[cleanairuk_news] Health Effects of Air Quality and Noise - update October 2015

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* Health Effects of Air Quality and Noise - update October 2015 *

By Barbara Rimmington, Researcher, East End Quality of Life Initiative

(Previous edition - September 2015:
http://cleanairuk.org/pipermail/news_cleanairuk.org/2015-October/000091.html)

(Index for previous issues:
http://www.cleanairuk.org/health-air-pollution.html)

*CONTENTS*

1) Health impact assessment of traffic noise in Madrid (Spain)

2) Prenatal exposure to common environmental factors affects brain  
lipids and increases risk of developing autism spectrum disorder

3) Long-term effects of elemental composition of particulate matter on  
inflammatory blood markers in European cohorts

4) Has reducing fine particulate matter and ozone caused reduced  
mortality rates in the United States?

5) Associations between prenatal traffic-related air pollution  
exposure and birth weight: Modification by sex and maternal  
pre-pregnancy body mass index

6) Common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.): allergenicity and  
molecular characterization of pollen after plant exposure to elevated  
NO2

7) Exposure to Elemental Carbon, Organic Carbon, Nitrate, and Sulfate  
Fractions of Fine Particulate Matter and Risk of Preterm Birth in New  
Jersey, Ohio, and Pennsylvania (2000–2005)

8) Residential Proximity to Heavy-Traffic Roads, Benzene Exposure, and  
Childhood Leukemia—The GEOCAP Study, 2002–2007

9) Estimating Causal Associations of Fine Particles With Daily Deaths  
in Boston

10) Environmental pollution, health, and development: a Lancet–Global  
Alliance on Health and Pollution–Icahn School of Medicine at Mount  
Sinai Commission

11) Developing communication methods for localised air quality and  
health impact information - AQ1010

- o -

1) Health impact assessment of traffic noise in Madrid (Spain)

Aurelio Tobías, Alberto Recio, Julio Díaz, Cristina Linares

The results obtained tend to question the WHO health protection  
threshold values. This study highlights the importance of traffic  
noise to the health in large cities. These results serve to highlight  
the need to implement noise-abatement measures.

Environmental Research 137, February 2015, 136–140 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935114004629)

- o -

2) Prenatal exposure to common environmental factors affects brain  
lipids and increases risk of developing autism spectrum disorders

Christine T. Wong, Joshua Wais, Dorota A. Crawford

The first comprehensive summary of other environmental factors, such  
as exposure to chemicals in air pollution, pesticides and consumer  
products, which can also disturb PGE2 signaling and increase the risk  
for developing ASDs is provided. Also, how these exogenous agents are  
capable of crossing the protective barriers of the brain during  
critical developmental periods when barrier components are still   
being formed is described. This review underlines the importance of  
avoiding or limiting exposure to these factors during vulnerable  
periods in development.

European Journal of Neuroscience DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13028 - read  
abstract (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ejn.13028/abstract)

- o -

3) Long-term effects of elemental composition of particulate matter on  
inflammatory blood markers in European cohorts

Regina Hampel, Annette Peters, Rob Beelen, Bert Brunekreef, Josef  
Cyrys, Ulf de Faire, Kees de Hoogh, Kateryna Fuks, Barbara Hoffmann,  
Anke Hüls, Medea Imboden, Aleksandra Jedynska, Ingeborg Kooter,  
Wolfgang Koenig, Nino Künzli, Karin Leander, Patrik Magnusson, Satu  
Männistö, Johanna Penell, Göran Pershagen, Harish Phuleria, Nicole  
Probst-Hensch, Noreen Pundt, Emmanuel Schaffner, Tamara Schikowski,  
Dorothea Sugiri, Pekka Tiittanen, Ming-Yi Tsai, Meng Wang, Kathrin Wolf

Long-term exposure to transition metals within ambient particulate  
matter, originating from traffic and industry, may be related to  
chronic systemic inflammation providing a link to long-term health  
effects of particulate matter.

Environment International 82, September 2015, 76–84 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412015001233)

- o -

4) Has reducing fine particulate matter and ozone caused reduced  
mortality rates in the United States?

Louis Anthony (Tony) Coxl, Douglas A. Popken

These findings suggest that predicted substantial human longevity  
benefits resulting from reducing PM2.5 and O3 may not occur or may be  
smaller than previously estimated. Our results highlight the potential  
for heterogeneity in air pollution health effects across regions, and  
the high potential value of accountability research comparing  
model-based predictions of health benefits from reducing air  
pollutants to historical records of what actually occurred.

Annals of Epidemiology March 2015 25,3, 162–173 - read abstract  
(http://www.annalsofepidemiology.org/article/S1047-2797(14)00507-9/abstract)

- o -

5) Associations between prenatal traffic-related air pollution  
exposure and birth weight: Modification by sex and maternal  
pre-pregnancy body mass index

Ashwini Lakshmanan, Yueh-Hsiu Mathilda Chiu, Brent A. Coull, Allan C.  
Just, Sarah L. Maxwell, Joel Schwartz, Alexandros Gryparis, Itai  
Kloog, Rosalind J. Wright, Robert O. Wright

Prenatal air pollution and birth weight association may vary by sex  
and maternal BMI. Boys born to obese mothers may be particularly  
vulnerable. We modeled air pollution with satellite-based and land-use  
regression models. Results were robust for PM2.5 and black carbon  
exposure measures.

