[cleanairuk_news] Health Effects of Air Quality and Noise - update January 2016

contact at cleanairuk.org contact at cleanairuk.org
Fri Feb 5 19:33:08 GMT 2016


* Health Effects of Air Quality and Noise - update January 2016 *

By Barbara Rimmington, Researcher, East End Quality of Life Initiative

(Previous edition - December 2015:
http://cleanairuk.org/pipermail/news_cleanairuk.org/2016-January/000094.html)

(Index for previous issues:
http://www.cleanairuk.org/health-air-pollution.html)

*CONTENTS*

1) Human health effects of air pollution

2) Short-term metal particulate exposures decrease cardiac  
acceleration and deceleration capacities in welders: a  
repeated-measures panel study

3) Long-term exposure to diesel engine exhaust induces primary DNA  
damage: a population-based study

4) Low-Concentration PM2.5 and Mortality: Estimating Acute and Chronic  
Effects in a Population-Based Study

5) Vehicular Traffic–Related Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Exposure  
and Breast Cancer Incidence: The Long Island Breast Cancer Study  
Project (LIBCSP)

6) Long-term PM2.5 Exposure and Neurological Hospital Admissions in  
the Northeastern United States

7) Does Exposure to Traffic Affect Mechanisms of Vascular Injury and Repair?

8) Residential Proximity to Major Roadways Is Associated With  
Increased Levels of AC133+ Circulating Angiogenic Cells

9) Reduction personal exposure to black carbon during commuting in  
London - A feasibility study

10) Short term effect of air pollution, noise and heat waves on  
preterm births in Madrid (Spain)

11) Effects of particulate matter exposure on multiple sclerosis  
hospital admission in Lombardy region, Italy

12) Association between satellite-based estimates of long-term PM2.5  
exposure and coronary artery disease

13) A CFD study on the effectiveness of trees to disperse road traffic  
emissions at a city scale

14) Cycling as a Part of Daily Life: A Review of Health Perspectives

15) Weeding Out Risk Factors? Study Reports No Association between  
Prenatal Air Pollution and Autism

16) Air Pollution Exposure during Pregnancy and Childhood Autistic  
Traits in Four European Population-Based Cohort Studies: The ESCAPE  
Project

17) Elemental Constituents of Particulate Matter and Newborn’s Size in  
Eight European Cohorts

18) The Effects of Diesel Exhaust Pollution on Floral Volatiles and  
the Consequences for Honey Bee Olfaction

19) Beyond a One-Time Scandal: Europe’s Ongoing Diesel Pollution Proble

20) What Can Epidemiological Studies Tell Us about the Impact of  
Chemical Mixtures on Human Health?

- o -

1) Human health effects of air pollution

Marilena Kampa , Elias Castanas

Air pollution has both acute and chronic effects on human health,  
affecting a number of different systems and organs. It ranges from  
minor upper respiratory irritation to chronic respiratory and heart  
disease, lung cancer, acute respiratory infections in children and  
chronic bronchitis in adults, aggravating pre-existing heart and lung  
disease, or asthmatic attacks. In addition, short- and long-term  
exposures have also been linked with premature mortality and reduced  
life expectancy.

Environmental Pollution 151,2 January 2008, 362–367 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0269749107002849)

- o -

2) Short-term metal particulate exposures decrease cardiac  
acceleration and deceleration capacities in welders: a  
repeated-measures panel study

Peter E Umukoro, Jennifer M Cavallari, Shona C Fang, Chensheng Lu,  
Xihong Lin, Murray A Mittleman, David C Christiani

Acceleration (AC) and deceleration (DC) capacities measure heart rate  
variability during speeding up and slowing down of the heart,  
respectively. We investigated associations between AC and DC with  
occupational short-term metal PM2.5 exposures. There are short-term  
effects of metal particulates on AC and DC.

Occup Environ Med 2016;73:91-96 - read article  
(http://oem.bmj.com/content/73/2/91.full)

- o -

3) Long-term exposure to diesel engine exhaust induces primary DNA  
damage: a population-based study

Huawei Duan, Xiaowei Jia, Qingfeng Zhai, Lu Ma, Shan Wang, Chuanfeng  
Huang, Haisheng Wang, Yong Niu, Xue Li, Yufei Dai, Shanfa Yu, Weimin  
Gao, Wen Chen, Yuxin Zheng

These findings suggest that Diesel engine exhaust (DEE) exposure  
mainly induces DNA damage, which might be used as an early biomarker  
for risk assessment of DEE exposure.

