[cleanairuk_news] Health Effects of Air Quality and Noise - update December 2016

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Fri Dec 30 16:14:13 GMT 2016


* Health Effects of Air Quality and Noise - update December 2016 *

By Barbara Rimmington, Researcher, East End Quality of Life Initiative

(Previous edition - November 2016:
http://cleanairuk.org/pipermail/news_cleanairuk.org/2016-November/000106.html)

(Index for previous issues:
http://www.cleanairuk.org/health-air-pollution.html)

*CONTENTS*

1) Temporal and spatial variations in road traffic noise for different  
frequency components in metropolitan Taichung, Taiwan

2) Do outdoor environmental noise and atmospheric NO2 levels spatially  
overlap in urban areas?

3) Associations of night-time road traffic noise with carotid  
intima-media thickness and blood pressure: The Whitehall II and SABRE  
study cohorts

4) Association between aircraft, road and railway traffic noise and  
depression in a large case-control study based on secondary data

5) Short-term association between environmental factors and hospital  
admissions due to dementia in Madrid

6) Children's blood pressure and its association with road traffic  
noise exposure – A systematic review with meta-analysis

7) Fetal growth and air pollution - A study on ultrasound and birth measures

8) Association of temporal distribution of fine particulate matter  
with glucose homeostasis during pregnancy in women of Chiayi City,  
Taiwan

9) Identifying sensitive windows for prenatal particulate air  
pollution exposure and mitochondrial DNA content in cord blood

10) Greater nitrogen dioxide concentrations at child versus adult  
breathing heights close to urban main road kerbside

11) Prenatal Air Pollution Exposures, DNA Methyl Transferase  
Genotypes, and Associations with Newborn LINE1 and Alu Methylation and  
Childhood Blood Pressure and
Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in the Children’s Health Study

12) Particulate Matter Exposure and Preterm Birth: Estimates of U.S.  
Attributable Burden and Economic Costs

13) Assessment of health burden caused by particulate matter in  
southern China using high-resolution satellite observation

14) Spatial and temporal trends in the mortality burden of air  
pollution in China: 2004–2012

15) Traffic pollution and the incidence of cardiorespiratory outcomes  
in an adult cohort in London

16) Monitoring the effect of air pollution episodes on health care  
consultations and ambulance call-outs in England during March/April  
2014: A retrospective observational analysis

17) Acute effects of urban air pollution on respiratory emergency  
hospital admissions in the Canary Islands

18) Association between EMS calls and fine particulate air pollution in Utah

19) Fine particulate air pollution and hospitalization for pneumonia:  
a case-crossover study in Shijiazhuang, China

20) Association between ambient particulate matter exposure and semen  
quality in Wuhan, China

21) Association Between Short-Term Exposure to PM2.5 and PM10 and  
Mortality in Susceptible Subgroups: A Multisite Case-Crossover  
Analysis of Individual Effect Modifiers

22) Short-term exposures to ambient air pollution and risk of  
recurrent ischemic stroke

23) Individual and Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status and the  
Association between Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Disease

24) Residential Proximity to Traffic-Related Pollution and  
Atherosclerosis in 4 Vascular Beds Among African-American Adults:  
Results From the Jackson Heart Study

25) Exposure to Fine Particulate Air Pollution Causes Vascular Insulin  
Resistance by Inducing Pulmonary Oxidative Stress

26) Connecting PM2.5 Exposure to Insulin Resistance: Oxidative Stress  
May Be an Intermediate Step

27) Outdoor PM2.5, Ambient Air Temperature, and Asthma Symptoms in the  
Past 14 Days among Adults with Active Asthma

28) Public perception of air pollution and health effects in Nanchang, China

29) Influence of air pollution on exhaled carbon monoxide levels in  
smokers and non-smokers. A prospective cross-sectional study

30) The impact of ambient fine particles on influenza transmission and  
the modification effects of temperature in China: A multi-city study

31) Benzo(a)pyrene in Europe: Ambient air concentrations, population  
exposure and health effects

32) Quantifying short-term and long-term health benefits of attaining  
ambient fine particulate pollution standards in Guangzhou, China

33) Short-term associations of fine particulate matter components and  
emergency hospital admissions among a privately insured population in  
Greater Houston

34) Air pollutant exposure and inhaled dose during urban commuting: a  
comparison between cycling and motorized modes

35) Genetic susceptibility for air pollution-induced airway  
inflammation in the SALIA study

36) Impacts of control strategies, the Great Recession and weekday  
variations on NO2 columns above North American cities

37) Roadside air quality and implications for control measures: A case  
study of Hong Kong

38) Episodic air quality impacts of plug-in electric vehicles

39) Is particulate air pollution at the front door a good proxy of  
residential exposure?

