Cohort Study

Rochelle Green, Varada Sarovar, Brian Malig, Rupa Basu

These ozone and nitrogen dioxide findings were fairly stable after  
adjustment in 2-pollutant models. However, adjustment for nitrogen  
dioxide attenuated the full-pregnancy–particulate matter relationship.  
No significant associations were found for sulfur dioxide or carbon  
monoxide. These findings support growing evidence of an association  
between air pollution and adverse birth outcomes.

Am. J. Epidemiol. (2015) 181 (11): 874-882 - read abstract  
(http://aje.oxfordjournals.org/content/181/11/874.abstract?etoc)

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9) Performance of optimised SCR retrofit buses under urban driving and  
controlled conditions

David C. Carslaw, , Max Priestman, Martin L. Williams, Gregor B.  
Stewart, Sean D. Beevers

Use of remote sensing technique to measure in-service NO2 and NOx  
emissions. Focus on urban-optimised selective catalytic reduction  
(SCRT) system. On-road and controlled vehicle test track emissions.  
45% reduction in NOx and 61% reduction in NO2 cf. non-SCRT buses.  
Important implications at a European level for meeting NO2 limits.

Atmospheric Environment 105, March 2015, 70–77 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1352231015000679)

- o -

10) Gaseous emissions from a heavy-duty engine equipped with SCR  
aftertreatment system and fuelled with diesel and biodiesel:  
Assessment of pollutant dispersion and health risk

Yara S. Tadano, Guilherme C. Borillo, Ana Flávia L. Godoi, Amanda  
Cichon, Thiago O.B. Silva, Fábio B. Valebona, Marcelo R. Errera,  
Renato A. Penteado Neto, Dennis Rempel, Lucas Martin, Carlos I.  
Yamamoto, Ricardo H.M. Godoi

Emission, dispersion and risk assessment from Euro 5 engine by diesel  
and biodiesel. All fuels increased NH3 and N2O emission due to SCR  
use, a precursor secondary inorganic aerosol and a major greenhouse  
gas, respectively. Dispersion results showed that the SCR system  
double the NH3 urban background. Chronic hazards due to NH3 higher  
emissions were identified.

Science of The Total Environment 500–501, 1 December 2014, 64–71 -  
read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969714012790)

- o -

11) Smoke and Mirrors: How Europe’s biggest polluters became their own  
regulators

Written by: Lauri Myllyvirta. Edited by: Joris den Blanken, Mark Breddy

Greenpeace is deeply concerned that the health of European citizens  
and best available air pollution control technologies are not being  
properly taken into account in EU decisions to set emission limits for  
coal plants.

Brussels: Greenpeace European Unit, 2015 - read report  
(http://www.greenpeace.org/eu-unit/Global/eu-unit/reports-briefings/2015/Smoke%20and%20Mirror%20final%20report.pdf)

- o -

12) WHO adopts ‘landmark’ resolution on air pollution

Michael Holder

The World Health Organisation adopted a “landmark” resolution to  
address the health impacts of air pollution at the 68th annual meeting  
of its decision-making body in Geneva, Switzerland, yesterday (May 26).

Air Quality News May 2015 - read article  
(http://www.airqualitynews.com/2015/05/27/who-adopts-landmark-resolution-on-air-pollution/)

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13) Higher ambitions needed for NEC

Christer Ågren

Every year, over 400,000 Europeans die prematurely because of air  
pollution. Poor air quality also makes Europeans sick and  
significantly reduces their quality of life, in particular in cities.  
Increased illness, hospital admissions, extra medication and millions  
of lost working days are very costly for the European Union – the  
health-related costs of air pollution amounted to €330–940 billion in  
the year 2010 alone, which is equivalent to between 3 and 9 per cent  
of the EU’s GDP. This includes €15 billion in direct costs from lost  
workdays and €4 billion from treatments of chronic bronchitis. Air  
pollution also causes great harm to Europe’s ecosystems, crop yields,  
buildings and monuments.

Acid News 2015 No. 2, June 2015 - read article  
(http://www.airclim.org/acidnews/higher-ambitions-needed-nec)

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14) Satellite study to look at South Yorkshire air pollution

Michael Holder

A satellite investigation into the impacts of car emissions on air  
quality in South Yorkshire is underway as part of a research project  
involving the European Space Agency, the University of Sheffield and  
technology firm The Floow.

Air Quality News May 2015 - read article  
(http://www.airqualitynews.com/2015/05/28/satellite-study-to-look-at-south-yorkshire-air-pollution/)

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15) New study to look at impact of car fumes on air pollution in Sheffield

Chris Burns

The Star 3 June 2015 - read article  
(http://www.thestar.co.uk/news/business/business-news/new-study-to-look-at-impact-of-car-fumes-on-air-pollution-in-sheffield-1-7289645)

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16) Latest Euro 6 diesel car emissions ‘still above limit’

Michael Holder

Real-world driving tests of the latest Euro 6 compliant diesel cars  
show they are still more than three times above the EU legal limit for  
air pollution emissions, according to data compiled by UK company  
Emissions Analytics.

Air Quality News May 2015 - read article  
(http://www.airqualitynews.com/2015/05/27/latest-euro-6-diesel-car-emissions-still-above-limit/)

17) Editorial: New NEC directive should clear the air

Christer Ågren

The proposed revision of the National Emission Ceilings (NEC)  
Directive is currently being debated in the Council and in the  
European Parliament. While there is wide agreement on the urgency of  
additional action to cut air pollution, there are differing views  
among member states on how much and how quickly their emissions should  
come down.

Acid News 2015 No. 2, June 2015 - read article  
(http://www.airclim.org/acidnews/editorial-new-nec-directive-should-clear-air)

18) Cities’ air quality efforts ranked

Christer Ågren

Zurich topped a new ranking list of European cities based on efforts  
to improve air quality. It was followed by Copenhagen, Vienna and  
Stockholm. At the bottom of the list came Luxembourg and Lisbon.
Acid News 2015 No. 2, June 2015 - read article  
(http://www.airclim.org/acidnews/cities%E2%80%99-air-quality-efforts-ranked)

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---------------------------------------------------------------------

Compiler and Editor: Barbara Rimmington, Researcher, East End Quality
of Life Initiative

10 Montgomery Terrace Road

Sheffield S6 3BU

Tel. 0114 285 9931

Fax 0114 278 7173

Email: barbara at sheffieldct.co.uk

Web: www.sheffieldeastend.org.uk

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