[cleanairuk_news] Health Effects of Air Quality and Noise - update August 2017

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Thu Sep 21 17:18:47 BST 2017


* Health Effects of Air Quality and Noise - update August 2017 *

By Barbara Rimmington, Researcher, East End Quality of Life Initiative

(Previous edition - July 2017:  
http://cleanairuk.org/pipermail/news_cleanairuk.org/2017-July/000115.html)

(Index for previous issues:  
http://www.cleanairuk.org/health-air-pollution.html)

*NOTICE*

CLEAN AIR SCHOOLS ROUND-TABLE CONFERENCE, Sat 30 Sept, London

Clean Air Schools is a roundtable conference to inspire people who'd  
like to see clean air at schools: for their children and pupils. We'll  
hear from speakers who've organised projects at their children's  
school and local schools for better air quality. Bring your hopes and  
experience to share with us; and find people who have similar visions  
for our schools.

WHEN: Saturday 30 September 2017 (Starts: 10.30 for 11 am. Ends: 5 pm)

WHERE: Student Central (formerly known at 'ULU - University of London  
Union'), Malet Street, London. WC1E 7HY. (Map below.)

COST: Free! All welcome. Please bring your own lunch or there are lots  
of cafes nearby.

Any questions? Please contact us and ask - contact at cleanairuk.org

Thank-you. Andrew Wood, Network for Clean Air Co-ordinator

Email: contact at cleanairuk.org
Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/cleanairuk
Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/cleanairuk
Web: http://www.cleanairuk.org

*Programme*

     *Morning (10.30 for prompt start at) 11 am - 1.00pm*

     Talks - Presentations by:
         Ahsan Khan of Climate Labs about their Clean Air Camp at a  
school in the London Borough of Sutton, earlier this year.
         Eleanor Margolies about her project at Dog Kennel Hill school  
in London.
         Other speakers to be confirmed.
     Question, answers and discussion about the talks.

     *Afternoon (2 – 5 pm)*

     Open Agenda: The afternoon session is open for arrangement by  
those attending. We'd love to hear your experience. Please bring your  
ideas and any materials which you might need.

*Map*

https://www.google.com/maps/embed?pb=!1m18!1m12!1m3!1d2482.48770693663!2d-0.13112300000000493!3d51.522614000000004!2m3!1f0!2f0!3f0!3m2!1i1024!2i768!4f13.1!3m3!1m2!1s0x48761b311f8bf3a3%3A0xd3facd0993b73c75!2sStudent+Central!5e0!3m2!1sen!2suk!4v1427192908370

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*CONTENTS*

1) Health impacts related to urban and transport planning: A burden of  
disease assessment

2) Race/Ethnicity, Socioeconomic Status, Residential Segregation, and  
Spatial Variation in Noise Exposure in the Contiguous United States

3) Air Pollution and Risk of Parkinson’s Disease in a Large  
Prospective Study of Men

4) Do air pollution and neighborhood greenness exposures improve the  
predicted cardiovascular risk?

5) Long-term residential road traffic noise and NO2 exposure in  
relation to risk of incident myocardial infarction – A Danish cohort  
study

6) Maternal exposure to ambient air pollution and fetal growth in  
North-East Scotland: A population-based study using routine ultrasound  
scans

7) Prenatal exposure to PM2.5 and birth weight: A pooled analysis from  
three North American longitudinal pregnancy cohort studies

8) The role of traffic noise on the association between air pollution  
and children's lung function

9) Costs of coronary heart disease and mortality associated with  
near-roadway air pollution

10) Association between gaseous air pollutants and inflammatory,  
hemostatic and lipid markers in a cohort of midlife women

11) Ambient Air Pollution and Risk of Gestational Hypertension

12) Ambient Coarse Particulate Matter and the Right Ventricle: The  
Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

13) A systematic review of cardiovascular emergency department visits,  
hospital admissions and mortality associated with ambient black carbon

