[cleanairuk_news] Health Effects of Air Quality and Noise - update July 2017

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* Health Effects of Air Quality and Noise - update July 2017 *

By Barbara Rimmington, Researcher, East End Quality of Life Initiative

(Previous edition - June 2017:  
http://cleanairuk.org/pipermail/news_cleanairuk.org/2017-June/000114.html)

(Index for previous issues:  
http://www.cleanairuk.org/health-air-pollution.html)

*CONTENTS*

1) Effects of aircraft noise exposure on saliva cortisol near airports  
in France

2) High Levels of Prenatal Air Pollution Exposure and Stress Increase  
Risk of Childhood Asthma

3) Individual exposure to nitrogen dioxide and adverse pregnancy  
outcomes in Kaunas study

4) Individual and Joint Effects of Early-Life Ambient PM2.5 Exposure  
and Maternal Prepregnancy Obesity on Childhood Overweight or Obesity

5) Short-term effects of weather and air pollution on atopic  
dermatitis symptoms in children: A panel study in Korea

6) Exposure to Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Serum Inflammatory  
Cytokines in Children

7) Traffic-related air pollution and spectacles use in schoolchildren

8) The joint effect of air pollution exposure and copy number  
variation on risk for autism

9) Fine particulate matter exposure and incidence of stroke : A cohort  
study in Hong Kong

10) Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and traffic noise and  
incident hypertension in seven cohorts of the European study of  
cohorts for air pollution effects (ESCAPE)

11) Analysis of Temporal Variability in the Short-term Effects of  
Ambient Air Pollutants on Nonaccidental Mortality in Rome, Italy  
(1998–2014)

12) Airborne Particulate Matter Induces Nonallergic Eosinophilic  
Sinonasal Inflammation in Mice

13) Connect the dots: Air quality, industrial strategy and smart mobility

14) Air pollution abatement performances of green infrastructure in  
open road and built-up street canyon environments – A review

15) Impacts on air pollution and health by changing commuting from car  
to bicycle

16) Do environmental concerns affect commuting choices?: hybrid choice  
modelling with household survey data

17) B vitamins attenuate the epigenetic effects of ambient fine  
particles in a pilot human intervention trial

- o -

1) Effects of aircraft noise exposure on saliva cortisol near airports  
in France

Marie Lefèvre, Marie-Christine Carlier, Patricia Champelovier, Jacques  
Lambert, Bernard Laumon, Anne-Sophie Evrard

These findings provide some support for a psychological stress induced  
by aircraft noise exposure, resulting in HPA dysregulation and a  
flattened cortisol rhythm, thus contributing to cardiovascular diseases.

OEM 74;8 2017 - read abstract (http://oem.bmj.com/content/74/8/612)

- o -

2) High Levels of Prenatal Air Pollution Exposure and Stress Increase  
Risk of Childhood Asthma

Reported at the American Thoracic Society 2017 International  
Conference, from May 19 – 24, 2017

Our data suggested that all children born to women experiencing  
increased levels of air pollution and stress during the prenatal  
period are particularly at increased risk of developing asthma in  
early childhood.

Primary Care News · May 24, 2017 - read abstract  
(http://www.practiceupdate.com/news/16135/2/6?elsca1=emc_enews_daily-digest&elsca2=email&elsca3=practiceupdate_primary&elsca4=primary-care&elsca5=newsletter&rid=MjQ1ODY3NDQ1NDMyS0&lid=10332481)

- o -

3) Individual exposure to nitrogen dioxide and adverse pregnancy  
outcomes in Kaunas study

Audrius Dedele, Regina Grazuleviciene, Aukse Miskinyte

The results of the logistic regression analysis showed that LBW risk  
increased statistically significantly with increasing exposure to NO2.  
Increased maternal exposure to NO2 tended to increase the risk for  
TLBW, SGA and PB.

International Journal of Environmental Health Research 27;3 2017 -  
read abstract  
(http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/09603123.2017.1332348)

- o -

4) Individual and Joint Effects of Early-Life Ambient PM2.5 Exposure  
and Maternal Prepregnancy Obesity on Childhood Overweight or Obesity

Guangyun Mao, Rebecca Massa Nachman, Qi Sun, Xingyou Zhang, Kirsten  
Koehler, Zhu Chen, Xiumei Hong, Guoying Wang, Deanna Caruso, Geng  
Zong, Colleen Pearson, Hongkai Ji, Shyam Biswal, Barry Zuckerman,  
Marsha Wills-Karp, Xiaobin Wang

