[cleanairuk_news] Health Effects of Air Quality and Noise - update May 2017

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* Health Effects of Air Quality and Noise - update May 2017 *

By Barbara Rimmington, Researcher, East End Quality of Life Initiative

(Previous edition - April 2017:  
http://cleanairuk.org/pipermail/news_cleanairuk.org/2017-May/000112.html)

(Index for previous issues:  
http://www.cleanairuk.org/health-air-pollution.html)

*CONTENTS*

1) Impact of green screens on concentrations of particulate matter and  
oxides of nitrogen in near road environments

2) How Do People Understand Urban Air Pollution? Exploring Citizens’  
Perception on Air Quality, Its Causes and Impacts in Colombian Cities

3) Tallying the bills of mortality from air pollution

4) Estimates and 25-year trends of the global burden of disease  
attributable to ambient air pollution: an analysis of data from the  
Global Burden of Diseases Study 2015

5) Expressing air pollution-induced health-related externalities in  
physical terms with the help of DALYs

6) Respiratory outcomes of ultrafine particulate matter (UFPM) as a  
surrogate measure of near-roadway exposures among bicyclists

7) Traffic-related air pollution and spectacles use in schoolchildren

8) Chronic effects of air pollution on lung function after lung  
transplantation in the Systems prediction of Chronic Lung Allograft  
Dysfunction (SysCLAD) study

9) In vitro model adapted to the study of skin ageing induced by air pollution

10) Transboundary health impacts of transported global air pollution  
and international trade

11) Evaluation of in vivo mutagenesis for assessing the health risk of  
air pollutants

12) Associations Between Genome-wide Gene Expression and Ambient  
Nitrogen Oxides

13) Traffic-related air pollution impact on mouse brain accelerates  
myelin and neuritic aging changes with specificity for CA1 neurons

14) Links between noise and air pollution and socioeconomic status

15) Associations of long-term exposure to air pollution and road  
traffic noise with cognitive function—An analysis of effect measure  
modification

16) Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and traffic noise and  
incident hypertension in seven cohorts of the European study of  
cohorts for air pollution effects (ESCAPE)

17) Managing exposure to noise in Europe

18) Noise impacts on health

19) Evaluation of green walls as a passive acoustic insulation system  
for buildings

20) Noise Annoyance Is Associated with Depression and Anxiety in the  
General Population- The Contribution of Aircraft Noise

- o -

1) Impact of green screens on concentrations of particulate matter and  
oxides of nitrogen in near road environments

Anja H. Tremper, David C. Green, Davene Chatter-Singh and Kyri  
Eleftheriou-Vaus

The screen was found to be an effective pollution barrier once the ivy  
had started growing and a significant impact could be seen once the  
screen had matured. The ivy screen led to a decrease in the pollution  
concentrations on the playground side of the screen by 24% for NO2 and  
38% for PM10. Comparing school hours independently a reduction in  
concentrations of up to 36% and 41% were found for NO2 and PM10,  
respectively. This demonstrates that the screen is very effective  
during daytime hours, when both emissions and exposure are highest.

Environmental Research Group King's College London February 2015 22pp  
- read report  
(http://www.londonair.org.uk/london/reports/GreenScreen_Report.pdf)

- o -

2) How Do People Understand Urban Air Pollution? Exploring Citizens’  
Perception on Air Quality, Its Causes and Impacts in Colombian Cities

Omar Ramírez, Ivan Mura, Juan Felipe Franco

Results show that citizens are aware of the state of air quality and  
its health impact is a major concern. Such findings suggest people’s  
opinions can be used as provisional indicators in cities without data,  
as well as to monitor the results of local air quality management. As  
a complementary process, or at the same level of importance given to  
technical based policy, citizen participation can contribute to a  
collective construction of urban air pollution control strategies.

Open Journal of Air Pollution 6 1-17 - read article  
(http://file.scirp.org/pdf/OJAP_2017031411262053.pdf)

- o -

3) Tallying the bills of mortality from air pollution

Douglas W Dockery, John S Evans

The hazard of air pollution episodes was evident in the 4000 excess  
deaths (revised to 12 000 deaths) during the Great Smog of 1952 in  
London. However, measuring the cumulative health burden of living with  
chronically high air pollution is more difficult.

