[cleanairuk_news] Health Effects of Air Quality and Noise - update September 2017

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Thu Sep 21 17:21:35 BST 2017


* Health Effects of Air Quality and Noise - update September 2017 *

By Barbara Rimmington, Researcher, East End Quality of Life Initiative

(Previous edition - August 2017:  
http://cleanairuk.org/pipermail/news_cleanairuk.org/2017-September/000117.html)

(Index for previous issues:  
http://www.cleanairuk.org/health-air-pollution.html)

*NOTICE*

CLEAN AIR SCHOOLS ROUND-TABLE CONFERENCE, Sat 30 Sept, London

Clean Air Schools is a roundtable conference to inspire people who'd  
like to see clean air at schools: for their children and pupils. We'll  
hear from speakers who've organised projects at their children's  
school and local schools for better air quality. Bring your hopes and  
experience to share with us; and find people who have similar visions  
for our schools.

WHEN: Saturday 30 September 2017 (Starts: 10.30 for 11 am. Ends: 5 pm)

WHERE: Student Central (formerly known at 'ULU - University of London  
Union'), Malet Street, London. WC1E 7HY. (Map below.)

COST: Free! All welcome. Please bring your own lunch or there are lots  
of cafes nearby.

Any questions? Please contact us and ask - contact at cleanairuk.org

Andrew Wood, Network for Clean Air Co-ordinator

Email: contact at cleanairuk.org
Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/cleanairuk
Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/cleanairuk
Web: http://www.cleanairuk.org

*Programme*

     *Morning (10.30 for prompt start at) 11 am - 1.00pm*

     Talks - Presentations by:
         Ahsan Khan of Climate Labs about their Clean Air Camp at a  
school in the London Borough of Sutton, earlier this year.
         Eleanor Margolies about her project at Dog Kennel Hill school  
in London.
         Other speakers to be confirmed.
     Question, answers and discussion about the talks.

     *Afternoon (2 – 5 pm)*

     Open Agenda: The afternoon session is open for arrangement by  
those attending. We'd love to hear your experience. Please bring your  
ideas and any materials which you might need.

*Map*

https://www.google.com/maps/embed?pb=!1m18!1m12!1m3!1d2482.48770693663!2d-0.13112300000000493!3d51.522614000000004!2m3!1f0!2f0!3f0!3m2!1i1024!2i768!4f13.1!3m3!1m2!1s0x48761b311f8bf3a3%3A0xd3facd0993b73c75!2sStudent+Central!5e0!3m2!1sen!2suk!4v1427192908370

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*CONTENTS*

1) Exposure to Road, Railway, and Aircraft Noise and Arterial  
Stiffness in the SAPALDIA Study: Annual Average Noise Levels and  
Temporal Noise Characteristics

2) Association of Long-Term Exposure to Transportation Noise and  
Traffic-Related Air Pollution with the Incidence of Diabetes: A  
Prospective Cohort Study

3) Maternal exposure to ambient air pollution and fetal growth in  
North-East Scotland: A population-based study using routine ultrasound  
scans

4) Invited Commentary: Ambient Environment and the Risk of Preterm Birth

5) Exposure to fine particulate matter in the air alters placental  
structure and the renin-angiotensin system

6) Air pollution exposure is associated with MRSA acquisition in young  
U.S. children with cystic fibrosis

7) Short-term association between ambient air pollution and pneumonia  
in children: A systematic review and meta-analysis of time-series and  
case-crossover studies

8) Estimated Changes in Life Expectancy and Adult Mortality Resulting  
from Declining PM2.5 Exposures in the Contiguous United States:  
1980–2010

9) Updated Global Estimates of Respiratory Mortality in Adults ≥30  
Years of Age Attributable to Long-Term Ozone Exposure

10) BEST PRACTICES FOR GAUGING EVIDENCE OF CAUSALITY IN AIR POLLUTION  
EPIDEMIOLOGY

11) Traffic Congestion as a Risk Factor for Mortality in Near-Road  
Communities: A Case-Crossover Study

12) Longitudinal Associations Between Ambient Air Pollution With  
Insulin Sensitivity, β-Cell Function, and Adiposity in Los Angeles  
Latino Children

