[cleanairuk_news] Health Effects of Air Quality and Noise - update October 2016

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Fri Nov 11 13:34:20 GMT 2016


* Health Effects of Air Quality and Noise - update October 2016 *

By Barbara Rimmington, Researcher, East End Quality of Life Initiative

(Previous edition - September 2016:
http://cleanairuk.org/pipermail/news_cleanairuk.org/2016-November/000104.html)

(Index for previous issues:
http://www.cleanairuk.org/health-air-pollution.html)

*NOTICE*

Clean Air Convergence 2016, Saturday 12 November 2016 at Student  
Central (formerly Univeristy of London Union - ULU) Malet Street, London

Details: http://cleanairuk.org/convergence-2016.html

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*CONTENTS*

1) Links between noise and air pollution and socioeconomic status

2) Associations between maternal exposure to air pollution and traffic  
noise and newborn's size at birth: A cohort study

3) Intrauterine Inflammation and Maternal Exposure to Ambient PM2.5  
during Preconception and Specific Periods of Pregnancy: The Boston  
Birth Cohort

4) Acute Impact of Hourly Ambient Air Pollution on Preterm Birth

5) PM2.5 Exposure and Intrauterine Inflammation: A Possible Mechanism  
for Preterm and Underweight Birth

6) Particulate Oxidative Burden as a Predictor of Exhaled Nitric Oxide  
in Children with Asthma

7) Neurodevelopmental Deceleration by Urban Fine Particles from  
Different Emission Sources: A Longitudinal Observational Study

8) Recent versus chronic exposure to particulate matter air pollution  
in association with neurobehavioral performance in a panel study of  
primary schoolchildren

9) Long-Term Fine Particulate Matter Exposure and Major Depressive  
Disorder in a Community-Based Urban Cohort

10) Nanoscale Particulate Matter from Urban Traffic Rapidly Induces  
Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Olfactory Epithelium with  
Concomitant Effects on Brain

11) The Cost of Air Pollution. Strengthening the Economic Case for Action

12) The contributions to long-term health-relevant particulate matter  
at the UK EMEP supersites between 2010 and 2013: Quantifying the  
mitigation challenge

13) Placental Nitrosative Stress and Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution  
During Gestation: A Population Study

14) The associations between environmental quality and preterm birth  
in the United States, 2000–2005: a cross-sectional analysis

15) Adverse Reproductive Health Outcomes and Exposure to Gaseous and  
Particulate-Matter Air Pollution in Pregnant Women

16) Ambient Air Pollution and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes in Wuhan, China

17) Gaseous pollutants on rural and urban nursery schools in Northern Portugal

18) Cognitive disorders in children associated with urban vehicular emissions

19) Can air pollution negate the health benefits of cycling and walking?

20) The Effect of Pollution on Worker Productivity: Evidence from  
Call-Center Workers in China

21) Long-term exposure to traffic pollution and hospital admissions in London

22) Associations of Source-Specific Fine Particulate Matter With  
Emergency Department Visits in California

23) Is long-term exposure to traffic pollution associated with  
mortality? A small-area study in London

24) Impact of the Volkswagen emissions control defeat device on US  
public health

25) Valuing the human health damage caused by the fraud of Volkswagen

26) Experimental examination of effectiveness of vegetation as  
bio-filter of particulate matters in the urban environment

27) Effects of urban fine particulate matter and ozone on HDL functionality

28) Origin of inorganic and organic components of PM2.5 in subway  
stations of Barcelona, Spain

29) Particle transport characteristics in the micro-environment near  
the roadway

30) Tackling air pollution and extreme climate changes in China:  
Implementing the Paris climate change agreement

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1) Links between noise and air pollution and socioeconomic status

Science for Environment Policy

Air pollution and noise pollution have a negative impact on all of  
society — but some groups are more affected than others. Lower  
socioeconomic status is generally associated with poorer health, and  
both air and noise pollution contribute to a wide range of other  
factors influencing human health. But do these health inequalities  
arise because of increased exposure to pollution, increased  
sensitivity to exposure, increased vulnerabilities, or some  
combination? This In-depth Report presents evidence on whether people  
in deprived areas are more affected by air and noise pollution — and  
suffer greater consequences — than wealthier populations.

