[cleanairuk_news] Health Effects of Air Quality and Noise - update November 2015

contact at cleanairuk.org contact at cleanairuk.org
Sun Jan 10 16:29:45 GMT 2016


* Health Effects of Air Quality and Noise - update November 2015 *

By Barbara Rimmington, Researcher, East End Quality of Life Initiative

(Previous edition - October 2015:
http://cleanairuk.org/pipermail/news_cleanairuk.org/2016-January/000092.html)

(Index for previous issues:
http://www.cleanairuk.org/health-air-pollution.html)

*CONTENTS*

1) Residential exposure to traffic noise and risk for non-hodgkin  
lymphoma among adults

2) Lung Cancer and Exposure to Nitrogen Dioxide and Traffic: A  
Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

3) Ambient PM2.5, O3, and NO2 Exposures and Associations with  
Mortality over 16 Years of Follow-Up in the Canadian Census Health and  
Environment Cohort (CanCHEC)

4) Ambient Coarse Particulate Matter and Hospital Admissions in the  
Medicare Cohort Air Pollution Study, 1999-2010

5) Satellite-Based Estimates of Long-Term Exposure to Fine Particles  
and Association with Mortality in Elderly Hong Kong Residents

6) Spatial Variation and Land Use Regression Modeling of the Oxidative  
Potential of Fine Particles

7) Understanding the Health Impacts of Air Pollution in London
For: Transport for London and the Greater London Authority
By: Heather Walton, David Dajnak, Sean Beevers, Martin Williams, Paul  
Watkiss, Alistair Hunt

8) Association of air pollution with cognitive functions and its  
modification by APOE gene variants in elderly women

9) Association of air pollution with cognitive functions and its  
modification by APOE gene variants in elderly women

10) Comparison of four case-crossover study designs to analyze the  
association between air pollution exposure and acute myocardial  
infarction

11) Triggering of myocardial infarction by increased ambient fine  
particle concentration: Effect modification by source direction

12) Long term effects of residential NOx exposure on total and  
cause-specific mortality and incidence of myocardial infarction in a  
Swedish cohort

13) Assessing responses of cardiovascular mortality to particulate  
matter air pollution for pre-, during- and post-2008 Olympics periods

14) Does urban land-use increase risk of asthma symptoms?

15) Relationships between mild PM10 and ozone urban air levels and  
spontaneous abortion: clues for primary prevention

16) Ambient Air Pollution and Newborn Size and Adiposity at Birth:  
Differences by Maternal Ethnicity (the Born in Bradford Study Cohort)

17) Modeling spatial effects of PM2.5 on term low birth weight in Los  
Angeles County

18) Associations between exposure to ambient benzene and PM2.5 during  
pregnancy and the risk of selected birth defects in offspring

19) Association between prenatal exposure to traffic-related air  
pollution and preterm birth in the PELAGIE mother–child cohort,  
Brittany, France. Does the urban–rural context matter?

20) Urban air quality comparison for bus, tram, subway and pedestrian  
commutes in Barcelona

21) Reducing global health risks through mitigation of short-lived  
climate pollutants. Scoping report for policymakers

22) Socio-Economic Status and Inequalities in Exposure to  
Transportation Noise in Hong Kong

23) The relation between past exposure to fine particulate air  
pollution and prevalent anxiety: observational cohort study

24) Bus Rapid Transit System in Istanbul: A Success Story or Flawed  
Planning Decision?

25) TfL Euro 6 emission standard testing

26) Diesel cars have high emissions in real traffic

- o -

1) Residential exposure to traffic noise and risk for non-hodgkin  
lymphoma among adults

Mette Sørensen, Aslak Harbo Poulsen, Matthias Ketzel, Susanne Oksbjerg  
Dalton, Søren Friis, Ole Raaschou-Nielsen

Traffic noise induced sleep disturbance and stress may impair the  
immune system. Impaired immune system is a well-known risk factor for  
non-Hodgkin lymphoma. A nationwide case–control study with historical,  
residential modeling of traffic noise. We report high road traffic  
noise to be associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma risk.
Environmental Research 142, October 2015, 61–65 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935115001917)

- o -

2) Lung Cancer and Exposure to Nitrogen Dioxide and Traffic: A  
Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Ghassan B. Hamra, Francine Laden, Aaron J. Cohen, Ole  
Raaschou-Nielsen, Michael Brauer, Dana Loomis