Occup Environ Med 2016;73:83-90 - read abstract  
(http://oem.bmj.com/content/73/2/83.abstract?etoc)

- o -

4) Low-Concentration PM2.5 and Mortality: Estimating Acute and Chronic  
Effects in a Population-Based Study

Liuhua Shi, Antonella Zanobetti, Itai Kloog, Brent A. Coull, Petros  
Koutrakis, Steven J. Melly, Joel D. Schwartz

Using a mutually adjusted model, we estimated significant acute and  
chronic effects of PM2.5 exposure below the current U.S. EPA  
standards. These findings suggest that improving air quality with even  
lower PM2.5 than currently allowed by U.S. EPA standards may benefit  
public health.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1409111 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1409111/)

- o -

5) Vehicular Traffic–Related Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Exposure  
and Breast Cancer Incidence: The Long Island Breast Cancer Study  
Project (LIBCSP)

Irina Mordukhovich, Jan Beyea, Amy H. Herring, Maureen Hatch, Steven  
D. Stellman, Susan L. Teitelbaum, David B. Richardson, Robert C.  
Millikan, Lawrence S. Engel, Sumitra Shantakumar, Susan E. Steck,  
Alfred I. Neugut, Pavel Rossner Jr., Regina M. Santella, Marilie D.  
Gammon

In our population-based study, we observed positive associations  
between vehicular traffic-related B[a]P exposure and breast cancer  
incidence among women with comparatively high long-term traffic B[a]P  
exposures, although effect estimates were imprecise.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1307736 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1307736/)

- o -

6) Long-term PM2.5 Exposure and Neurological Hospital Admissions in  
the Northeastern United States

Marianthi-Anna Kioumourtzoglou, Joel D. Schwartz, Marc G. Weisskopf,  
Steven J. Melly, Yun Wang, Francesca Dominici, Antonella Zanobetti

To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the relationship  
between long-term exposure to PM2.5 and time to first hospitalization  
for common neurodegenerative diseases. We found strong evidence of  
association for all three outcomes. Our findings provide the basis for  
further studies, as the implications of such exposures could be  
crucial to public health.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1408973 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1408973/)

- o -

7) Does Exposure to Traffic Affect Mechanisms of Vascular Injury and Repair?

Mark R. Miller, Nicholas L. Mills, David E. Newby

Estimates of the health effects of air pollution are alarming, with up  
to 7 million attributable deaths worldwide each year.1–3 Although the  
pulmonary effects of air pollution are widely recognized, it is only  
in the last few decades that the adverse cardiovascular effects of air  
pollution have become apparent. Exposures to diesel exhaust, a  
prominent source of urban air pollution and a pollutant rich in  
combustion-derived nanoparticles, has multiple detrimental actions on  
the cardiovascular system.

Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology 2015; 35: 2266-2268  
- read editorial (http://atvb.ahajournals.org/content/35/11/2266.full)

- o -

8) Residential Proximity to Major Roadways Is Associated With  
Increased Levels of AC133+ Circulating Angiogenic Cells

Natasha DeJarnett, Ray Yeager, Daniel J. Conklin, Jongmin Lee, Timothy  
E. O’Toole, James McCracken, Wes Abplanalp, Sanjay Srivastava, Daniel  
W. Riggs, Ihab Hamzeh, Stephen Wagner, Atul Chugh, Andrew DeFilippis,  
Tiffany Ciszewski, Brad Wyatt, Carrie Becher, Deirdre Higdon, Kenneth  
S. Ramos, David J. Tollerud, John A. Myers, Shesh N. Rai, Jasmit Shah,  
Nagma Zafar, Sathya S. Krishnasamy, Sumanth D. Prabhu, Aruni Bhatnagar

Living close to a major roadway is associated with elevated levels of  
circulating cells positive for the early stem marker AC133+. This may  
reflect an increased need for vascular repair. Levels of these cells  
in peripheral blood may be a sensitive index of cardiovascular injury  
because of residential proximity to roadways.

Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology 2015; 35: 2468-2477  
- read abstract (http://atvb.ahajournals.org/content/35/11/2468)

- o -

9) Reduction personal exposure to black carbon during commuting in  
London - A feasibility study

Lee Koh, Abigail Whitehouse, Jonathan Grigg

There was no significant difference in mean exposure between the main  
road and Walkit routes. However, there was a significant difference  
between the routes for exposure to BC peaks >10,000 ng/m3.