European Union 2016 40pp - read report  
(http://ec.europa.eu/environment/integration/research/newsalert/pdf/air_noise_pollution_socioeconomic_status_links_IR13_en.pdf)

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2) Associations between maternal exposure to air pollution and traffic  
noise and newborn's size at birth: A cohort study

Dorrit Hjortebjerg, Anne Marie Nybo Andersen, Matthias Ketzel, Marie  
Pedersen, Ole Raaschou-Nielsen, Mette Sørensen

Air pollution and traffic noise are both suspected of impairing fetal  
growth. Only few studies have investigated both exposures including  
mutually adjustment. Air pollution was associated with offspring's  
head and abdominal circumference. Air pollution was not associated  
with offspring's birth weight. Traffic noise seems not to affect  
newborn's size at birth.

Environment International 95, October 2016, 1–7 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412016302616)

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3) Intrauterine Inflammation and Maternal Exposure to Ambient PM2.5  
during Preconception and Specific Periods of Pregnancy: The Boston  
Birth Cohort

Rebecca Massa Nachman, Guangyun Mao, Xingyou Zhang, Xiumei Hong, Zhu  
Chen, Claire Sampankanpanich Soria, Huan He, Guoying Wang, Deanna  
Caruso, Colleen Pearson, Shyam Biswal, Barry Zuckerman, Marsha  
Wills-Karp, Xiaobin Wang

Despite relatively low exposures, our results suggest a monotonic  
positive relationship between PM2.5 exposure during preconception and  
pregnancy and IUI. IUI may be a sensitive biomarker for assessing  
early biological effect of PM2.5 exposure on the developing fetus.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/EHP243 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/EHP243/)

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4) Acute Impact of Hourly Ambient Air Pollution on Preterm Birth

Shanshan Li, Yuming Guo, Gail Williams

Acute increases in ambient air pollution concentrations above certain  
levels before onset of labor may stimulate preterm birth.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/EHP200 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/EHP200/)

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5) PM2.5 Exposure and Intrauterine Inflammation: A Possible Mechanism  
for Preterm and Underweight Birth

Nate Seltenrich

When researchers estimated pregnant women’s exposures to PM2.5, they  
found that higher exposures were associated with increased incidence  
of intrauterine inflammation. Although the association was seen with  
exposures in all trimesters, it was weaker among women exposed during  
the second and third trimesters.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.124-A190 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/124-A190/)

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6) Particulate Oxidative Burden as a Predictor of Exhaled Nitric Oxide  
in Children with Asthma

Caitlin L. Maikawa, Scott Weichenthal, Amanda J. Wheeler, Nina A.  
Dobbin, Audrey Smargiassi, Greg Evans, Ling Liu, Mark S. Goldberg,  
Krystal J. Godri Pollitt

Exposure to PM2.5 with elevated glutathione-related oxidative burden  
was associated with increased FeNO.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/EHP175 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/EHP175/)

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7) Neurodevelopmental Deceleration by Urban Fine Particles from  
Different Emission Sources: A Longitudinal Observational Study

Xavier Basagaña, Mikel Esnaola, Ioar Rivas, Fulvio Amato, Mar  
Alvarez-Pedrerol, Joan Forns, Mònica López-Vicente, Jesús Pujol, Mark  
Nieuwenhuijsen, Xavier Querol, Jordi Sunyer

Traffic was the only source of fine particles associated with a  
reduction in cognitive development. Reducing air pollution from  
traffic at primary schools may result in beneficial effects on  
cognition.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/EHP209 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/EHP209/)

