[cleanairuk_news] Health Effects of Air Quality and Noise - update January 2018

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Thu Mar 1 17:56:04 GMT 2018


* Health Effects of Air Quality and Noise - update January 2018 *

By Barbara Rimmington, Researcher, East End Quality of Life Initiative

(Previous edition - December 2017:  
http://cleanairuk.org/pipermail/news_cleanairuk.org/2017-December/000121.html)

(Index for previous issues:  
http://www.cleanairuk.org/health-air-pollution.html)

*CONTENTS*

1) Impact of London's road traffic air and noise pollution on birth  
weight: retrospective population based cohort study

2) Exposure to low concentrations of air pollutants and adverse birth  
outcomes in Brisbane, Australia, 2003–2013

3) Maternal ambient air pollution, preterm birth and markers of fetal  
growth in Rhode Island: results of a hospital-based linkage study

4) Association of Short-term Exposure to Air Pollution With Mortality  
in Older Adults

5) Exposure to ambient fine particulate matter and semen quality in Taiwan

6) Dispersion of traffic derived air pollutants into urban parks

7) Respiratory and cardiovascular responses to walking down a  
traffic-polluted road compared with walking in a traffic-free area in  
participants aged 60 years and older with chronic lung or heart  
disease and age-matched healthy controls: a randomised, crossover study

8) Hazardous air pollutants and primary liver cancer in Texas

9) Best Practices for Gauging Evidence of Causality in Air Pollution  
Epidemiology

10) Field evaluation of vegetation and noise barriers for mitigation  
of near-freeway air pollution under variable wind conditions

11) Effect of VOC Emissions from Vegetation on Air Quality in Berlin  
during a Heatwave

12) Oxidative stress in birds along a NOx and urbanisation gradient:  
An interspecific approach

- o -

1) Impact of London's road traffic air and noise pollution on birth  
weight: retrospective population based cohort study

Rachel B Smith, Daniela Fecht, John Gulliver, Sean D Beevers, David  
Dajnak, Marta Blangiardo, Rebecca E Ghosh, Anna L Hansell, Frank J  
Kelly, H Ross Anderson, Mireille B Toledano,

The findings suggest that air pollution from road traffic in London is  
adversely affecting fetal growth. The results suggest little evidence  
for an independent exposure-response effect of traffic related noise  
on birth weight outcomes.

BMJ 2017;359:j5299 - read article (https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.j5299)

- o -

2) Exposure to low concentrations of air pollutants and adverse birth  
outcomes in Brisbane, Australia, 2003–2013

Gongbo Chen, Yuming Guo, Michael J. Abramson, Gail Williams, Shanshan Li

Low-level air pollution during pregnancy induced preterm birth and low  
birth weight. Highest risks were observed during trimester 3, and  
lowest in trimester 1. Stronger effects were present for exposure to  
cold and moderate temperatures.

Science of The Total Environment 622–623, 1 May 2018, 721–726 - read  
abstract (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.12.050)

- o -

3) Maternal ambient air pollution, preterm birth and markers of fetal  
growth in Rhode Island: results of a hospital-based linkage study

Samantha L Kingsley, Melissa N Eliot, Kimberly Glazer, Yara Abu Awad,  
Joel D Schwartz, David A Savitz, Karl T Kelsey, Carmen J Marsit,  
Gregory A Wellenius

In a population with relatively low exposures to ambient air  
pollutants, PM2.5 was associated with reduced birth weight but not  
with risk of preterm birth.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2017;71:1131-1136 - read abstract  
(http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2017-208963)

- o -

4) Association of Short-term Exposure to Air Pollution With Mortality  
in Older Adults

Qian Di, Lingzhen Dai, Yun Wang

Day-to-day changes in fine particulate matter and ozone exposures were  
significantly associated with higher risk of all-cause mortality at  
levels below current air quality standards, suggesting that those  
standards may need to be reevaluated.

JAMA. 2017;318(24):2446-2456 - read abstract  
(https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/article-abstract/2667069?redirect=true)

- o -

5) Exposure to ambient fine particulate matter and semen quality in Taiwan

Xiang Qian Lao, Zilong Zhang, Alexis K H Lau, Ta-Chien Chan, Yuan  
Chieh Chuang, Jimmy Chan, Changqing Lin, Cui Guo, Wun Kai Jiang, Tony  
Tam, Gerard Hoek, Haidong Kan, Eng-kiong Yeoh, Ly-yun Chang

Exposure to ambient PM2.5 air pollution is associated with a lower  
level of sperm normal  morphology and a higher level of sperm  
concentration.