European Respiratory Journal 46 Issue 59 doi  
10.1183/13993003.congress-2015.PA4090  1 September 2015 - read  
abstract (http://erj.ersjournals.com/content/46/suppl_59/PA4090)

- o -

10) Short term effect of air pollution, noise and heat waves on  
preterm births in Madrid (Spain)

Virginia Arroyo, Julio Díaz, Cristina Ortiz, Rocío Carmona, Marc Sáez,  
Cristina Linares

Epidemiologic studies show elevated risks of PTB with environmental  
variables. A time-series analysis was performed to assess the short  
term impact. PM2.5 and heat waves at lag 1 and noise at lag 0 are  
influencing PTB. Exists an acute effect on PTB of the environmental  
variables analyzed.

Environmental Research 145, February 2016, 162–168 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935115301626)

- o -

11) Effects of particulate matter exposure on multiple sclerosis  
hospital admission in Lombardy region, Italy

Laura Angelici, Mirko Piola, Tommaso Cavalleri, Giorgia Randi,  
Francesca Cortini, Roberto Bergamaschi, Andrea A Baccarelli, Pier  
Alberto Bertazzi, Angela Cecilia Pesatori, Valentina Bollati

We investigated the association between exposure to PM10 and risk of  
MS hospitalization. Increasing in PM10 exposure was associated with  
higher RR of hospitalization for MS. The maximum effect was found for  
Pm10 exposure between days 0 and 7. Air pollution may have a role in  
determining MS occurrence and relapses.

Environmental Research 145, February 2016, 68–73 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935115301456)

- o -

12) Association between satellite-based estimates of long-term PM2.5  
exposure and coronary artery disease

Laura A. McGuinn, Cavin K. Ward-Caviness, Lucas M. Neas, Alexandra  
Schneider, David Diaz-Sanchez, Wayne E. Cascio, William E. Kraus,  
Elizabeth Hauser, Elaine Dowdy, Carol Haynes, Alexandra Chudnovsky,  
Petros Koutrakis, Robert B. Devlin

Satellite-based estimates of long-term PM2.5 exposure were associated  
with both coronary artery disease (CAD) and incidence of myocardial  
infarction (MI) in a cohort of cardiac catheterization patients.

Environmental Research 145, February 2016, 9–17 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935115301249)

- o -

13) A CFD study on the effectiveness of trees to disperse road traffic  
emissions at a city scale

A.P.R. Jeanjean, G. Hinchliffe, W.A. McMullan, P.S. Monks, R.J. Leigh

We model the effectiveness of trees at dispersing road traffic  
emissions. City scale CFD simulations were performed under the  
OpenFOAM software. Trees increase turbulence and vertical velocity at  
pedestrian height. Trees reduce concentrations of road traffic  
emissions by 7% at pedestrian height. We propose combining local and  
regional scales for planting trees in city planning.

Atmospheric Environment 120, November 2015, 1–14 - read article  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S135223101530248X)

- o -

14) Cycling as a Part of Daily Life: A Review of Health Perspectives

Thomas Götschi, Jan Garrard, Billie Giles-Corti

Based on a large body of evidence, planners, health professionals, and  
decision-makers can rest assured that benefits from cycling-related  
physical activity are worth pursuing. Safety improvements should be  
part of the efforts to promote cycling, both to minimize negative  
impacts and to lower barriers to cycling for potential riders.

Transport Reviews 36,1, 2016 Special Issue: Cycling As Transport 45-71  
- read article  
(http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/01441647.2015.1057877)

- o -

15) Weeding Out Risk Factors? Study Reports No Association between  
Prenatal Air Pollution and Autism

Wendee Nicole

The study examines the issue of air pollution and autism in a new  
approach—looking at autistic traits in prospective cohorts of children  
enrolled at birth.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.124-A23 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/124-A23/)

- o -

16) Air Pollution Exposure during Pregnancy and Childhood Autistic  
Traits in Four European Population-Based Cohort Studies: The ESCAPE  
Project

Mònica Guxens, Akhgar Ghassabian, Tong Gong, Raquel Garcia-Esteban,  
Daniela Porta, Lise Giorgis-Allemand, Catarina Almqvist, Aritz  
Aranbarri, Rob Beelen, Chiara Badaloni, Giulia Cesaroni, Audrey de  
Nazelle, Marisa Estarlich, Francesco Forastiere, Joan Forns, Ulrike  
Gehring, Jesús Ibarluzea, Vincent W.V. Jaddoe, Michal Korek, Paul  
Lichtenstein, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen, Marisa Rebagliato, Rémy Slama,  
Henning Tiemeier, Frank C. Verhulst, Heather E. Volk, Göran Pershagen,  
Bert Brunekreef, Jordi Sunyer