14) Population-Level Exposure to Particulate Air Pollution during  
Active Travel: Planning for Low-Exposure, Health-Promoting Cities

15) Exposure to Ambient Particulate Matter during Specific Gestational  
Periods Produces Adverse Obstetric Consequences in Mice

16) The Imperial County Community Air Monitoring Network: A Model for  
Community-based Environmental Monitoring for Public Health Action

17) Air quality inside subway metro indoor environment worldwide: A review


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1) Health impacts related to urban and transport planning: A burden of  
disease assessment

Natalie Mueller, David Rojas-Rueda, Xavier Basagaña, Marta Cirach, Tom  
Cole-Hunter, Payam Dadvand, David Donaire-Gonzalez, Maria Foraster,  
Mireia Gascon, David Martinez, Cathryn Tonne, Margarita Triguero-Mas,  
Antònia Valentín, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen

Failure to meet recommended levels of physical activity, air  
pollution, noise, heat and green spaces linked to poor health.  
Compliance with recommendations was estimated to prevent >50,000 DALYs  
each year in Barcelona, Spain. Compliance was also estimated to result  
in direct health care cost savings of >20 million € annually. The  
largest share in burden of disease was attributable to traffic noise  
exposure. Especially noise related annoyance and sleep disturbance  
contributed largely to the burden of disease (>10,000 DALYs).

Environment International 107, October 2017, 243-257 - read abstract  
(https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2017.07.020)

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2) Race/Ethnicity, Socioeconomic Status, Residential Segregation, and  
Spatial Variation in Noise Exposure in the Contiguous United States

Joan A. Casey, Rachel Morello-Frosch, Daniel J. Mennitt, Kurt  
Fristrup, Elizabeth L. Ogburn, Peter James

We found evidence of racial/ethnic and socioeconomic differences in  
model-based estimates of noise exposure throughout the United States.  
Additional research is needed to determine if differences in noise  
exposure may contribute to health disparities in the United States.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/EHP898 - read article  
(https://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/ehp898/)

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3) Air Pollution and Risk of Parkinson’s Disease in a Large  
Prospective Study of Men

Natalia Palacios, Kathryn C. Fitzgerald, Jaime E. Hart, Marc  
Weisskopf, Michael A. Schwarzschild, Alberto Ascherio, Francine Laden

In this study, we found no evidence that exposure to air pollution is  
a risk factor for PD in men.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/EHP259 - read article  
(https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP259)

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4) Do air pollution and neighborhood greenness exposures improve the  
predicted cardiovascular risk?

Maayan Yitshak-Sade, Itai Kloog, Victor Novack

Stroke and MI were positively associated with a higher chronic  
exposure to coarse PM. Larger amount of neighborhood greenness was  
associated with a decreased MI risk. The incorporation of PM and NDVI  
did not improve the cardiovascular risk prediction.

Environment International 107, October 2017, 147-153 - read abstract  
(https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2017.07.011)

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5) Long-term residential road traffic noise and NO2 exposure in  
relation to risk of incident myocardial infarction – A Danish cohort  
study

Nina Roswall, Ole Raaschou-Nielsen, Matthias Ketzel,.Anders  
Gammelmark, Kim Overvad, Anja Olsen, MetteSørensen

Road traffic noise and air pollution affect cardiac health. We found a  
higher MI-risk with both exposures before mutual adjustment. After  
mutual adjustment, only the association with road traffic noise  
remained significant. A high exposure to both pollutants entailed the  
highest associations, especially with fatal MI.

Environmental Research 156 July 2017 80-86 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935117300634)

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6) Maternal exposure to ambient air pollution and fetal growth in  
North-East Scotland: A population-based study using routine ultrasound  
scans

Tom Clemens, Steve Turner, Chris Dibben

We examined the effect of maternal pollution exposure for fetal growth  
and size. Exposure to particulates and NO2 strongly associated with  
reductions in head growth and size. Effects were strongest for  
non-smokers. Pollution effects were observed despite a relatively low  
exposure environment.