40) Using models to interpret the impact of roadside barriers on  
near-road air quality

41) Modelling the effectiveness of urban trees and grass on PM2.5  
reduction via dispersion and deposition at a city scale

42) Comprehensive national database of tree effects on air quality and  
human health in the United States

43) Particulate matter exposure is associated with inflammatory gene  
methylation in obese subjects

44) Water soluble and insoluble components of urban PM2.5 and their  
cytotoxic effects on epithelial cells (A549) in vitro

45) Health implications of improved air quality from Beijing's driving  
restriction policy

46) Reducing car dependence in the heart of Europe: lessons from  
Germany, Austria, and Switzerland

47) Reproductive effects in hybrid sparrow from a polluted area in  
Tunisia: Oxidative damage and altered testicular histomorphology

48) Basophil mediated pro-allergic inflammation in vehicle-emitted  
particles exposure

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1) Temporal and spatial variations in road traffic noise for different  
frequency components in metropolitan Taichung, Taiwan

Ven-Shing Wang, Ei-Wen Lo, Chih-Hsiang Liang, Keh-Ping Chao, Bo-Ying  
Bao, Ta-Yuan Chang

Tempo-spatial characteristics of traffic noise in octave bands are few  
studied. A significantly spatial variation of road traffic noise is  
found over one year. Road width, land-use types, and motorcycle  
traffic are dominant to predict noise. These factors have the highest  
prediction capacity of noise levels at 125 Hz.

Environmental Pollution 219, December 2016, 174–181 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0269749116318280)

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2) Do outdoor environmental noise and atmospheric NO2 levels spatially  
overlap in urban areas?

Quentin M. Tenailleau, Nadine Bernard, Sophie Pujol, Anne-Laure  
Parmentier, Mathieu Boilleaut, Hélène Houot, Daniel Joly, Frédéric Mauny

NO2 and noise environmental outdoor exposure was calculated around  
10,825 inhabitable buildings. Noise and NO2 exposure situations do not  
fully overlap, and strong divergences exist. These divergences are  
spatially structured according to the buildings' physical and  
demographic neighborhoods. Identifying discrepancy mechanism is  
crucial to understand the actual exposure of urban citizens and for  
risk assessment.

Environmental Pollution 214, July 2016, 767–775 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0269749116303487)

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3) Associations of night-time road traffic noise with carotid  
intima-media thickness and blood pressure: The Whitehall II and SABRE  
study cohorts

Jaana I. Halonen, Hakim-Moulay Dehbi, Anna L. Hansell, John Gulliver,  
Daniela Fecht, Marta Blangiardo, Frank J. Kelly, Nish Chaturvedi, Mika  
Kivimäki, Cathryn Tonne

This is the first study on associations between road traffic noise and  
cIMT. Night-time road traffic noise was associated with higher cIMT in  
non-medication users. Association between road traffic noise and blood  
pressure was close to null. Association between road traffic noise and  
hypertension was close to null.

Environment International 98, January 2017, 54–61 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412016304895?dgcid=raven_sd_via_email)

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4) Association between aircraft, road and railway traffic noise and  
depression in a large case-control study based on secondary data

Andreas Seidler, Janice Hegewald, Anna Lene Seidler, Melanie Schubert,  
Mandy Wagner, Patrik Dröge, Eva Haufe, Jochen Schmitt, Enno Swart,  
Hajo Zeeb

This study indicates that traffic noise exposure might lead to  
depression. As a potential explanation for the decreasing risks at  
high traffic noise levels, vulnerable people might actively cope with  
noise (e.g. insulate or move away).

Environmental Research 152, January 2017, 263–271 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935116305461?dgcid=raven_sd_via_email)

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5) Short-term association between environmental factors and hospital  
admissions due to dementia in Madrid

C. Linares, D. Culqui, R. Carmona, C. Ortiz, J. Díaz

Spain has one of the highest proportions of dementia in the world. The  
RR of DDE admissions was 1.15 (1.11–1.20) for an increase of 1 dB in  
Leqd. The RR of DDE admissions was 1.19 (1.09–1.30) for an increase of  
1 °C above 34 °C in Tmax. The RR of DDE admissions was 1.09  
(1.04–1.15) for an increase of 10 μg/m3 in O3a concentrations. Diurnal  
traffic noise, heat waves and tropospheric ozone can exacerbate the  
symptoms of dementia.