13) Long-term exposure to air pollution and the incidence of  
Parkinson’s disease: A nested case-control study

14) Carbon Nanoparticles Inhibit the Antimicrobial Activities of the  
Human Cathelicidin LL-37 through Structural Alteration

15) Ambient Air Pollution and Cancer Mortality in the Cancer  
Prevention Study II

16) Air Pollution and Mortality in the Medicare Population

17) Particulate Matter and Risk of Hospital Admission in the Kathmandu  
Valley, Nepal: A Case-Crossover Study

18) Transcriptome analysis of airborne PM2.5-induced detrimental  
effects on human keratinocytes

19) Trees in urban parks and forests reduce O3, but not NO2  
concentrations in Baltimore, MD, USA

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1) Exposure to Road, Railway, and Aircraft Noise and Arterial  
Stiffness in the SAPALDIA Study: Annual Average Noise Levels and  
Temporal Noise Characteristics

Maria Foraster, Ikenna C. Eze, Emmanuel Schaffner, Danielle Vienneau,  
Harris Héritier, Simon Endes, Franziska Rudzik, Laurie Thiesse, Reto  
Pieren, Christian Schindler, Arno Schmidt-Trucksäss, Mark Brink,  
Christian Cajochen, Jean Marc Wunderli, Martin Röösli, Nicole  
Probst-Hensch

Long-term exposure to railway noise, particularly in an intermittent  
nighttime noise environment, and to nighttime noise events, mainly  
related to road noise, may affect arterial stiffness, a major  
determinant of cardiovascular disease. Ascertaining noise exposure  
characteristics beyond average noise levels may be relevant to better  
understand noise-related health effects.

Environ Health Perspect Sept 2017 - read article  
(https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1136)

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2) Association of Long-Term Exposure to Transportation Noise and  
Traffic-Related Air Pollution with the Incidence of Diabetes: A  
Prospective Cohort Study

Charlotte Clark, Hind Sbihi, Lillian Tamburic, Michael Brauer,  
Lawrence D. Frank, Hugh W Davies

We found a positive association between residential transportation  
noise and diabetes, adding to the growing body of evidence that noise  
pollution exposure may be independently linked to metabolic health and  
should be considered when developing public health interventions.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/EHP1279 - read article  
(https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1279)

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3) Maternal exposure to ambient air pollution and fetal growth in  
North-East Scotland: A population-based study using routine ultrasound  
scans

TomClemens, SteveTurner, ChrisDibben

We examined the effect of maternal pollution exposure for fetal growth  
and size. Exposure to particulates and NO2 strongly associated with  
reductions in head growth and size. Effects were strongest for  
non-smokers. Pollution effects were observed despite a relatively low  
exposure environment.

Environment International 107, October 2017, 216-226 - read article  
(https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2017.07.018)

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4) Invited Commentary: Ambient Environment and the Risk of Preterm Birth

Sandie Ha, Pauline Mendola

They examined the associations of ambient air pollution and  
meteorological factors with preterm risk among 13 cohorts across 11  
European countries.

American Journal of Epidemiology, 185:4, 15 February 2017, 259–261 -  
read article (https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/kww138)

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5) Exposure to fine particulate matter in the air alters placental  
structure and the renin-angiotensin system

Sônia de Fátima Soto, Juliana Oliveira de Melo, Guilherme D’Aprile  
Marchesi, Karen Lucasechi Lopes, Mariana Matera Veras, Ivone Braga de  
Oliveira, Regiane Machado de Souza, Isac de Castro, Luzia Naôko  
Shinohara Furukawa, Paulo Hilário Nascimento Saldiva, Joel C. Heimann

Exposure to pollutants before and/or during pregnancy alters some  
characteristics of the placenta, indicating a possible impairment of  
trophoblast invasion and placental angiogenesis with possible  
consequences for the maternal-fetal interaction, such as a limitation  
of fetal nutrition and growth.

PlosOne August 18, 2017 - read article  
(https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0183314)

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6) Air pollution exposure is associated with MRSA acquisition in young  
U.S. children with cystic fibrosis

Kevin J. Psoter, Anneclaire J. De Roos, Jon Wakefield, Jonathan D.  
Mayer, Margaret Rosenfeld

Fine particulate matter is an independent risk factor for initial MRSA  
acquisition in young children with CF. These results support the  
increasing evidence that air pollution contributes to pulmonary  
morbidities in the CF community.