Environment International 107, October 2017, 216-226 - read article  
(https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2017.07.018)

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7) Prenatal exposure to PM2.5 and birth weight: A pooled analysis from  
three North American longitudinal pregnancy cohort studies

Maria José Rosa, Ashley Pajak, Allan C.Just, Perry E.Sheffield, Itai  
Kloog, Joel Schwartz, Brent Coull, Michelle Bosquet Enlow, Andrea  
A.Baccarelli, Kathi Huddleston, John E.Niederhuber, Martha María  
Téllez Rojo, Robert O.Wright, Chris Gennings, Rosalind J.Wright

Examined association between prenatal PM2.5 and birth weight data from  
3 studies. Used novel combinability method to integrate data,  
accounting for study heterogeneity. PROGRESS and ACCESS studies were  
comparable with regard to covariates. Higher 3rd trimester PM2.5  
associated with lower BWGA z-scores in combined analysis

Environment International 107, October 2017, 173-180 - read abstract  
(https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2017.07.012)

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8) The role of traffic noise on the association between air pollution  
and children's lung function

Meredith Franklin, Scott Fruin

The joint effects of traffic noise and air pollution exposure on  
health are examined. Noise enhances the detrimental impact of air  
pollution on children's lung function. Noise is an important exposure  
to include in studies of traffic-related health outcomes.

Environmental Research 157 August 2017 153-159 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S001393511730172X)

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9) Costs of coronary heart disease and mortality associated with  
near-roadway air pollution

SylviaBrandt, BrentonDickinson, RakeshGhosh, FrederickLurmann,  
LauraPerez, BryanPenfold, JohnWilson, NinoKünzli, RobMcConnell

In Southern California in 2008, coronary heart disease mortality due  
to near-roadway airpollution cost $4 - $12 billion.  
Near-roadway-attributable hospitalization for heart disease cost $48.6  
million in 2008. The cost of NRAP-attributable heart disease is  
projected to increase markedly by 2035, duelargely to an aging  
population.

Science of The Total Environment 601–602, 1 December 2017 391-396 -  
read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969717311737#!)

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10) Association between gaseous air pollutants and inflammatory,  
hemostatic and lipid markers in a cohort of midlife women

Xiangmei (May) Wu, Rupa Basu, Brian Malig, Rachel Broadwin, Keita  
Ebisu, Ellen B.Gold, Lihong Qi, Carol Derby, Rochelle S.Green

We examined the associations between CVD markers and ambient gases.  
Short-term CO exposure was associated with increased levels of  
coagulation markers. Long-term exposures to NO2 and SO2 were  
associated with reduced HDL and APOA1. PM2.5 exposure confounded  
associations between CO/NO2 and hemostatic markers. Exposure to  
ambient gases at current NAAQS may increase CVD risks in midlife women.

Environment International 107, October 2017, 131-139 - read abstract  
(https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2017.07.004)

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11) Ambient Air Pollution and Risk of Gestational Hypertension

Yeyi Zhu,  Cuilin Zhang,  Danping Liu,  Sandie Ha,  Sung Soo Kim,   
Anna Pollack, Pauline Mendola

Our findings suggest that early exposures to criteria air pollutants,  
particularly from transport emissions, and high exposure to several  
air toxics before conception may increase GH risk.

American Journal of Epidemiology 186:3, 1 August 2017 334–343 - read  
abstract (https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwx097)

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12) Ambient Coarse Particulate Matter and the Right Ventricle: The  
Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

Jennifer C. D’Souza, Steven M. Kawut, Laura R. Elkayam, Lianne  
Sheppard, Peter S. Thorne, David R. Jacobs, Jr., David A. Bluemke,  
Joao A.C. Lima, Joel D. Kaufman, Timothy V. Larson, Sara D. Adar

Alterations to RV structure may represent a mechanism by which  
long-term PM10–2.5 exposure increases risks for adverse respiratory  
and cardiovascular outcomes, especially among certain susceptible  
populations.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/EHP658 - read article  
(https://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/ehp658/)