Environmental Research 152, January 2017, 214–220 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935116308519?dgcid=raven_sd_via_email)

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6) Children's blood pressure and its association with road traffic  
noise exposure – A systematic review with meta-analysis

Angel M. Dzhambov, Donka D. Dimitrova

Conflicting association road traffic noise – children's blood pressure  
so far. A quality effects meta-analysis was conducted. Non-significant  
increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure per 5 dB found.  
Significant effect found only in some subgroups of studies. Overall  
weak association and low quality of the evidence

Environmental Research 152, January 2017, 244–255 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935116303619?dgcid=raven_sd_via_email)

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7) Fetal growth and air pollution - A study on ultrasound and birth measures

Ebba Malmqvist, Zeyan Liew, Karin Källén, Anna Rignell-Hydbom, Ralf  
Rittner, Lars Rylander, Beate Ritz

Largest study on ultrasound measures and air pollution to date.  
Individual data on potential confounders (also SES) and nitrogen  
oxides. Area with levels below current WHO air quality guidelines.  
Birth weight was reduced by 9 g per 10 µg/m3 increment of NOx. Small  
but statistically significant effects of air pollution on late fetal  
size.

Environmental Research 152, January 2017, 73–80 - read article  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935116306247?dgcid=raven_sd_via_email)

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8) Association of temporal distribution of fine particulate matter  
with glucose homeostasis during pregnancy in women of Chiayi City,  
Taiwan

Mei-Chun Lu, Panchalli Wang, Tsun-Jen Cheng, Chun-Pai Yang, Yuan-Horng Yan

PM2.5 was associated with OGTT, especially the fasting and 1-h glucose  
levels. PM2.5 exposure in the second trimester may enhance this  
effect. Our findings provided evidence linking PM2.5 exposure, glucose  
homeostasis and GDM.

Environmental Research 152, January 2017, 81–87 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S001393511630665X?dgcid=raven_sd_via_email)

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9) Identifying sensitive windows for prenatal particulate air  
pollution exposure and mitochondrial DNA content in cord blood

Maria José Rosa, Allan C. Just, Marco Sánchez Guerra, Itai Kloog,  
Hsiao-Hsien Leon Hsu, Kasey J. Brennan, Adriana Mercado García, Brent  
Coull, Rosalind J. Wright, Martha María Téllez Rojo, Andrea A.  
Baccarelli, Robert O. Wright

Examined sensitive windows of prenatal PM2.5 exposure on mtDNA in cord  
blood. Sensitive window identified at gestational weeks 35–40. Higher  
PM2.5 during sensitive window associated with lower mtDNA content.  
Findings suggest sex-specific associations.

Environment International 98, January 2017, 198–203 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412016307413?dgcid=raven_sd_via_email)

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10) Greater nitrogen dioxide concentrations at child versus adult  
breathing heights close to urban main road kerbside

Hannah S. KenagyChun LinHao WuMathew R. Heal

These observations have potential public health implications for  
differential NO2 exposures between children walking, or in buggies,  
close to heavily trafficked urban roads compared with adults.

Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health September 2016, 9/6 589–595 - read  
article (http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11869-015-0370-3)

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11) Prenatal Air Pollution Exposures, DNA Methyl Transferase  
Genotypes, and Associations with Newborn LINE1 and Alu Methylation and  
Childhood Blood Pressure and
Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in the Children’s Health Study

Carrie V. Breton, Jin Yao, Josh Millstein, Lu Gao, Kimberly D.  
Siegmund, Wendy Mack, Lora Whitfield-Maxwell, Fred Lurmann, Howard  
Hodis, Ed Avol, Frank D. Gilliland

Genetic and epigenetic variation in DNA methylation reprogramming  
genes and in LINE1 retrotransposons may play important roles in  
downstream cardiovascular consequences of prenatal air pollution  
exposure.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/EHP181 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/EHP181/)

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12) Particulate Matter Exposure and Preterm Birth: Estimates of U.S.  
Attributable Burden and Economic Costs

Leonardo Trasande, Patrick Malecha, Teresa M. Attina

PM2.5 may contribute substantially to burden and costs of PTB in the  
United States, and considerable health and economic benefits could be  
achieved through environmental regulatory interventions that reduce  
PM2.5 exposure in pregnancy.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1510810 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/15-10810/)

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13) Assessment of health burden caused by particulate matter in  
southern China using high-resolution satellite observation

Xingcheng Lu, Changqing Lin, Ying Li, Teng Yao, Jimmy C.H. Fung,  
Alexis K.H. Lau

Health effects were first estimated from 1-km satellite PM data in  
southern China. Adverse health effects caused by PM were most common  
at the center of this region. Health cost of PM reached 46,000 million  
USD (6.1% of GDP) during 2012. Health risks caused by PM were  
positively associated with the urbanization process.