Occup Environ Med 2018;75:148-154 - read article  
(http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/oemed-2017-104529)

- o -

6) Dispersion of traffic derived air pollutants into urban parks

Yang Xing, Peter Brimblecomb

Traffic derived air pollutants are readily detected in urban parks.  
Measurements suggest a rapid decay of pollutants from roadside into  
parks. Pollutant gradients in parks are explored using an analytical  
dispersion equation. Traffic derived pollutants halve after ~ 17 m  
from the road edge. Future park design should emphasise a separation  
between park interiors and roads.

Science of The Total Environment 622–623, 1 May 2018, 576–583 - read  
abstract (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.11.340)

- o -

7) Respiratory and cardiovascular responses to walking down a  
traffic-polluted road compared with walking in a traffic-free area in  
participants aged 60 years and older with chronic lung or heart  
disease and age-matched healthy controls: a randomised, crossover study

Rudy Sinharay, Jicheng Gong, Benjamin Barratt, Pamela  
Ohman-Strickland, Sabine Ernst, Frank Kelly, Junfeng (Jim) Zhang,  
Peter Collins, Paul Cullinan, Kian Fan Chung

Short-term exposure to traffic pollution prevents the beneficial  
cardiopulmonary effects of walking in people with COPD, ischaemic  
heart disease, and those free from chronic cardiopulmonary diseases.  
Medication use might reduce the adverse effects of air pollution in  
individuals with ischaemic heart disease. Policies should aim to  
control ambient levels of air pollution along busy streets in view of  
these negative health effects.

The Lancet Dec 2017 - read article  
(http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(17)32643-0)

- o -

8) Hazardous air pollutants and primary liver cancer in Texas

Luca Cicalese , Giuseppe Curcuru, Mauro Montalbano, Ali Shirafkan,  
Jeremias Georgiadis, Cristiana Rastellini

This study provides a new insight on this complex multifactorial  
disease suggesting that environmental substances might play a role in  
the etiology of this cancer.

PlosOne October 2017 - read article  
(https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0185610)

- o -

9) Best Practices for Gauging Evidence of Causality in Air Pollution  
Epidemiology

Francesca Dominici, Corwin Zigler

We argue that air pollution studies that are more scientifically  
rigorous in terms of the decisions made to approximate a randomized  
experiment are more likely to provide evidence of causality and should  
be prioritized among the body of evidence for regulatory review  
accordingly.

American Journal of Epidemiology 186:12 December 2017 1303–1309 - read  
abstract (https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwx307)

- o -

10) Field evaluation of vegetation and noise barriers for mitigation  
of near-freeway air pollution under variable wind conditions

Eon S. Lee, Dilhara R. Ranasinghe, Faraz Enayati Ahangar, Seyedmorteza  
Amini, Steven Mara, Wonsik Choi, Suzanne Paulson, Yifang Zhu

This study assess the effectiveness of soundwall and vegetation  
barrier for reducing near freeway air pollution. The reduction was  
generally greater with the combination barrier than with either  
soundwall or vegetation alone. The effectiveness of reduction also  
depends on barrier type, particle size, and wind speed.

Atmospheric Environment 175, February 2018, 92–99 - read abstract  
(https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2017.11.060)

- o -

11) Effect of VOC Emissions from Vegetation on Air Quality in Berlin  
during a Heatwave

Galina Churkina, Friderike Kuik, Boris Bonn, Axel Lauer, Rüdiger  
Grote, Karolina Tomiak, Tim M. Butler

The results of our study suggest that reduction of anthropogenic  
sources of NOx, VOCs, and PM,
for example, reduction of the motorized vehicle fleet, would have to  
accompany urban tree planting campaigns to make them really beneficial  
for urban dwellers.

Environ. Sci. Technol., 2017, 51 (11), pp 6120–6130 - read article  
(http://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.est.6b06514)

- o -

12) Oxidative stress in birds along a NOx and urbanisation gradient:  
An interspecific approach

Pablo Salmón, Emilie Stroh, Amparo Herrera-Dueñas, Maria von Post,  
Caroline Isaksson

Estimated NOx and urbanisation levels were positively correlated with  
AOX in all four species. Tree sparrows showed higher levels of protein  
damage in relation to NOx level exposure. None of the other oxidative  
biomarkers correlated with NOx or urbanisation levels. Future wildlife  
urbanisation studies should pay attention to species-specific  
variation in oxidative stress physiology.

Science of The Total Environment 622–623, 1 May 2018, 635–643 - read  
abstract (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.11.354)

- o -

----------------------------------------------------------

Compiler and Editor: Barbara Rimmington, Researcher, East End Quality
of Life Initiative

10 Montgomery Terrace Road

Sheffield S6 3BU

Tel. 0114 285 9931

Fax 0114 278 7173

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