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13) A systematic review of cardiovascular emergency department visits,  
hospital admissions and mortality associated with ambient black carbon

Luben Thomas, Nichols Jennifer, Dutton Steven, Kirrane Ellena, Owens  
Elizabeth, Datko-Williams Laura, Madden Meagan, Sacks Jason

Regional differences in PM2.5-related health effects are often  
observed and may be explained by differences in PM2.5 components  
observed in different geographical regions. We examine whether or not  
there is clear evidence for an independent effect of BC, separate from  
that attributed to PM2.5, on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.  
Our results demonstrate generally similar risk for BC or EC and PM2.5;  
that is, generally modest, positive associations of each of these  
pollutant measurements with cardiovascular outcomes. The possibility  
that the similarities in results for BC or EC and PM2.5 could be due  
to greater exposure measurement error due to the greater spatial  
heterogeneity of BC and EC, especially in the presence of on-road  
sources, cannot be ruled out. Our systematic review indicates that BC  
or EC is consistently associated with cardiovascular morbidity and  
mortality, but is not sufficient to conclude that BC or EC is not just  
an indicator for PM mass

Environment International 107, October 2017, 154-162 - read abstract  
(https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2017.07.005)

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14) Population-Level Exposure to Particulate Air Pollution during  
Active Travel: Planning for Low-Exposure, Health-Promoting Cities

Steve Hankey, Greg Lindsey, Julian D. Marshall

Public health officials and urban planners may use our findings to  
promote healthy transportation choices. When designing  
health-promoting cities, benefits (physical activity) as well as  
hazards (air pollution) should be evaluated.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/EHP442 - read article  
(https://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/ehp442/)

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15) Exposure to Ambient Particulate Matter during Specific Gestational  
Periods Produces Adverse Obstetric Consequences in Mice

Jason L. Blum, Lung-Chi Chen, Judith T. Zelikoff

Adverse PM2.5-induced outcomes such as PTB and LBW are dependent upon  
the periods of maternal exposure. The results of these experimental  
studies could contribute significantly to air pollution policy  
decisions in the future.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/EHP1029 - read article  
(https://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/ehp1029/)

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16) The Imperial County Community Air Monitoring Network: A Model for  
Community-based Environmental Monitoring for Public Health Action

Paul B. English, Luis Olmedo, Ester Bejarano, Humberto Lugo, Eduardo  
Murillo, Edmund Seto, Michelle Wong, Galatea King, Alexa Wilkie, Dan  
Meltzer, Graeme Carvlin, Michael Jerrett, Amanda Northcross

The Network is currently producing real-time particulate matter data  
from 40 low-cost sensors throughout Imperial County, one of the  
largest community-based air networks in the United States.  
Establishment of a community-led air network involves engaging  
community members to be citizen-scientists in the monitoring, siting,  
and data collection process. Attention to technical issues regarding  
instrument calibration and validation and electronic transfer and  
storage of data is also essential. Finally, continued community health  
improvements will be predicated on facilitating community ownership  
and sustainability of the network after research funds have been  
expended.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/EHP1772 - read article  
(https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1772)

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17) Air quality inside subway metro indoor environment worldwide: A review

Bin Xu, Jinliang Hao

Detailed summary on air pollutant exposure level in the metro system.  
Various air pollutant species inside different countries' metro  
system. Mitigations that can significantly affect the pollutant  
concentration in metro air. Adverse effect of metro air pollutants  
exposure on the health

Environment International 107, October 2017, 33-46 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412017305664?_rdoc=1&_fmt=high&_origin=gateway&_docanchor=&md5=b8429449ccfc9c30159a5f9aeaa92ffb&dgcid=raven_sd_via_email)

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----------------------------------------------------------

Compiler and Editor: Barbara Rimmington, Researcher, East End Quality  
of Life Initiative

10 Montgomery Terrace Road

Sheffield S6 3BU

Tel. 0114 285 9931

Fax 0114 278 7173

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