Environment International 98, January 2017, 160–170 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412016307322?dgcid=raven_sd_via_email)

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14) Spatial and temporal trends in the mortality burden of air  
pollution in China: 2004–2012

Miaomiao Liua, Yining Huang, Zongwei Ma, Zhou Jin, Xingyu Liu, Haikun  
Wang, Yang Liu, Jinnan Wang, Matti Jantunen, Jun Bi, Patrick L. Kinney

PM2.5 in China caused huge mortality burdens with increasing trends  
from 2004 to 2012. In–migration and population growth offset the  
health benefits of pollution control. Health burdens showed strong  
spatial variations within China. Adjust priority areas for pollution  
control to reflect the health-burden hotspots. This study adds useful  
spatial and temporal dimensions to prior estimates for China.
Environment International 98, January 2017, 75–81 - read abstract (http://

www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412016305529?dgcid=raven_sd_via_email)

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15) Traffic pollution and the incidence of cardiorespiratory outcomes  
in an adult cohort in London

I M Carey, H R Anderson, R W Atkinson, S Beevers, D G Cook, D Dajnak,  
J Gulliver, F J Kelly

The associations observed with heart failure may suggest exacerbatory  
effects rather than underlying chronic disease. However, the overall  
failure to observe wider associations with traffic pollution may  
reflect that exposure estimates based on residence inadequately  
represent the relevant pattern of personal exposure, and future  
studies must address this issue.

Occup Environ Med 2016;73:849-856 - read article  
(http://oem.bmj.com/content/73/12/849.abstract?etoc)

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16) Monitoring the effect of air pollution episodes on health care  
consultations and ambulance call-outs in England during March/April  
2014: A retrospective observational analysis

Alex J. Elliot, Sue Smith, Alec Dobney, John Thornes, Gillian E.  
Smith, Sotiris Vardoulakis

Across regions of England there was good agreement between air quality  
levels and health care seeking behaviour. The results further  
demonstrate the acute impact of short term air pollution episodes on  
public health and also illustrate the potential role of mass media  
reporting in escalating health care seeking behaviour.

Environmental Pollution 214, July 2016, 903–911 - read article  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0269749116302925)

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17) Acute effects of urban air pollution on respiratory emergency  
hospital admissions in the Canary Islands

Elena López-Villarrubia, Carmen Iñiguez, Olga Costa, Ferran Ballester

The overall findings suggest that PM2.5, PM10–2.5, and NO2 are  
associated with the risk of emergency hospital admission for  
respiratory diseases; there is no evidence of confounding for the  
associations observed; and PM10–2.5 may have an impact on public health.

Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health November 2016, 9/7 713–722 - read  
abstract (http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11869-015-0382-z)

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18) Association between EMS calls and fine particulate air pollution in Utah

Scott T. Youngquist, Cody H. Hood, Nicholas M. Hales, Caleb C. Barton,  
Troy E. Madsen, C. Arden Pope III

We found limited association between ambient air pollution and health  
emergencies, as classified by the EMS provider’s impression. We noted  
no association with primary cardiovascular or respiratory complaints.

Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health December 2016, 9/8 887–897 - read  
abstract (http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11869-016-0392-5)

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19) Fine particulate air pollution and hospitalization for pneumonia:  
a case-crossover study in Shijiazhuang, China

Zheng Duan, Xue Han, Zina Bai, Yadong Yuan

Stratified analysis of exposure based on sex, age, season, and  
comorbidities showed that the effect of PM2.5 on hospitalization for  
pneumonia was stronger in males, people younger than 60 years, people  
without comorbidities, and on warm days. These results indicate that  
higher levels of PM2.5 increase the risk of hospitalization for  
pneumonia in Shijiazhuang, China.

Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health November 2016, 9/7 723–733 - read  
abstract (http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11869-015-0383-y)

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20) Association between ambient particulate matter exposure and semen  
quality in Wuhan, China

Li Wu, Lei Jin, Tingming Shi, Bing Zhang, Yun Zhou, Ting Zhou, Wei  
Bao, Hua Xiang, Yao Zuo, Guanlian Li, Cheng Wang, Yonggang Duan, Zhe  
Peng, Xiji Huang, Hai Zhang, Tian Xu, Yonggang Li, Xinyun Pan, Ying  
Xia, Xun Gong, Weihong Chen, Yuewei Liu

We assessed the association between PM and semen quality among 1759  
Chinese men. PM2.5 and PM10 exposures are associated with sperm  
concentration and count. PM exposures are unlikely to be associated  
with sperm motility. PM may decrease semen quality mainly by affecting  
spermatogenesis. Our study emphasizes the urgent needs to reduce PM  
exposure in China.

Environment International 98, January 2017, 219–228 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412016307978?dgcid=raven_sd_via_email)

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21) Association Between Short-Term Exposure to PM2.5 and PM10 and  
Mortality in Susceptible Subgroups: A Multisite Case-Crossover  
Analysis of Individual Effect Modifiers

Ester Rita Alessandrini, Massimo Stafoggia, Annunziata Faustini,  
Giovanna Berti, Cristina Canova, Aldo De Togni, Katiuscia Di Biagio,  
Bianca Gherardi, Simone Giannini, Paolo Lauriola, Paolo Pandolfi,  
Giorgia Randi, Andrea Ranzi, Lorenzo Simonato, Stefano Zauli Sajani,  
Ennio Cadum, Francesco Forastiere, on behalf of the EpiAir2 Study Group

The study found increases in natural mortality from PM exposure among  
people with chronic morbidity; diabetes and cardiac disorders were the  
main susceptibility factors.

Am. J. Epidemiol. (2016) 184 (10): 744-754 - read abstract  
(http://aje.oxfordjournals.org/content/184/10/744.abstract?etoc)

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22) Short-term exposures to ambient air pollution and risk of  
recurrent ischemic stroke

Jeffrey J. Wing, Sara D. Adar, Brisa N. Sánchez, Lewis B. Morgenstern,  
Melinda A. Smith, Lynda D. Lisabeth

Research on the influence of air pollutants on risk of stroke  
recurrence is nascent. Case-crossover design to assess associations  
between PM2.5/O3 and stroke recurrence. No observed associations  
between PM2.5 or O3 and risk of stroke recurrence. Further  
investigation is necessary in adequately powered studies.

Environmental Research 152, January 2017, 304–307 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935116309318?dgcid=raven_sd_via_email)

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23) Individual and Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status and the  
Association between Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Disease

Gloria C. Chi, Anjum Hajat, Chloe E. Bird, Mark R. Cullen, Beth Ann  
Griffin, Kristin A. Miller, Regina A. Shih, Marcia L. Stefanick,  
Sverre Vedal, Eric A. Whitsel, Joel D. Kaufman

Women with lower NSES may be more susceptible to air pollution-related  
health effects. The association between air pollution and  
cardiovascular disease was not explained by confounding from  
individual-level SES or NSES.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/EHP199 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/EHP199/)

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24) Residential Proximity to Traffic-Related Pollution and  
Atherosclerosis in 4 Vascular Beds Among African-American Adults:  
Results From the Jackson Heart Study

Yi Wang, Gregory A. Wellenius, DeMarc A. Hickson, Annie Gjelsvik,  
Charles B. Eaton, Sharon B. Wyatt

We observed an association in the carotid vascular beds but not the  
coronary, abdominal, or peripheral vascular beds. Our results  
highlight the need to consider residential proximity to roadways as a  
potential cardiovascular disease risk factor for blacks.

Am. J. Epidemiol. (2016) 184 (10): 732-743 - read abstract  
(http://aje.oxfordjournals.org/content/184/10/732.abstract?etoc)

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25) Exposure to Fine Particulate Air Pollution Causes Vascular Insulin  
Resistance by Inducing Pulmonary Oxidative Stress

Petra Haberzett, Timothy E. O’Toole, Aruni Bhatnagar, Daniel J. Conklin

Short-term exposure to PM2.5 induces vascular insulin resistance and  
inflammation triggered by a mechanism involving pulmonary oxidative  
stress. Suppression of vascular insulin signaling by PM2.5 may  
accelerate the progression to systemic insulin resistance,  
particularly in the context of diet-induced obesity.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/EHP212 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/EHP212/)

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26) Connecting PM2.5 Exposure to Insulin Resistance: Oxidative Stress  
May Be an Intermediate Step

Julia R. Barrett

The findings provide insight into how air pollution, through  
lung-mediated mechanisms, might alter susceptibility to what’s  
considered a systemic problem—insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.
Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.124-A236 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/124-A236/)