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8) Recent versus chronic exposure to particulate matter air pollution  
in association with neurobehavioral performance in a panel study of  
primary schoolchildren

Nelly D. Saenen, Eline B. Provost, Mineke K. Viaene, Charlotte  
Vanpoucke, Wouter Lefebvre, Karen Vrijens, Harry A. Roels, Tim S. Nawrot

Recent particulate matter (PM) exposure and neurobehavior scarcely  
studied. We conducted a panel study with repeated measurements in  
primary schoolchildren. We explored effect-sizes between  
recent/chronic PM and neurobehavioral performance. Recent PM exposure  
is inversely associated with visual information processing speed.  
Chronic PM exposure is negatively associated with sustained and  
selective attention.

Environment International 95, October 2016, 112–119 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412016302720)

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9) Long-Term Fine Particulate Matter Exposure and Major Depressive  
Disorder in a Community-Based Urban Cohort

Kyoung-Nam Kim, Youn-Hee Lim, Hyun Joo Bae, Myounghee Kim, Kweon Jung,  
Yun-Chul Hong

Long-term PM2.5 exposure increased the risk of MDD among the general  
population. Individuals with underlying chronic diseases are more  
vulnerable to long-term PM2.5 exposure.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/EHP192 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/EHP192/)

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10) Nanoscale Particulate Matter from Urban Traffic Rapidly Induces  
Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Olfactory Epithelium with  
Concomitant Effects on Brain

Hank Cheng, Arian Saffari, Constantinos Sioutas, Henry J. Forman, Todd  
E. Morgan, Caleb E. Finch

These findings show the differential time course of oxidative stress  
and inflammatory responses to nPM between the OE and the brain. Slow  
cumulative transport of inhaled nPM into the brain may contribute to  
delayed responses of proximal and distal brain regions, with potential  
input from systemic factors.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/EHP134 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/EHP134/)

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11) The Cost of Air Pollution. Strengthening the Economic Case for Action

The study has found that premature deaths due to air pollution in 2013  
cost the global economy about $225 billion in lost labor income, or  
about $5.11 trillion in welfare losses worldwide. That is about the  
size of the gross domestic product of India, Canada, and Mexico  
combined and a sobering wake-up call.

The World Bank and Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation  
University of Washington, Seattle 2016, 122pp - read report  
(http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/781521473177013155/pdf/108141-REVISED-Cost-of-PollutionWebCORRECTEDfile.pdf)

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12) The contributions to long-term health-relevant particulate matter  
at the UK EMEP supersites between 2010 and 2013: Quantifying the  
mitigation challenge

Christopher S. Malley, Mathew R. Heal, Christine F. Braban, John  
Kentisbeer, Sarah R. Leeson, Heath Malcolm, Justin J.N. Lingard,  
Stuart Ritchie, Richard Maggs, Sonya Beccaceci, Paul Quincey, Richard  
J.C. Brown, Marsailidh M. Twigg

PM and PM component measurements at UK EMEP supersites (2010 − 2013)  
were analysed. Analysis focussed on conditions producing long-term  
health-relevant PM (annual average concentrations). Moderate PM  
concentrations made largest contribution to long-term health-relevant  
PM. Moderate PM concentrations were produced across range of  
components, months and air mass pathways. There was no single, key  
determinant of long-term health-relevant PM at these sites.

Environment International 95, October 2016, 98–111 - read article  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412016302951)

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13) Placental Nitrosative Stress and Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution  
During Gestation: A Population Study

Nelly D. Saenen, Karen Vrijens, Bram G. Janssen, Narjes Madhloum,  
Martien Peusens, Wilfried Gyselaers, Charlotte Vanpoucke, Wouter  
Lefebvre, Harry A. Roels, Tim S. Nawrot

The link between placental nitrosative stress and exposure to fine  
particle air pollution during gestation is in line with experimental  
evidence on cigarette smoke and diesel exhaust exposure. Further  
research is needed to elucidate potential health consequences  
experienced later in life through particle-mediated nitrosative stress  
incurred during fetal life.