BMC Pulmonary Medicine - read article  
(https://doi.org/10.1186/s12890-017-0449-8)

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7) Short-term association between ambient air pollution and pneumonia  
in children: A systematic review and meta-analysis of time-series and  
case-crossover studies

Nguyen Thi Trang Nhung, Heresh Amini, Christian Schindler, Meltem  
Kutlar Joss, Tran Minh Diend, Nicole Probst-Hensch, Laura Perez, Nino  
Künzli

Systematic review and meta-analysis of 17 time-series and  
case-crossover studies. Positive & significant associations for air  
pollutants and pediatric pneumonia. Highest excess risk was 2.9% for  
SO2 followed by PM2.5, O3, PM10, NO2, and CO. Associations remained  
significant regardless of country location and age. Most homogenous  
results were found for PM2.5 (I-squared = 38%) over 13 studies.

Environmental Pollution 230, November 2017, 1000-1008 - read abstract  
(https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2017.07.063)

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8) Estimated Changes in Life Expectancy and Adult Mortality Resulting  
from Declining PM2.5 Exposures in the Contiguous United States:  
1980–2010

Neal Fann, Sun-Young Kim, Casey Olives, Lianne Sheppard

Our estimates suggest that declines in PM2.5 exposures between 1980  
and 2010 have benefitted public health.

Environ Health Perspect Sept 2017 - read article  
(https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP507)

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9) Updated Global Estimates of Respiratory Mortality in Adults ≥30  
Years of Age Attributable to Long-Term Ozone Exposure

Christopher S. Malley, Daven K. Henze, Johan C.I. Kuylenstierna, Harry  
W. Vallack, Yanko Davila, Susan C. Anenberg, Michelle C. Turner, Mike  
R. Ashmore

These findings suggest that the potential magnitude of health benefits  
of air quality policies targeting O3, health co-benefits of climate  
mitigation policies, and health implications of climate change-driven  
changes in O3 concentrations, are larger than previously thought.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/EHP1390 - read article  
(https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1390)

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10) BEST PRACTICES FOR GAUGING EVIDENCE OF CAUSALITY IN AIR POLLUTION  
EPIDEMIOLOGY

Francesca Dominici, Corwin Zigler

We argue that air pollution studies that are more scientifically  
rigorous in terms of the decisions made to approximate a randomized  
experiment are more likely to provide evidence of causality and should  
be prioritized among the body of evidence for regulatory review  
accordingly.

American Journal of Epidemiology September 2017 - read abstract  
(https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwx307)

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11) Traffic Congestion as a Risk Factor for Mortality in Near-Road  
Communities: A Case-Crossover Study

Meredith Pedde, Adam A. Szpiro, Sara D. Adar

Unexpectedly, lower odds of cardiovascular mortality were suggested  
with greater congestion. This work demonstrates the use of  
nontraditional data to characterize the impacts of near-road exposures.

American Journal of Epidemiology, 186:5, 1 September 2017, 564–572 -  
read abstract (https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwx130)

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12) Longitudinal Associations Between Ambient Air Pollution With  
Insulin Sensitivity, β-Cell Function, and Adiposity in Los Angeles  
Latino Children

Tanya L. Alderete, Rima Habre, Claudia M. Toledo-Corral, Kiros  
Berhane, Zhanghua Chen, Frederick W. Lurmann, Marc J. Weigensberg,  
Michael I. Goran, Frank D. Gilliland

Evidence suggests that ambient air pollution (AAP) exposure may  
contribute to the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes.

Diabetes 2017 Jul; 66(7): 1789-1796 - read abstract  
(https://doi.org/10.2337/db16-1416)

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13) Long-term exposure to air pollution and the incidence of  
Parkinson’s disease: A nested case-control study

Chiu-Ying Chen, Hui-Jung Hung, Kuang-Hsi Chang, Chung Y. Hsu,  
Chih-Hsin Muo, Chon-Haw Tsai , Trong-Neng Wu

Although PM10 plays a significant role in PD development, the  
associated chemical/metal compounds that are capable of inducing  
adverse biological mechanisms still warrant further exploration.  
Because of a link between comorbid conditions and PM exposure,  
research on the causal relationship between long-term exposure to PM  
and the development of PD should be considered with caution because  
other possible modifiers or mediators, comorbid diseases in  
particular, may be involved.