The Lancet April 2017 - read article  
(http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(17)30884-X)

- o -

4) Estimates and 25-year trends of the global burden of disease  
attributable to ambient air pollution: an analysis of data from the  
Global Burden of Diseases Study 2015

Aaron J Cohen, Michael Brauer, Richard Burnett, H Ross Anderson,  
Joseph Frostad, Kara Estep, Kalpana Balakrishnan, Bert Brunekreef,  
Lalit Dandona, Rakhi Dandona, Valery Feigin, Greg Freedman, Bryan  
Hubbell, Amelia Jobling, Haidong Kan, Luke Knibbs, Yang Liu, Randall  
Martin, Lidia Morawska, C Arden Pope III, Hwashin Shin, Kurt Straif,  
Gavin Shaddick, Matthew Thomas, Rita van Dingenen, Aaron van  
Donkelaar, Theo Vos, Christopher J L Murray, Mohammad H Forouzanfar

Ambient air pollution contributed substantially to the global burden  
of disease in 2015, which increased over the past 25 years, due to  
population ageing, changes in non-communicable disease rates, and  
increasing air pollution in low-income and middle-income countries.  
Modest reductions in burden will occur in the most polluted countries  
unless PM2·5 values are decreased substantially, but there is  
potential for substantial health benefits from exposure reduction.

The Lancet April 2017 - read article  
(http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(17)30505-6)

- o -

5) Expressing air pollution-induced health-related externalities in  
physical terms with the help of DALYs

Till M. Bachmann, Jonathan van der Kamp

Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) allow aggregating air pollution  
(AP) impacts. DALYs used in AP impact assessments are dated and prone  
to double counting. Up-to-date and consistent DALYs valid for Europe  
are identified and discussed. DALY reduction opportunities are  
assessed for a French smart grid demonstrator. Morbidity DALYs are  
negligible, contrary to impact assessment in monetary terms.

Environment International 103, June 2017, 39–50 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412016306365?dgcid=raven_sd_via_email)

- o -

6) Respiratory outcomes of ultrafine particulate matter (UFPM) as a  
surrogate measure of near-roadway exposures among bicyclists

Hye-Youn Park, Susan Gilbreath, Edward Barakatt

This study found significant associations between increased levels of  
UFPM concentrations as a proxy for near road traffic pollution, and  
decrements in lung function measurements. Our results are related to  
short-term exposures, and the long-term health effects of cycling near  
heavy traffic require further research. Our study suggests the need to  
reduce traffic pollution, particularly near roads. Cyclists should  
plan their route to reduce their exposure where possible and further  
research on built environment designs may help urban planners to  
reduce the potential health concerns of cyclists’ exposure to  
traffic-related air pollution.

Environmental Health 201716:6 - read article  
(https://ehjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12940-017-0212-x)

- o -

7) Traffic-related air pollution and spectacles use in schoolchildren

Payam Dadvand, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen, Xavier Basagaña, Mar  
Alvarez-Pedrerol, Albert Dalmau-Bueno, Marta Cirach, Ioar Rivas, Bert  
Brunekreef, Xavier Querol, Ian G. Morgan, Jordi Sunyer

We observed increased risk of spectacles use associated with exposure  
to traffic-related air pollution. These findings require further  
confirmation by future studies applying more refined outcome measures  
such as quantified visual acuity and separating different types of  
refractive errors.

PlosOne April 2017 - read article  
(https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0167046)

- o -

8) Chronic effects of air pollution on lung function after lung  
transplantation in the Systems prediction of Chronic Lung Allograft  
Dysfunction (SysCLAD) study

Meriem Benmerad, Rémy Slama, Karine Botturi, Johanna Claustre, Antoine  
Roux, Edouard Sage, Martine Reynaud-Gaubert, Carine Gomez, Romain  
Kessler, Olivier Brugière, Jean-François Mornex, Sacha Mussot, Marcel  
Dahan, Véronique Boussaud, Isabelle Danner-Boucher, Claire Dromer,  
Christiane Knoop, Annick Auffray, Johanna Lepeule, Laure Malherbe,  
Frederik Meleux, Laurent Nicod, Antoine Magnan, Christophe Pison,  
Valérie Siroux

Our study suggests a deleterious effect of chronic exposure to air  
pollutants on lung function levels in LTRs, which might be modified  
with macrolides.