Am. J. Epidemiol. (2016) 184 (6): 442-449 - read abstract  
(http://aje.oxfordjournals.org/content/184/6/442.abstract?etoc)

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14) The associations between environmental quality and preterm birth  
in the United States, 2000–2005: a cross-sectional analysis

Kristen M. Rappazzo, Lynne C. Messer, Jyotsna S. Jagai, Christine L.  
Gray, Shannon C. Grabich, Danelle T. Lobdell

We observed both strong positive and negative associations between  
measures of broad environmental quality and preterm birth.  
Associations differed by rural–urban stratum and by the five  
environmental domains. Our study demonstrates the use of a large scale  
composite environment exposure metric with preterm birth, an important  
indicator of population health and shows potential for future research.

Environmental Health 2015 14:50 - read article  
(http://ehjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12940-015-0038-3)

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15) Adverse Reproductive Health Outcomes and Exposure to Gaseous and  
Particulate-Matter Air Pollution in Pregnant Women

Jun WuOlivier LaurentLianfa LiJianlin HuMichael Kleeman

This study analyzes associations between increases in various air  
pollution exposure metrics and increased risks of preterm birth, using  
birth certificate data collected in California from 2001 to 2008.

HEI Research Report 188, July 2016 - read report  
(https://www.healtheffects.org/publication/adverse-reproductive-health-outcomes-and-exposure-gaseous-and-particulate-matter-air)

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16) Ambient Air Pollution and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes in Wuhan, China

Zhengmin QianBin ZhangShengwen LiangJing WangShaoping YangKe HuEdwin  
TrevathanRong YangQijie LiLouise H FlickRonghua HuZhen HuangYimin  
ZhangShixiang HuJing WangLongjiao ShenYuan LuHui PengYuzhen YuLi  
YangWei ChenWenjin LiuWei Zhang

A study conducted in Wuhan, the capital city of Hubei province in  
China. Wuhan experiences temperature extremes and generally has higher  
air pollution levels than those seen in the United States and Europe.  
The study examined whether increased exposures to air pollutants  
(particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon  
monoxide, and ozone) during vulnerable pregnancy periods were  
associated with increased rates of preterm birth, low birth weight, or  
intrauterine growth retardation, using both a cohort and nested  
case-control design.

HEI Research Report 189, Sept 2016 - read report  
(https://www.healtheffects.org/publication/ambient-air-pollution-and-adverse-pregnancy-outcomes-wuhan-china)

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17) Gaseous pollutants on rural and urban nursery schools in Northern Portugal

R.A.O. Nunes, P.T.B.S. Branco, M.C.M. Alvim-Ferraz, F.G. Martins, S.I.V. Sousa

This is the only study comparing gaseous pollutants continuously  
measured in urban and rural nurseries. Children's risk of exposure  
occurs mainly in the urban nursery school. Outdoor air was the main  
determinant of CO, NO2 and O3 indoor concentrations. There is a need  
to implement measures to reduce critical situations regarding IAQ.

Environmental Pollution 208, Part A, January 2016, 2–15 - read article  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0269749115003516)

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18) Cognitive disorders in children associated with urban vehicular emissions

Ramesh Naidu Annavarapu, , Srujana Kathi

Developing brain is vulnerable to the effect of urban air pollution.  
Urban emissions cause neurodegeneration and attention deficits among  
children. Exposure to air pollutants leads to oxidative stress in  
living systems

Environmental Pollution 208, Part A, January 2016, 74–78 - read  
article  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0269749115300828)

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19) Can air pollution negate the health benefits of cycling and walking?