Environmental Research 137, February 2015, 268–277 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935114004009)

- o -

6) Common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.): allergenicity and  
molecular characterization of pollen after plant exposure to elevated  
NO2

Feng Zhao, Amr Elkelish, Jörg Durner, Christian Lindermayr, J. Barbro  
Winkler, Franziska Ruёff, Heidrun Behrendt, Claudia Traidl-Hoffmann,  
Andreas Holzinger, Werner Kofler, Paula Braun, Christine von Toerne,  
Stefanie M. Hauck, Dieter Ernst, Ulrike Frank
The data highlight a direct influence of elevated NO2 on the increased  
allergenicity of ragweed pollen and a direct correlation with an  
increased risk for human health.

Plant, Cell & Environment 19 SEP 2015, DOI: 10.1111/pce.12601 - read  
abstract  
(http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/wol1/doi/10.1111/pce.12601/abstract)

Prenatal and Childhood Traffic-Related Pollution Exposure and  
Childhood Cognition in the Project Viva Cohort (Massachusetts, USA)
Maria H. Harris, Diane R. Gold, Sheryl L. Rifas-Shiman, Steven J.  
Melly, Antonella Zanobetti, Brent A. Coull, Joel D. Schwartz  
Alexandros Gryparis, Itai Kloog, Petros Koutrakis, David C. Bellinger,  
Roberta F. White, Sharon K. Sagiv, Emily Oken
Residential proximity to major roadways during gestation and early  
life may affect cognitive development. Influences of pollutants and  
socioeconomic conditions on cognition may be difficult to disentangle.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1408803 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1408803/)

- o -

7) Exposure to Elemental Carbon, Organic Carbon, Nitrate, and Sulfate  
Fractions of Fine Particulate Matter and Risk of Preterm Birth in New  
Jersey, Ohio, and Pennsylvania (2000–2005)

Kristen M. Rappazzo, Julie L. Daniels, Lynne C. Messer, Charles Poole,  
Danelle T. Lobdell

Particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) has been  
consistently associated with preterm birth (PTB) to varying degrees,  
but roles of PM2.5 species have been less studied. EC and SO4 may  
contribute to associations between PM2.5 and PTB. Associations varied  
according to the timing of exposure and the timing of PTB.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1408953 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1408953/)

- o -

8) Residential Proximity to Heavy-Traffic Roads, Benzene Exposure, and  
Childhood Leukemia—The GEOCAP Study, 2002–2007

Jennifer Houot, Fabienne Marquant, Stéphanie Goujon, Laure Faure,  
Cécile Honoré, Marie-Hélène Roth, Denis Hémon, Jacqueline Clavel

These results, which were free from any participation bias and based  
on objectively determined indices of exposure, showed an increased  
incidence of acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) associated with  
heavy-traffic road density near a child's home. The results support a  
role for traffic-related benzene exposure in the etiology of childhood  
AML.

Am. J. Epidemiol (2015) 182 (8): 685-693 - read abstract  
(http://aje.oxfordjournals.org/content/182/8/685.abstract?etoc)

- o -

9) Estimating Causal Associations of Fine Particles With Daily Deaths  
in Boston

Joel Schwartz, Elena Austin, Marie-Abele Bind, Antonella Zanobetti,  
Petros Koutrakis

We found a causal association of PM2.5 with mortality, with a 0.53% to  
0.50% increase in daily deaths using the instrumental variable and the  
propensity score, respectively. We failed to reject the null  
association with exposure after the deaths (P =0.93). Given these  
results, prior studies, and extensive toxicological support, the  
association between PM2.5 and deaths is almost certainly causal.

Am. J. Epidemiol. (2015) 182 (7): 644-650 - read abstract  
(http://aje.oxfordjournals.org/content/182/7/644.abstract?etoc)

- o -

10) Environmental pollution, health, and development: a Lancet–Global  
Alliance on Health and Pollution–Icahn School of Medicine at Mount  
Sinai Commission

Philip J Landriganemail, Richard Fuller, Richard Horton

WHO estimates that, in 2012, household air pollution caused 4·3  
million deaths, ambient air pollution caused 3·7 million deaths, and  
unsafe water, poor sanitation, and inadequate hygiene caused 842 000  
deaths. Contaminated soil at active and abandoned mines, smelters,  
industrial facilities, and hazardous waste sites has killed tens of  
thousands of people and injured hundreds of thousands more. By  
contrast, HIV/AIDS causes 1·5 million deaths per year, tuberculosis  
1·2 million deaths per year, and malaria fewer than 1 million deaths  
per year.

The Lancet DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(15)00426-2 - read  
article  
(http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(15)00426-2/fulltext)

- o -

11) Developing communication methods for localised air quality and  
health impact information - AQ1010

Links from this page  
(http://randd.defra.gov.uk/Default.aspx?Menu=Menu&Module=More&Location=None&Completed=0&ProjectID=18580) to various reports; several community groups took part in this research (but we weren't informed that the report had come  
out!)

- o -

----------------------------------------------------------

Compiler and Editor: Barbara Rimmington, Researcher, East End Quality
of Life Initiative

10 Montgomery Terrace Road

Sheffield S6 3BU

Tel. 0114 285 9931

Fax 0114 278 7173

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