European Respiratory Journal 2017 49: 1600206 - read abstract  
(http://erj.ersjournals.com/content/49/1/1600206)

- o -

9) In vitro model adapted to the study of skin ageing induced by air pollution

Sarah Lecas, Elsa Boursier, Richard Fitoussi, Katell Vié, Isabelle  
Momas, Nathalie Seta, Sophie Achard

Air pollutants exposure and skin ageing. 3D-in vitro skin model  
adapted for evaluating environmental pollutants. Air-liquid exposure  
close to human exposure.

Toxicology Letters 259, 30 September 2016, 60–68 - read abstract  
(https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2016.07.026)

- o -

10) Transboundary health impacts of transported global air pollution  
and international trade

Qiang Zhang, Xujia Jiang, Dan Tong, Steven J. Davis, Hongyan Zhao,  
Guannan Geng, Tong Feng, Bo Zheng, Zifeng Lu, David G. Streets,  
Ruijing Ni, Michael Brauer, Aaron van Donkelaar, Randall V. Martin,  
Hong Huo, Zhu Liu, Da Pan, Haidong Kan, Yingying Yan, Jintai Lin,  
Kebin He, Dabo Guan

Our results reveal that the transboundary health impacts of PM2.5  
pollution associated with international trade are greater than those  
associated with long-distance atmospheric pollutant transport.

Nature 543, 705–709 (30 March 2017) - read abstract  
(http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v543/n7647/full/nature21712.html)

- o -

11) Evaluation of in vivo mutagenesis for assessing the health risk of  
air pollutants

Yasunobu Aoki

These results suggest that the mutations identified in transgenic  
rodents can help identify environmental mutagens that cause cancer.

Genes and Environment 2017 39:16 - read article  
(https://genesenvironment.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s41021-016-0064-6)

- o -

12) Associations Between Genome-wide Gene Expression and Ambient  
Nitrogen Oxides

Mostafavi, Nahid; Vlaanderen, Jelle; Portengen, Lutzen; Chadeau-Hyam,  
Marc; Modig, Lars; Palli, Domenico; Bergdahl, Ingvar A.; Brunekreef,  
Bert; Vineis, Paolo; Hebels, Dennie G. A. J.; Kleinjans, Jos C. S.;  
Krogh, Vittorio; Hoek, Gerard; Georgiadis, Panagiotis; Kyrtopoulos,  
Soterios .; Vermeulen, Roel

This study provides evidence of subtle changes in gene expression  
related to exposure to long-term NOx. On a global level, the observed  
changes in the transcriptome may indicate similarities between air  
pollution and tobacco induced changes in the transcriptome.

Epidemiology: May 2017 28:3 320–328 - read abstract  
(http://journals.lww.com/epidem/Abstract/2017/05000/Associations_Between_Genome_wide_Gene_Expression.4.aspx)

- o -

13) Traffic-related air pollution impact on mouse brain accelerates  
myelin and neuritic aging changes with specificity for CA1 neurons

Nicholas C. Woodward, Payam Pakbin, Arian Saffari, Farimah  
Shirmohammadi, Amin Haghani, Constantinos Sioutas, Mafalda  
Cacciottolo, Todd E. Morgan, Caleb E. Finch

We propose that TRAP-associated human cognitive and white matter  
changes involve hippocampal responses to nPM that begin at younger ages.

Neurobiology of Aging May 2017 53, 48–58 - read abstract  
(http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2017.01.007)

- o -

14) Links between noise and air pollution and socioeconomic status

Science Communication Unit, University of the West of England (UWE), Bristol

Lower socioeconomic status is generally associated with poorer health,  
and both air and noise pollution contribute to a wide range of other  
factors influencing human health. But do these health inequalities  
arise because of increased exposure to pollution, increased  
sensitivity to exposure, increased vulnerabilities, or some  
combination? This In-depth Report presents evidence on whether people  
in deprived areas are more affected by air and noise pollution — and  
suffer greater consequences — than wealthier populations.