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27) Outdoor PM2.5, Ambient Air Temperature, and Asthma Symptoms in the  
Past 14 Days among Adults with Active Asthma

Maria C. Mirabelli, Ambarish Vaidyanathan, W. Dana Flanders, Xiaoting  
Qin, Paul Garbe

These results suggest that each unit increase in PM2.5 may be  
associated with an increase in the prevalence of asthma symptoms, even  
at levels as low as 4.00–7.06 μg/m3.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/EHP92 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/EHP92/)

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28) Public perception of air pollution and health effects in Nanchang, China

Gui-lian Lan, Zhao-kang Yuan, Jay E. Maddock, Angelie Cook, Yuan-yuan  
Chu, Bing-bing Pan, Hong Tu, Si Fan, Xiong Liao, Yuanan Lu

This study clearly shows that there exists positive perception and  
strong support from Nanchang public on air quality improvement, which  
could be valuable and used to influence local government for stricter  
regulations for improving air quality and healthy environment in future.

Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health December 2016, 9/8 951–959 - read  
abstract (http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11869-016-0397-0)

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29) Influence of air pollution on exhaled carbon monoxide levels in  
smokers and non-smokers. A prospective cross-sectional study

Mikołaj Maga, Maciej K. Janik, Agnieszka Wachsmann, Olga  
Chrząstek-Janik, Mateusz Koziej, Mateusz Bajkowski, Paweł Maga,  
Katarzyna Tyrak, Krzysztof Wójcik, Iwona Gregorczyk-Maga, Rafał  
Niżankowski

There is increased exhaled carbon monoxide in big, polluted cities  
citizens. Higher level of CO in exhaled air in smokers than  
non-smokers has been observed. Increased exhaled CO level is 125 times  
more likely in big cities than small towns.

Environmental Research 152, January 2017, 496–502 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935116305588?dgcid=raven_sd_via_email)

30) The impact of ambient fine particles on influenza transmission and  
the modification effects of temperature in China: A multi-city study

Gongbo Chen, Wenyi Zhang, Shanshan Li, Yongming Zhang, Gail Williams,  
Rachel Huxley, Hongyan Ren, Wei Cao, Yuming Guo

Ambient PM2.5 was found significantly associated with influenza  
incidence at lag 2–3 days, with RR of 1.020. The RR of influenza  
transmission associated with PM2.5 was higher for cold compared with  
hot days. Overall, 10.7% of incident influenza cases may result from  
exposure to ambient PM2.5 in China.

Environment International 98, January 2017, 82–88 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412016305530?dgcid=raven_sd_via_email)

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31) Benzo(a)pyrene in Europe: Ambient air concentrations, population  
exposure and health effects

C.B.B. Guerreiro, J. Horálek, F. de Leeuw, F. Couvidat

We estimate current benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) concentration levels in  
Europe. We estimate the European population exposure to BaP. BaP  
exposure leads to more than 370 lung cancer incidences per year in  
Europe. The main BaP emission sector is household combustion and its  
emissions increase. Better coordination between air quality and  
climate mitigation policies is needed.

Environmental Pollution 214, July 2016, 657–667 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0269749116303475)

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32) Quantifying short-term and long-term health benefits of attaining  
ambient fine particulate pollution standards in Guangzhou, China

Hualiang Lin, Tao Liu, Jianpeng Xiao, Weilin Zeng, Xing Li, Lingchuan  
Guo, Yanjun Xu, Yonghui Zhang, Michael G. Vaughn, Erik J. Nelson,  
Zhengmin (Min) Qian, Wenjun Ma

Significant associations were observed between PM2.5 and mortality in  
Guangzhou. Attaining daily standard of PM2.5 would prevent 143 natural  
deaths each year. Attaining annual PM2.5 standard would avoid 3875  
natural deaths in Guangzhou.

Atmospheric Environment 137, July 2016, 38–44 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S135223101630320X)

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33) Short-term associations of fine particulate matter components and  
emergency hospital admissions among a privately insured population in  
Greater Houston

Suyang Liu, Cecilia M. Ganduglia, Xiao Li, George L. Delclos, Luisa  
Franzini, Kai Zhang

Ambient PM2.5 air pollution slightly affected the privately insured  
population. Arsenic and copper were associated with increased hospital  
admissions of stroke and pneumonia. Seasonal analysis showed weak  
variation among PM2.5 mass and components.