We found consistent evidence of a relationship between NO2, as a proxy  
for traffic-sourced air pollution exposure, with lung cancer. Studies  
of lung cancer related to residential proximity to roadways and NOx  
also suggest increased risk, which may be attributable partly to air  
pollution exposure. The International Agency for Research on Cancer  
recently classified outdoor air pollution and particulate matter as  
carcinogenic (Group 1). These meta-analyses support this conclusion,  
drawing particular attention to traffic-sourced air pollution.
Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1408882 -read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1408882/)

- o -

3) Ambient PM2.5, O3, and NO2 Exposures and Associations with  
Mortality over 16 Years of Follow-Up in the Canadian Census Health and  
Environment Cohort (CanCHEC)

Dan L. Crouse, Paul A. Peters, Perry Hystad, Jeffrey R. Brook, Aaron  
van Donkelaar, Randall V. Martin, Paul J. Villeneuve, Michael Jerrett,  
Mark S. Goldberg, C. Arden Pope III, Michael Brauer, Robert D. Brook,  
Alain Robichaud, Richard Menard, Richard T. Burnett

In this large, national-level cohort, we found positive associations  
between several common causes of death and exposure to PM2.5, O3, and  
NO2.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1409276 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/14-09276/)

- o -

4) Ambient Coarse Particulate Matter and Hospital Admissions in the  
Medicare Cohort Air Pollution Study, 1999-2010

Helen Powell, Jenna R. Krall, Yun Wang, Michelle L. Bell, Roger D. Peng

We found statistically significant evidence that daily variation in  
PM10–2.5 is associated with emergency hospitalizations for  
cardiovascular diseases among Medicare enrollees ≥ 65 years of age.  
This association was robust to adjustment for concentrations of PM2.5.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1408720 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1408720/)

- o -

5) Satellite-Based Estimates of Long-Term Exposure to Fine Particles  
and Association with Mortality in Elderly Hong Kong Residents

Chit Ming Wong, Hak Kan Lai, Hilda Tsang, Thuan Quoc Thach, G. Neil  
Thomas, Kin Bong Hubert Lam, King Pan Chan, Lin Yang, Alexis K.H. Lau,  
Jon G. Ayres, Siu Yin Lee, Wai Man Chan, Anthony J. Hedley, Tai Hing Lam

Our methods in using NASA satellite data provide a readily accessible  
and affordable approach to estimation of a sufficient range of  
individual PM2.5 exposures in a single city. This approach can expand  
the capacity to conduct environmental accountability studies in areas  
with few measurements of fine particles.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1408264 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1408264/)

- o -

6) Spatial Variation and Land Use Regression Modeling of the Oxidative  
Potential of Fine Particles

Aileen Yang, Meng Wang, Marloes Eeftens, Rob Beelen, Evi Dons, Daan  
L.A.C. Leseman, Bert Brunekreef, Flemming R. Cassee, Nicole A.H.  
Janssen, Gerard Hoek

LUR models explained a large fraction of the spatial variation of the  
two OP metrics. The moderate correlations among the predictions of  
OPDTT, OPESR, and PM2.5 models offer the potential to investigate  
which metric is the strongest predictor of health effects.
Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1408916 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1408916/)

- o -

7) Understanding the Health Impacts of Air Pollution in London
For: Transport for London and the Greater London Authority
By: Heather Walton, David Dajnak, Sean Beevers, Martin Williams, Paul  
Watkiss, Alistair Hunt

The estimated economic costs of the health impacts ranged from £1.4  
billion (long-term exposure to PM2.5 and mortality; short-term  
exposure to PM2.5 and hospital admissions; short-term exposure to NO2  
and both deaths brought forward and hospital admissions) to £3.7  
billion (replacing short-term exposure to NO2 and deaths brought  
forward with long-term exposure to NO2 and mortality). Inclusion of  
other less well established health outcomes would increase the  
economic costs although this has not been estimated in this report.