Marko Tainio, Audrey J. de Nazelle, Thomas Götschi, Sonja Kahlmeier,  
David Rojas-Rueda, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen, Thiago Hérick de Sá, Paul  
Kelly, James Woodcock

Air pollution (AP) may reduce the health benefits of active travel  
(AT). We compared risk–benefit trade-off of AP and physical activity  
(PA) due to AT. In most urban environments benefits of PA outweighed  
risks of AP. If cycling replaces driving, the trade-off would be even  
more beneficial.

Preventive Medicine 87, June 2016, 233–236 - read article  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0091743516000402)

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20) The Effect of Pollution on Worker Productivity: Evidence from  
Call-Center Workers in China

Tom Chang, Joshua Graff Zivin, Tal Gross, Matthew Neidell

The study found that the negative impacts of pollution on productivity  
extend beyond physically demanding tasks to indoor, white-collar work.

NBER Working Paper No. 22328 June 2016 - read abstract  
(http://www.nber.org/papers/w22328)

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21) Long-term exposure to traffic pollution and hospital admissions in London

Jaana I. Halonen, Marta Blangiardo, Mireille B. Toledano, Daniela  
Fecht, John Gulliver, H. Ross Anderson, Sean D. Beevers, David Dajnak,  
Frank J. Kelly, Cathryn Tonne

Evidence concerning associations between traffic pollutants and  
morbidity is scarce. We addressed this using state of the art  
small-area statistical methods. There was no convincing evidence of  
positive linear associations with admissions.

Environmental Pollution 208, Part A, January 2016, 48–57 - read  
article  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0269749115300993)

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22) Associations of Source-Specific Fine Particulate Matter With  
Emergency Department Visits in California

Bart Ostro, Brian Malig, Sina Hasheminassab, Kimberly Berger, Emily  
Chang, Constantinos Sioutas

Overall, our results provide additional evidence of the public health  
consequences of exposure to specific sources of PM2.5 and indicate  
that some sources of PM2.5 may pose higher risks than the overall  
PM2.5 mass.

Am. J. Epidemiol. (2016) 184 (6): 450-459 - read abstract  
(http://aje.oxfordjournals.org/content/184/6/450.abstract?etoc)

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23) Is long-term exposure to traffic pollution associated with  
mortality? A small-area study in London

Jaana I. Halonen, Marta Blangiardo, Mireille B. Toledano, Daniela  
Fecht, John Gulliver, Rebecca Ghosh, H. Ross Anderson, Sean D.  
Beevers, David Dajnak, Frank J. Kelly, Paul Wilkinson, Cathryn Tonne

Evidence of association between primary traffic pollutants and  
mortality is scarce. We examined this in a large city using most  
recent small-area statistical methods. Overall, there was only weak  
evidence of positive associations with mortality.

Environmental Pollution 208, Part A, January 2016, 25–32 - read  
article  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0269749115003292)

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24) Impact of the Volkswagen emissions control defeat device on US  
public health

Steven R H Barrett, Raymond L Speth, Sebastian D Eastham, Irene C  
Dedoussi, Akshay Ashok, Robert Malina, David W Keith

Integrated over the sales period (2008–2015) we estimate that the  
excess emissions will cause 59 (95% CI: 10 to 150) early deaths in the  
US. When monetizing premature mortality using EPA-recommended data, we  
find a social cost of ~$450m over the sales period. For the current  
fleet, we estimate that a return to compliance for all affected  
vehicles by the end of 2016 will avert ~130 early deaths and avoid  
~$840m in social costs compared to a counterfactual case without recall.

Environmental Research Letters 10;11 - read article  
(http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-9326/10/11/114005)

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25) Valuing the human health damage caused by the fraud of Volkswagen

Rik Oldenkamp, Rosalie van Zelm, Mark A.J. Huijbregts

Health damages from Volkswagen's emission fraud are estimated in the  
USA and Europe. Combined health damages in the USA and Europe are  
estimated at 45 thousand DALYs. Health damages will further increase  
to 119 thousand DALYs if cars are not recalled. Combined health costs  
in the USA and Europe are estimated at 39 billion US dollars. Costs  
will further increase to 102 billion US dollars if cars are not  
recalled.