Atmospheric Environment 147, December 2016, 369–375 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1352231016308172)

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34) Air pollutant exposure and inhaled dose during urban commuting: a  
comparison between cycling and motorized modes

Carla A. Ramos, Humbert T. Wolterbeek, Susana M. Almeida

To reduce exposure concentrations, spatial and temporal separation of  
cyclists from motorized vehicle traffic should be achieved with  
separated bicycle facilities, low volume routes, and off-peak travel.

Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health December 2016, 9/8 867–879 - read  
abstract (http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11869-015-0389-5)

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35) Genetic susceptibility for air pollution-induced airway  
inflammation in the SALIA study

Anke Hüls, Ursula Krämer, Christian Herder, Karin Fehsel, Christian  
Luckhaus, Sabine Stolz, Andrea Vierkötter, Tamara Schikowski

SNPs of the ER stress pathway are involved in inflammation processes  
in the lung. Association between air pollution and airway inflammation  
is modified by ER stress. Higher susceptibility for women who are  
carriers of the ER stress risk alleles. The strongest gene-environment  
interaction was found for LTB4.

Environmental Research 152, January 2017, 43–50 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935116307174?dgcid=raven_sd_via_email)

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36) Impacts of control strategies, the Great Recession and weekday  
variations on NO2 columns above North American cities

Benjamin de Foy, Zifeng Lu, David G. Streets

NO2 columns over major urban areas have been dropping by up to 7% per  
year on average. NO2 columns were reduced by up to 30% in 2009 and 20%  
in 2010. Longer term policy actions and recession impacts both  
contributed to reductions. Weekend effect varies from 10% to 30% on  
Saturdays and from 20% to 50% on Sundays.

Atmospheric Environment 138, August 2016, 74–86 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1352231016303211)

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37) Roadside air quality and implications for control measures: A case  
study of Hong Kong

Z.T. Ai , C.M. Mak, , H.C. Lee

Traffic induced roadside air pollution and control measures  
investigated. Six-year concentration data from roadside monitoring  
stations analyzed. Pedestrian-level concentration of pollutants along  
roadside measured. Nitrogen dioxide posts long-term exposure risk to  
roadside workers. Particulate matters post short-term exposure risk to  
roadside passengers.

Atmospheric Environment 137, July 2016, 6–16 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1352231016303168)

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38) Episodic air quality impacts of plug-in electric vehicles

Ghazal Razeghi, , Marc Carreras-Sospedra, Tim Brown, Jack Brouwer,  
Donald Dabdub, Scott Samuelsen

Dispatch and air quality impact of generators are modeled for future  
cases. PEVs will generally have a positive impact on urban air  
quality. Area-wide ozone and PM2.5 averages decrease with integration  
of PEV and wind. Charging profile's impact on air quality is very  
small. Localized increase in 8-h average ozone is observed in some  
cases.

Atmospheric Environment 137, July 2016, 90–100 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1352231016303144)

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39) Is particulate air pollution at the front door a good proxy of  
residential exposure?

Stefano Zauli Sajani, Arianna Trentini, Sabrina Rovelli, Isabella  
Ricciardelli, Stefano Marchesi, Claudio Maccone, Dimitri Bacco, Silvia  
Ferrari, Fabiana Scotto, Claudia Zigola, Andrea Cattaneo, Domenico  
Maria Cavallo, Paolo Lauriola, Vanes Poluzzi, Roy M. Harrison

Indoor and outdoor measurements at front and rear of building.  
Particle number size distributions and PM2.5 chemical composition  
measured. Large gradients seen for some particle metrics and chemical  
components between front and rear both outdoors and indoors. Within  
building variability very similar to within city variability.  
Potentially large misclassification of exposure for people living in  
the back of buildings close to heavy trafficked roads.

Environmental Pollution 213, June 2016, 347–358 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0269749116301609)

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40) Using models to interpret the impact of roadside barriers on  
near-road air quality

Seyedmorteza Amini, Faraz Enayati Ahangar, Nico Schulte, Akula Venkatram

Roadside barriers produce effective mitigation of the impact of  
emissions. Real-world barrier effects can be described with simple  
model. Roadside barrier effects are equivalent to shifting source  
upwind. Model can be used to design roadside barriers. Model can be  
used to estimate UFP emission factors.

Atmospheric Environment 138, August 2016, 55–64 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1352231016303338)

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41) Modelling the effectiveness of urban trees and grass on PM2.5  
reduction via dispersion and deposition at a city scale

A.P.R. Jeanjean, P.S. Monks, R.J. Leigh

We model the effectiveness of trees and grass on traffic PM2.5  
reduction. City scale CFD simulations were performed under the  
OpenFOAM software. Aerodynamics effect of tree prevails over  
deposition. Tree are beneficial for wind speeds greater than 2 m s−1.  
PM2.5 deposition on buildings is negligible with less than 0.03 %.