Environmental Research Group, School of Biomedical Sciences, King’s  
College London, 2015, 129pp - read report  
(http://www.london.gov.uk/sites/default/files/HIAinLondon_KingsReport_14072015_final_0.pdf)

- o -

9) Association of air pollution with cognitive functions and its  
modification by APOE gene variants in elderly women

Tamara Schikowski, Mohammad Vossoughi, Andrea Vierkötter, Thomas  
Schulte, Tom Teichert, Dorothee Sugiri, Karin Fehsel, Lilian Tzivian,  
Il-seok Bae, Ulrich Ranft, Barbara Hoffmann, Nicole Probst-Hensch,  
Christian Herder, Ursula Krämer, Christian Luckhaus

Air pollution affects cognitive performance in elderly women. Air  
pollution was negatively associated with cognitive performance. The  
association with traffic load was significant in carriers of ApoE ɛ4  
risk alleles

Environmental Research 142, October 2015, Pges 10–16 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S001393511500184X)

- o -

10) Comparison of four case-crossover study designs to analyze the  
association between air pollution exposure and acute myocardial  
infarction

Philippe Collart, Yves Coppieters, Gwenaelle Mercier, Victoria  
Massamba Kubuta, Alain Leveque

The results of this study reinforce the evidence of the acute effects  
of air pollution on AMI, especially during the warm season. This study  
suggests that the different methods of case-crossover study design are  
suitable to studying the association between acute events and air  
pollution. The temperature-stratified design is useful to exclude  
temperature as a potential confounder.

International Journal of Environmental Health Research 25,6 2015  
601-613 - read abstract  
(http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/09603123.2014.1003037)

- o -

11) Triggering of myocardial infarction by increased ambient fine  
particle concentration: Effect modification by source direction

Philip K. Hopke, Cathleen Kane, Mark J. Utell, David C. Chalupa,  
Pramod Kumar, Frederick Ling, Blake Gardner, David Q. Rich

Evaluated if PM2.5/STEMI association was modified by cardinal wind  
direction. Wind arriving from WSW significantly increased the  
PM2.5/STEMI association. No other direction modified the effect of  
PM2.5 on inducing a STEMI. The WSW direction is associated with  
emissions that may form secondary PM.

Environmental Research 142, October 2015, 374–379 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935115300098)

- o -

12) Long term effects of residential NOx exposure on total and  
cause-specific mortality and incidence of myocardial infarction in a  
Swedish cohort

Leo Stockfelt, Eva M. Andersson, Peter Molnár, Annika Rosengren, Lars  
Wilhelmsen, Gerd Sallsten, Lars Barregard

We have studied the effects of long term residential NOx exposure over  
35 years. Effects for different exposure time windows have been  
compared. Air quality improved substantially over the study period.  
Long term residential NOx exposure was associated with increased  
all-cause mortality. Effects were similar for last year’s NOx exposure  
and longer exposure windows.

Environmental Research 142, October 2015, 197–206 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935115300190)

- o -

13) Assessing responses of cardiovascular mortality to particulate  
matter air pollution for pre-, during- and post-2008 Olympics periods

Chang Su, Regina Hampel, Ulrich Franck, Alfred Wiedensohler, Josef  
Cyrys, Xiaochuan Pan, H-Erich Wichmann, Annette Peters, Alexandra  
Schneider, Susanne Breitner

Adverse effects of air pollutants on CVD mortality for lag 1 and 5-day  
average. Stronger effects in females, the elderly and for  
cerebrovascular mortality. All measured air pollutants strongly  
decreased during 2008 Beijing Olympics. Decreased air pollution during  
Olympics led to a risk reduction for CVD mortality. Even short air  
pollution reduction measures can quickly lead to health benefits.
Environmental Research 142, October 2015, 112–122 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935115002005)

- o -

14) Does urban land-use increase risk of asthma symptoms?

Ji-Young Son, Ho Kim, Michelle L. Bell

Urban land-use was significantly associated with asthma symptoms and  
diagnosis. Increased urbanicity showed higher risk for those with  
baseline of low urbanicity. Findings confirmed associations between  
traffic-related air pollutants and asthma.

Environmental Research 142, October 2015, 309–318 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935115300153)

- o -

15) Relationships between mild PM10 and ozone urban air levels and  
spontaneous abortion: clues for primary prevention

Agostino Di Ciaula, Massimo Bilancia

The study found spontaneous abortion occurrence is affected by PM10  
(particularly if industrial areas are present) and ozone  
concentrations, also at levels below the legal limits. Thus, SAB might  
be considered, at least in part, a preventable condition.