PlosOne August 15, 2017 - read article  
(https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0182834)

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14) Carbon Nanoparticles Inhibit the Antimicrobial Activities of the  
Human Cathelicidin LL-37 through Structural Alteration

Fern Findlay, Jan Pohl, Pavel Svoboda, Priyanka Shakamuri, Kevin  
McLean, Neil F. Inglis, Lorna Proudfoot, Peter G. Barlow

The human health implications of these findings are significant, as,  
to our knowledge, this is the first evidence that nanoparticles can  
alter host defense peptide structure and function, indicating a new  
role for nanoparticle exposure in increased disease susceptibility.

J Immunol August 16, 2017 - read article  
(http://www.jimmunol.org/content/early/2017/08/16/jimmunol.1700706)

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15) Ambient Air Pollution and Cancer Mortality in the Cancer  
Prevention Study II

Michelle C. Turner, Daniel Krewski, W. Ryan Diver, C. Arden Pope III,  
Richard T. Burnett, Michael Jerrett, Julian D. Marshall, Susan M.  
Gapstur

The results from this large prospective study suggest that ambient air  
pollution was not associated with death from most nonlung cancers, but  
associations with kidney, bladder, and colorectal cancer death warrant  
further investigation.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/EHP1249 - read article  
(https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1249)

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16) Air Pollution and Mortality in the Medicare Population

Qian Di, Yan Wang, Antonella Zanobetti, Yun Wang, Petros Koutrakis,  
Christine Choirat, Francesca Dominici, Joel D. Schwartz

In the entire Medicare population, there was significant evidence of  
adverse effects related to exposure to PM2.5 and ozone at  
concentrations below current national standards. This effect was most  
pronounced among self-identified racial minorities and people with low  
income. (Supported by the Health Effects Institute and others.)

N Engl J Med 2017; 376:2513-2522 - read abstract  
(http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1702747)

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17) Particulate Matter and Risk of Hospital Admission in the Kathmandu  
Valley, Nepal: A Case-Crossover Study

Anobha Gurung, Ji-Young Son, Michelle L. Bell

These results, in combination with the high levels of exposure,  
indicate a potentially serious human health burden from air pollution  
in the Kathmandu Valley.

American Journal of Epidemiology, 186:5, 1 September 2017, 573–580 -  
read abstract (https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwx135)

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18) Transcriptome analysis of airborne PM2.5-induced detrimental  
effects on human keratinocytes

Hyoung-June Kim, Il-Hong Bae, Eui Dong Son, Juyearl Park, Nari Cha,  
Hye-Won Na, Changjo Jung, You-Seak Go, Dae-Yong Kim, Tae Ryong Lee,  
Dong Wook Shin

RNA-Seq analysis revealed that PM2.5 showed harmful effects on  
keratinocytes. PM2.5 caused epidermal dysfunctions by altering the  
expression of barrier markers. PM2.5 caused significant changes of  
psoriatic skin disease-related genes.

Toxicology Letters 273, 5 May 2017, 26-35 - read abstract  
(https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2017.03.010)

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19) Trees in urban parks and forests reduce O3, but not NO2  
concentrations in Baltimore, MD, USA

Vesa Yli-Pelkonen, Anna A. Scott, Viljami Viippola, HeikkiSetälä

Empirical evidence of urban trees improving air quality at local level  
is scarce. We studied the impact of urban trees on NO2 and O3 levels  
in Baltimore, MD, USA. O3 levels were significantly lower in  
tree-covered than in adjacent open habitats. NO2 levels did not differ  
significantly between tree-covered and open habitats. Higher  
temperatures resulted in higher NO2 and ozone concentrations.

Atmospheric Environment 167, October 2017, 73-80 - read abstract  
(https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2017.08.020)

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----------------------------------------------------------

Compiler and Editor: Barbara Rimmington, Researcher, East End Quality  
of Life Initiative

10 Montgomery Terrace Road

Sheffield S6 3BU

Tel. 0114 285 9931

Fax 0114 278 7173

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