In the present study, we observed that early life exposure to PM2.5  
may play an important role in the early life origins of COWO and may  
increase the risk of COWO in children of mothers who were overweight  
or obese before pregnancy beyond the risk that can be attributed to  
MPBMI alone. Our findings emphasize the clinical and public health  
policy relevance of early life PM2.5 exposure.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/EHP261 - read article  
(https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP261)

- o -

5) Short-term effects of weather and air pollution on atopic  
dermatitis symptoms in children: A panel study in Korea

Young-Min Kim, Jihyun Kim, Youngshin Han, Byoung-Hak Jeon, Hae-Kwan  
Cheong, Kangmo Ahn

Exposure to meteorological variables and air pollutants are associated  
with AD symptoms in young children.

PlosOne April 2017 - read article  
(https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0175229)

- o -

6) Exposure to Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Serum Inflammatory  
Cytokines in Children

Olena Gruzieva, Simon Kebede Merid, Anna Gref, Ashwini Gajulapuri,  
Nathanaël Lemonnier, Stéphane Ballereau, Bruna Gigante, Juha Kere,  
Charles Auffray, Erik Melén, Göran Pershagen

Our results indicate alterations in systemic inflammatory markers in  
8-y-old children in relation to early-life exposure to traffic-related  
air pollution.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/EHP460 - read article  
(https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP460)

- o -

7) Traffic-related air pollution and spectacles use in schoolchildren

Payam Dadvand, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen, Xavier Basagaña, Mar  
Alvarez-Pedrerol, Albert Dalmau-Bueno, Marta Cirach, Ioar Rivas, Bert  
Brunekreef, Xavier Querol, Ian G. Morgan, Jordi Sunyer

We observed increased risk of spectacles use associated with exposure  
to traffic-related air pollution. These findings require further  
confirmation by future studies applying more refined outcome measures  
such as quantified visual acuity and separating different types of  
refractive errors.

PlosOne April 2017 - read article  
(https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0167046)

- o -

8) The joint effect of air pollution exposure and copy number  
variation on risk for autism

Dokyoon Kim, Heather Volk, Santhosh Girirajan, Sarah Pendergrass,  
Molly A. Hall, Shefali S. Verma, Rebecca J. Schmidt, Robin L. Hansen,  
Debashis Ghosh, Yunin Ludena-Rodriguez, Kyoungmi Kim, Marylyn D.  
Ritchie, Irva Hertz-Picciotto, Scott B. Selleck

These findings appear to be the first indication that global copy  
number variation may increase susceptibility to certain environmental  
factors, and underscore the need to consider both genomics and  
environmental exposures as well as the mechanisms by which each may  
amplify the risks for autism associated with the other.

Autism Research 2017 - read abstract  
(http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/aur.1799/full)

- o -

9) Fine particulate matter exposure and incidence of stroke : A cohort  
study in Hong Kong

Hong Qiu, Shengzhi Sun, Hilda Tsang, Chit-Ming Wong, Ruby Siu-yin Lee,  
C. Mary Schooling, Linwei Tian

Long-term PM2.5 exposure was associated with higher risk of incident  
ischemic stroke, but the association with incident hemorrhagic stroke  
was less clear.

Neurology May 2017 88:18 1709-1717 - read abstract  
(http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000003903)

- o -

10) Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and traffic noise and  
incident hypertension in seven cohorts of the European study of  
cohorts for air pollution effects (ESCAPE)

Kateryna B Fuks,  Gudrun Weinmayr,  Xavier Basagaña,  Olena Gruzieva,  
Regina Hampel,  Bente Oftedal,  Mette Sørensen,  Kathrin Wolf,  Geir  
Aamodt, Gunn Marit Aasvang

Long-term residential exposures to air pollution and noise are  
associated with increased incidence of self-reported hypertension.

Eur Heart J (2017) 38 (13): 983-990 - read abstract  
(https://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehw413)


11) Analysis of Temporal Variability in the Short-term Effects of  
Ambient Air Pollutants on Nonaccidental Mortality in Rome, Italy  
(1998–2014)

Matteo Renzi, Massimo Stafoggia, Annunziata Faustini, Giulia Cesaroni,  
Giorgio Cattani, Francesco Forastiere

Mean concentrations of air pollutants have decreased over the last two  
decades in Rome, but effect estimates for a fixed increment in each  
exposure were generally consistent. These findings suggest that there  
has been little or no change in the overall toxicity of the air  
pollution mixture over time.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/EHP19 - read article  
(https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP19)

- o -

12) Airborne Particulate Matter Induces Nonallergic Eosinophilic  
Sinonasal Inflammation in Mice

Murugappan Ramanathan Jr., Nyall R. London Jr., Anuj Tharakan , Nitya  
Surya , Thomas E. Sussan , Xiaoquan Rao , Sandra Y. Lin , Elina  
Toskala , Sanjay Rajagopalan , Shyam Biswal

Collectively, although largely observational, these studies  
demonstrate the destructive effects of chronic airborne PM exposure on  
the sinonasal airway barrier disruption and nonallergic eosinophilic  
inflammation in mice.