International Journal of Environmental Health Research 25,6 2015  
640-655 - read abstract  
(http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/09603123.2014.1003041)

- o -

16) Ambient Air Pollution and Newborn Size and Adiposity at Birth:  
Differences by Maternal Ethnicity (the Born in Bradford Study Cohort)

Anna Schembari, Kees de Hoogh, Marie Pedersen, Payam Dadvand, David  
Martinez, Gerard Hoek, Emily S. Petherick, John Wright, Mark J.  
Nieuwenhuijsen

Our results suggest that associations of ambient PM exposures with  
newborn size and adiposity differ between white British and Pakistani  
origin infants.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1408675 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1408675/)

- o -

17) Modeling spatial effects of PM2.5 on term low birth weight in Los  
Angeles County

Eric Coker, Jokay Ghosh, Michael Jerrett, Virgilio Gomez-Rubio,  
Bernardo Beckerman, Myles Cockburn, Silvia Liverani, Jason Su, Arthur  
Li, Molly L Kile, Beate Ritz, John Molitor

We model the spatial dependency of PM2.5 effects on term low birth  
weight (TLBW). PM2.5 effects on TLBW are shown to vary spatially  
across urban LA County. Modeling spatial dependency of PM2.5 health  
effects may identify effect 'hotspots'. Birth outcomes studies should  
consider the spatial dependency of PM2.5 effects.

Environmental Research 142, October 2015, 354–364 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935115300207)

- o -

18) Associations between exposure to ambient benzene and PM2.5 during  
pregnancy and the risk of selected birth defects in offspring

Jean Paul Tanner, Jason L. Salemi, Amy L. Stuart, Haofei Yu, Melissa  
M. Jordan, Chris DuClos, Philip Cavicchia, Jane A. Correia, Sharon M.  
Watkins, Russell S. Kirby

We investigate the risk of birth defects following exposure to benzene  
and PM2.5. Overall all analyses, we found little evidence of  
associations. High levels of PM2.5 were associated with an increased  
risk of selected heart defects. High levels of benzene were associated  
with an increased risk cleft palate alone.

Environmental Research 142, October 2015, 345–353 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S001393511530027X)

- o -

19) Association between prenatal exposure to traffic-related air  
pollution and preterm birth in the PELAGIE mother–child cohort,  
Brittany, France. Does the urban–rural context matter?

Mélanie Bertin, Cécile Chevrier, Tania Serrano, Christine Monfort,  
Florence Rouget, Sylvaine Cordier, Jean-François Viel

Exposure to air pollution during pregnancy may influence preterm birth  
(PTB). An increased risk was found with NO2 exposure among women  
living in urban areas. Statistically significant risk of PTB was shown  
for NO2 concentrations ≥16.4 µg/m3. No association was observed among  
women living in rural counterparts. Pollutant mixture and psychosocial  
factors may explain this urban/rural difference.

Environmental Research 142, October 2015, 17–24 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935115001802)

- o -

20) Urban air quality comparison for bus, tram, subway and pedestrian  
commutes in Barcelona

Teresa Moreno, Cristina Reche, Ioar Rivas, Maria Cruz Minguillón,  
Vânia Martins, Concepción Vargas, Giorgio Buonanno, Jesus Parga, Marco  
Pandolfi, Mariola Brines, Marina Ealo, Ana Sofia Fonseca, Fulvio  
Amato, Garay Sosa, Marta Capdevila, Eladio de Miguel, Xavier Querol,  
Wes Gibbons

Big differences in the aerosols inhaled in bus, subway, tram and  
walking journeys. Particle number concentration is lowest in subway  
trains and highest in diesel bus. City centre traffic crossings show  
particle transient peaks >1×105 part./cm3. Tram is the cleanest form  
of city public transport when compared to bus and subway. Subway  
particles are rich in Fe–Mn, and diesel bus particles are richer in  
Sb–Cu.

Environmental Research 142, October 2015, 495–510 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935115300426)

- o -

21) Reducing global health risks through mitigation of short-lived  
climate pollutants. Scoping report for policymakers

Noah Scovronick

Short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs), including black carbon,  
methane, and ozone, are responsible for a substantial fraction of  
climate change as well as for a significant proportion of  
air-pollution related deaths and diseases that kill some 7 million  
people per year.