Science for Environment Policy 2016 40pp - read report  
(http://ec.europa.eu/environment/integration/research/newsalert/pdf/air_noise_pollution_socioeconomic_status_links_IR13_en.pdf)

- o -

15) Associations of long-term exposure to air pollution and road  
traffic noise with cognitive function—An analysis of effect measure  
modification

Lilian Tzivian, Martha Jokisch, Angela Winkler, Christian Weimar,  
Frauke Hennig, Dorothea Sugiri, Vanessa J. Soppa, Nico Dragano,  
Raimund Erbel, Karl-Heinz Jöckel, Susanne Moebus

Effect modification of long-term air pollution (AP) and road traffic  
noise in the associations with cognitive functions of adults was  
investigated. Cross-sectional analysis of data from the first  
follow-up examination of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall study was used. AP  
and road traffic noise might act synergistically on cognitive function  
in adults. Participants exposed to high level of noise showed a  
stronger association between AP and cognitive function. The  
association between noise and cognitive outcomes was restricted to  
those with high AP exposure.

Environment International 103, June 2017, 30–38 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412016309229?dgcid=raven_sd_via_email)

- o -

16) Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and traffic noise and  
incident hypertension in seven cohorts of the European study of  
cohorts for air pollution effects (ESCAPE)

Kateryna B Fuks,  Gudrun Weinmayr,  Xavier Basagaña,  Olena Gruzieva,  
Regina Hampel,  Bente Oftedal,  Mette Sørensen,  Kathrin Wolf,  Geir  
Aamodt, Gunn Marit Aasvang

Long-term residential exposures to air pollution and noise are  
associated with increased incidence of self-reported hypertension.

Eur Heart J (2017) 38 (13): 983-990 - read abstract  
(https://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehw413)

- o -

17) Managing exposure to noise in Europe

Noise pollution remains a major environmental health problem in  
Europe. Road traffic is the dominant source of environmental noise,  
with an estimated 100 million people affected by harmful levels.  
Railways, airports and industry are also important sources of noise.

European Environment Agency, April 2017 - read briefing  
(https://www.eea.europa.eu/themes/human/noise/sub-sections/noise-in-europe-updated-population-exposure)

- o -

18) Noise impacts on health

Science Communication Unit, University of the West of England (UWE), Bristol

Health efects related to environmental noise result in a cost for  
society. Te loss of healthy life years is often valued in euros, but  
there are also indirect and hidden costs, such as the cost of medical  
treatment (e.g. medication for hypertension or mental illness); loss  
of efciency at work due to illness or fatigue resulting from sleep  
deprivation or inefective resting periods; reduced creativity and  
learning – and even less prosocial behaviour – caused by noise stress,  
resulting in safety and security costs. It is therefore essential that  
environmental sound is included in diferent policy areas efectively  
and efciently: in particular, at a preventive stage.

Science for Environment Policy January 2015 15pp - read thematic issue  
(http://ec.europa.eu/environment/integration/research/newsalert/pdf/47si.pdf)

- o -

19) Evaluation of green walls as a passive acoustic insulation system  
for buildings

Z. Azkorra, G. Pérez, J. Coma, L.F. Cabeza, S. Bures, J.E. Álvaro, A.  
Erkoreka, M. Urrestarazu

Weighted sound reduction index of 15 db were obtained by green wall.  
Weighted sound absorption coefficient of 0.40 were found by green  
wall. Green wall have significant potential sound insulation for  
vegetal architecture.

Applied Acoustics 89, March 2015,  46–56 - read article  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0003682X14002333)

- o -

20) Noise Annoyance Is Associated with Depression and Anxiety in the  
General Population- The Contribution of Aircraft Noise

Manfred E. Beutel , Claus Jünger, Eva M. Klein, Philipp Wild, Karl  
Lackner, Maria Blettner, Harald Binder, Matthias Michal, Jörg Wiltink,  
Elmar Brähler, Thomas Münzel

Strong noise annoyance was associated with a two-fold higher  
prevalence of depression and anxiety in the general population. While  
we could not relate annoyance due to aircraft noise directly to  
depression and anxiety, we established that it was the major source of  
annoyance in the sample, exceeding the other sources in those strongly  
annoyed. Prospective follow-up data will address the issue of causal  
relationships between annoyance and mental health.

PlosOne May 2016 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0155357 - read  
article  
(http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0155357)

- o -

----------------------------------------------------------

Compiler and Editor: Barbara Rimmington, Researcher, East End Quality  
of Life Initiative

10 Montgomery Terrace Road

Sheffield S6 3BU

Tel. 0114 285 9931

Fax 0114 278 7173

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