Prenatal exposure to NO2 and PM was not associated with autistic  
traits in children from 4 to 10 years of age in four European  
population-based birth/child cohort studies.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1408483 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1408483/)

- o -

17) Elemental Constituents of Particulate Matter and Newborn’s Size in  
Eight European Cohorts

Marie Pedersen, Ulrike Gehring, Rob Beelen, Meng Wang, Lise  
Giorgis-Allemand, Anne-Marie Nybo Andersen, Xavier Basagaña, Claire  
Bernard, Marta Cirach, Francesco Forastiere, Kees de Hoogh, Regina  
Gražulevičvienė, Olena Gruzieva, Gerard Hoek, Aleksandra Jedynska,  
Claudia Klümper, Ingeborg M. Kooter, Ursula Krämer, Jaakko Kukkonen,  
Daniela Porta, Dirkje S. Postma, Ole Raaschou-Nielsen, Lenie van  
Rossem, Jordi Sunyer, Mette Sørensen, Ming-Yi Tsai, Tanja G. M.  
Vrijkotte, Michael Wilhelm, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen, Göran Pershagen,  
Bert Brunekreef, Manolis Kogevinas, Rémy Slama

Sulfur, reflecting secondary combustion particles in this study, may  
adversely affect LBW and head circumference, independently of particle  
mass.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1409546 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1409546/)

- o -

18) The Effects of Diesel Exhaust Pollution on Floral Volatiles and  
the Consequences for Honey Bee Olfaction

Inka Lusebrink , Robbie D. Girling, Emily Farthing, Tracey A. Newman,  
Chris W. Jackson, Guy M. Poppy

The chemically reactive nitrogen oxides fraction of diesel exhaust gas  
was identified as capable of causing degradation of floral volatiles.

Journal of Chemical Ecology October 2015, 41.10, 904-912 - read  
abstract (http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10886-015-0624-4)

- o -

19) Beyond a One-Time Scandal: Europe’s Ongoing Diesel Pollution Problem

Charles W. Schmidt

A November 2015 report by the European Environment Agency (EEA)  
estimated that 8–12% of Europe’s population is exposed to levels of  
NO2 that exceed the World Health Organization’s air quality guideline  
of 40 µg/m. The highest levels were measured near highways, where  
diesel vehicles contribute about 80% of traffic-related NOx emissions.  
Diesel exhaust is also associated with other air pollutants. Among  
them are ground-level ozone (O3), which forms when NO2 molecules  
interact with oxygen in the presence of sunlight, and fine sooty  
particulates measuring 2.5 µm or less (PM2.5) in the exhaust stream.  
These pollutants can travel deep into the lungs and elevate risks for  
DNA damage, heart attacks, and premature death.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.124-A19 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/124-A19/)

- o -

20) What Can Epidemiological Studies Tell Us about the Impact of  
Chemical Mixtures on Human Health?

Joseph M. Braun, Chris Gennings, Russ Hauser, Thomas F. Webster

By defining the types of research questions related to chemical  
mixtures that epidemiological studies can address, we hope to identify  
the gaps in our knowledge and develop or apply appropriate statistical  
methods that accurately quantify the impact of chemical mixtures on  
human health. In this article, we have chosen to focus on  
environmental chemicals, but the three questions we describe naturally  
extend to other environmental exposures (e.g., air pollution and  
infectious agents), as well as the broader exposome (e.g., stress and  
nutrition). By examining chemical mixtures, instead of one chemical at  
a time, we may identify risk factors for diseases with environmental  
origins and develop more targeted public health interventions.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1510569 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/15-10569/)

- o -

----------------------------------------------------------

Compiler and Editor: Barbara Rimmington, Researcher, East End Quality
of Life Initiative

10 Montgomery Terrace Road

Sheffield S6 3BU

Tel. 0114 285 9931

Fax 0114 278 7173

Visit/Like our blog / archive  
(https://sheffieldeastend.wordpress.com/)  We are setting up an  
archive of our website (for the day when we are no longer actively  
updating it).

Facebook https://www.facebook.com/barbara.rimmington.3

Twitter (https://www.twitter.com/b_rimm/)

Website (http://www.sheffieldeastend.org.uk/index.htm)

============================================================







More information about the news mailing list