Reducing emissions of SLCPs can provide health benefits in three key ways:

* directly from reduced air pollution and related ill-health;
* indirectly from reduced ozone and black carbon effects on extreme  
weather and agricultural production (affecting food security);
* and from other types of health benefits that are not associated with  
air pollution but may accrue as a result of certain SLCP mitigation  
actions, such as improved diets or more opportunities for safe active  
travel and physical activity.

World Health Organization, 2015, 148pp - read report  
(http://www.who.int/phe/publications/climate-reducing-health-risks/en/)

- o -

22) Socio-Economic Status and Inequalities in Exposure to  
Transportation Noise in Hong Kong

Kin-che Lam, Pak-Kin Chan

The results provide evidence for environmental inequality in Hong  
Kong, showing that noise exposure is weakly but significantly  
correlated to education attainment and income. Significant differences  
in socio-economic indicators are also observed among residents of  
different housing types associated with different time periods.  
Residents less exposed to road traffic noise are generally in newer  
buildings, wealthier and better educated.

Open Environmental Sciences Journal, 2008, 2: 107-113 - read article  
(http://benthamopen.com/contents/pdf/TOENVIRJ/TOENVIRJ-2-107.pdf)

- o -

23) The relation between past exposure to fine particulate air  
pollution and prevalent anxiety: observational cohort study

Melinda C Power, Marianthi-Anna Kioumourtzoglou, Jaime E Hart, Olivia  
I Okereke, Francine Laden, Marc G Weisskopf

Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) was associated with high  
symptoms of anxiety, with more recent exposures potentially more  
relevant than more distant exposures. Research evaluating whether  
reductions in exposure to ambient PM2.5 would reduce the population  
level burden of clinically relevant symptoms of anxiety is warranted.
BMJ 2015;350:h1111 - read article (http://www.bmj.com/content/350/bmj.h1111)

- o -

24) Bus Rapid Transit System in Istanbul: A Success Story or Flawed  
Planning Decision?

Ela Babalik-Sutcliffe, Elif Can Cengiz

The analysis confirms the success of the system in terms of passenger  
statistics, but also highlights a number of problems in certain  
planning decisions that should be addressed, thus taking the  
discussion beyond a simplified comparison of bus and rail technologies.
Transport Reviews 35,6 2015 792-813 - read abstract (http://

www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/01441647.2015.1059381)

- o -

25) TfL Euro 6 emission standard testing

As part of our efforts to develop the Ultra Low Emission Zone, TfL  
have tested the effectiveness of Euro 6/VI vehicle emissions behaviour  
in ‘real-life’ on a number of cars and goods vehicles. Testing was  
undertaken using a set of laboratory drive cycles that mimic the  
velocities and accelerations of vehicles in urban driving conditions.

Transport for London 2015 - read report  
(https://www.london.gov.uk/priorities/environment/clearing-londons-air/euro-6-emissions)

- o -

26) Diesel cars have high emissions in real traffic

Emission measurements conducted by TØI in in collaboration with VTT in  
Finland show that new Euro 6 cars with diesel engines are struggling  
with too high NOx emissions in real traffic. After Volkswagen has  
admitted cheating in emission tests in the United States by making its  
cars appear more environmentally friendly than they are, our study is  
no less relevant for a European context.

Institute of Transport Economics, Norwegian Centre for Transport  
Research - read English summaries  
(https://www.toi.no/environment-and-climate/diesel-cars-have-high-emissions-in-real-traffic-article33388-1314.html)

- o -

----------------------------------------------------------

Compiler and Editor: Barbara Rimmington, Researcher, East End Quality
of Life Initiative

10 Montgomery Terrace Road

Sheffield S6 3BU

Tel. 0114 285 9931

Fax 0114 278 7173

Visit our blog / archive (https://sheffieldeastend.wordpress.com/)  We  
have started setting up an archive of our website (for the day when we  
are no longer actively updating it). The advantage of the blog site is  
that there is a search facility on it, so if you are looking for  
anything to do with Darnall, for example, just put this in the search  
terms and it will come up with everything there is so far. The old  
Newsletters and Reports are there already; the rest will follow as  
time allows.

Facebook https://www.facebook.com/barbara.rimmington.3

Twitter (https://www.twitter.com/b_rimm/)

Website (http://www.sheffieldeastend.org.uk/index.htm)

============================================================





More information about the news mailing list