Environmental Pollution 212, May 2016, 121–127 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0269749116300537)

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26) Experimental examination of effectiveness of vegetation as  
bio-filter of particulate matters in the urban environment

Lixin Chen, Chenming Liu, Rui Zou, Mao Yang, Zhiqiang Zhang

Study of the relationship between vegetation and PM pollution is  
presented. Type of vegetation is secondary to wind field effect in  
influencing urban-scale PM pollution. Planting spaces aiding  
ventilation are crucial in roadside PM pollution control. Species  
differences are obvious but difficult to apply in practice.

Environmental Pollution 208, Part A, January 2016, 198–208 - read  
article  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0269749115300518)

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27) Effects of urban fine particulate matter and ozone on HDL functionality

Gajalakshmi Ramanathan, Fen Yin, Mary Speck, Chi-hong Tseng, Jeffrey  
R. Brook, Frances Silverman, Bruce Urch, Robert D. Brook, Jesus A.  
Araujo

Brief exposures to concentrated PM2.5 elicited swift effects on HDL  
anti-oxidant/anti-inflammatory functionality, which could indicate a  
potential mechanism for how particulate air pollution induces harmful  
cardiovascular effects.

Particle and Fibre Toxicology 2016 13:26 - read article  
(https://particleandfibretoxicology.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12989-016-0139-3)

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28) Origin of inorganic and organic components of PM2.5 in subway  
stations of Barcelona, Spain

Vânia Martins, Teresa Moreno, María Cruz Minguillón, Barend L. van  
Drooge, Cristina Reche, Fulvio Amato, Eladio de Miguel, Marta  
Capdevila, Sonia Centelles, Xavier Querol

PM2.5 concentrations varied according to stations design and seasonal  
periods. Haematite was the most abundant component of PM2.5. Organic  
compounds such as PAHs were detected in the subway stations. The  
subway contribution to ambient PM2.5 on the platforms ranged from 9 to  
58%. The chemical profile of the subway emissions varies depending on  
the station.

Environmental Pollution 208, Part A, January 2016, 125–136 - read  
article  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0269749115003371)

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29) Particle transport characteristics in the micro-environment near  
the roadway

Xinming Jin, Lijun Yang, , Xiaoze Du, Yongping Yang

Particle transport characteristics in micro-environment near roadways  
are studied. Wind speed plays a significant role in the dispersion of  
vehicle emitted particles. Noise barriers can block incoming flow and  
restrain particles from transporting. Vegetation canopies along the  
roadsides cannot confine the particle dispersion. Trees in front of  
building facade result in particle gathering near the windows.  
Increasing deposition velocity on trees and keeping windows closed are  
preferred.

Building and Environment 102, June 2016, 138–158 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0360132316301068)

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30) Tackling air pollution and extreme climate changes in China:  
Implementing the Paris climate change agreement

Ernest Tambo, Wang Duo-quan, Xiao-Nong Zhou

As the world's biggest carbon dioxide emitter, China has embarked on  
“SMART” pollution and climate changes programs and measures to reduce  
coal-fired power plants to less than 50% in the next five years  
include: new China model of energy policies commitment on CO2 and  
greenhouse gas emissions reductions to less than 20% non-fossil energy  
use by 2030 without undermining their economic growth, newly  
introduced electric vehicles transportation benefits, interactive and  
sustained air quality index (AQI) monitoring systems, decreasing  
reliance on fossil fuel economic activities, revision of energy price  
reforms and renewable energy to less energy efficient technologies  
development.

Environment International 95, October 2016, 152–156 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412016301404)

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----------------------------------------------------------

Compiler and Editor: Barbara Rimmington, Researcher, East End Quality
of Life Initiative

10 Montgomery Terrace Road

Sheffield S6 3BU

Tel. 0114 285 9931

Fax 0114 278 7173

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