American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology 57:1 Jul  
2017 - read abstract (https://doi.org/10.1165/rcmb.2016-0351OC)

- o -

13) Connect the dots: Air quality, industrial strategy and smart mobility

Quilter-Pinner, H and Laybourn-Langton, L

"Of particular concern to human health are nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and  
particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.522), as both are recorded at high  
concentrations across the UK, and because the evidence linking them to  
poor health is strong (Defra 2015a). Indeed, experts estimate that  
29,000 ‘equivalent’ deaths are caused annually from exposure to PM2.5  
in the UK (COMEAP 2010) – a figure which increases to 40,000 when also  
considering the related effects of NO2 (RCP 2016). The subsequent  
costs to the NHS and the economy (in terms of working days lost) is  
estimated at more than £20 billion every year (RCP 2016)".

IPPR (2017) 24pp - read report  
(http://www.ippr.org/publications/free-movement-and-the-eu-referendum)

- o -

14) Air pollution abatement performances of green infrastructure in  
open road and built-up street canyon environments – A review

K.V.Abhijith, Prashant Kumar, John Gallagher, Aonghus McNabola,  
Richard Baldauf, Francesco Pilla, Brian Broderick, Silvana Di  
Sabatino, Beatrice Pulvirenti

Green infrastructure can play a significant role in mitigating urban  
air pollution. Air quality changes in local built environments due to  
vegetation are assessed. Low-level hedges improves air quality in  
street canyons unlike high-level trees. Green green walls and roofs  
are effective to reduce pollution in streets/open roads. Prior design  
of green infrastructure should be performed for improving air quality.

Atmospheric Environment 162, August 2017, 71-86 - read article  
(https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2017.05.014)

- o -

15) Impacts on air pollution and health by changing commuting from car  
to bicycle

Christer Johansson, Boel Lövenheim, Peter Schantz, Lina Wahlgren,  
Peter Almström, Anders Markstedt, Magnus Strömgren, Bertil Forsberg,  
Johan NilssonSommar

A very large potential for transferring car commuters to cycling; more  
than 111 000 car commuters shifting. Reduced vehicle emission and  
thereby reduced population exposure, saves 449 years of life annually  
in Stockholm County. This is more than double the effect estimated in  
connection with the introduction of congestion tax in Stockholm.

Science of The Total Environment 584–585 April 2017 55-63 - read  
article (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.01.145)

- o -

16) Do environmental concerns affect commuting choices?: hybrid choice  
modelling with household survey data

Jennifer Roberts, Gurleen Popli, Rosemary J. Harris

Our results suggest that environmental attitudes have an important  
influence on commute mode choice, and this can be exploited by  
governments looking to add to their climate change policy toolbox in  
an effort to change travel behaviours.

J. R. Stat. Soc. A. doi:10.1111/rssa.12274 - read article  
(http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/rssa.12274/full)

- o -

17) B vitamins attenuate the epigenetic effects of ambient fine  
particles in a pilot human intervention trial

Jia Zhonga, Oskar Karlssonb, Guan Wang, Jun Li,, Yichen Guo, Xinyi  
Lin, Michele Zemplenyi, Marco Sanchez-Guerra, Letizia Trevisi, Bruce  
Urch, Mary Speck, Liming Liang, Brent A. Coull, Petros Koutrakis,  
Frances Silverman, Diane R. Gold, Tangchun Wu, Andrea A. Baccarelli

Our study indicates that individual-level prevention may be used to  
complement regulations and control potential mechanistic pathways  
underlying the adverse PM2.5 effects, with possible significant public  
health benefit in areas with frequent PM2.5 peaks.

PNAS 114:13 3503–3508 - read abstract  
(http://www.pnas.org/content/114/13/3503.abstract)

- o -

----------------------------------------------------------

Compiler and Editor: Barbara Rimmington, Researcher, East End Quality  
of Life Initiative

10 Montgomery Terrace Road

Sheffield S6 3BU

Tel. 0114 285 9931

Fax 0114 278 7173

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