Atmospheric Environment 147, December 2016, 1–10 - read article  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1352231016307336)

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42) Comprehensive national database of tree effects on air quality and  
human health in the United States

Satoshi Hirabayashi, David J. Nowak

National database of tree effects on air quality and human health was  
developed. County-level air pollutant removal can be downscaled based  
on tree cover area. County-level concentration change can be  
downscaled based on tree cover percent. O3 concentration and removal  
by trees were higher than other air pollutants. O3 and PM2.5 health  
benefits were substantially greater than others air pollutants.
Environmental Pollution 215, August 2016, 48–57 - read abstract (http://

www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0269749116303347)

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43) Particulate matter exposure is associated with inflammatory gene  
methylation in obese subjects

Laura Cantone, Simona Iodice, Letizia Tarantini, Benedetta Albetti,  
Ilaria Restelli, Luisella Vigna, Matteo Bonzini, Angela Cecilia  
Pesatori, Valentina Bollati
Overweight/obese subjects has been proposed as susceptible population  
for PM related effects. DNA methylation is a key molecular mechanisms  
linking PM exposure to systemic pro-inflammatory effects. PM10  
exposure resulted associated to DNA methylation of inflammatory genes  
in a population of obese patients. The relationship between PM10 and  
DNA methylation of inflammation pathway-genes was confirmed in obese  
subjects.

Environmental Research 152, January 2017, 478–484 - read article  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935116309495?dgcid=raven_sd_via_email)

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44) Water soluble and insoluble components of urban PM2.5 and their  
cytotoxic effects on epithelial cells (A549) in vitro

Yajuan Zou, Chengyu Jin, Yue Su, Jiaru Li, Bangshang Zhu

Water-soluble PM2.5 can cause cell damage through the early ROS  
generation. Water-insoluble PM2.5 significantly affects the cell  
membrane disruption. Synergistic effects of water-soluble and  
-insoluble PM2.5 are shown at longer time. These findings demonstrate  
the different cytotoxicity mechanisms of WS-PM2.5 and WIS-PM2.5, which  
suggest that not only the size and dosage of PM2.5 but also the  
solubility of PM2.5 should be taken into consideration when evaluating  
the toxicity of PM2.5.

Environmental Pollution 212, May 2016, 627–635 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0269749116302032)

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45) Health implications of improved air quality from Beijing's driving  
restriction policy

Yan Liu, Zhijun Yan, Chao Dong

Driving restrictions significantly lowered the risk of hazardous  
pollution. The environmental policy also brought valuable health  
benefits. The health effects of driving restrictions were stronger in  
the cold season. Females and residents above 65 years old benefited  
more from the policy.

Environmental Pollution 219, December 2016,  323–328 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0269749116318012)

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46) Reducing car dependence in the heart of Europe: lessons from  
Germany, Austria, and Switzerland

Ralph Buehler, John Pucher, Regine Gerike, Thomas Götschi

The five case study cities, Munich, Berlin, Hamburg, Vienna, and  
Zurich, demonstrate that it is possible to reduce car dependence even  
in affluent societies with high levels of car ownership and high  
expectations for quality of travel.

Transport Reviews 37,1 2017, 4-28 - read article  
(http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/01441647.2016.1177799)

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47) Reproductive effects in hybrid sparrow from a polluted area in  
Tunisia: Oxidative damage and altered testicular histomorphology

Nahed Amri, Abdessalem Hammouda, Fatma Rahmouni, Med Ali Chokri, Rim  
Chaabane, Slaheddine Selmi, Tarek Rebai, Riadh Badraoui

We have used hybrid sparrow to evaluate the reproductive toxicology of  
4 sites. Proximity to GFC was associated testicular injury and testis  
histopathologic lesions. Proximity to GFC decreases SOD, CAT, TAS and  
vitamins A and E. Hybrid sparrow may be a useful reliable indicator  
for monitoring programs.

Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 129, July 2016, 164–170 - read  
abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0147651316300860)

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48) Basophil mediated pro-allergic inflammation in vehicle-emitted  
particles exposure

Alexander M. Zakharenko, Ayse Basak Engin, Valery V. Chernyshev,  
Vladimir V. Chaika, Sergey M. Ugay, Ramin Rezaee, Gholamreza Karimi,  
Vladimir A. Drozd, Anna V. Nikitina, Sergey F. Solomennik, Olga R.  
Kudryavkina, Liu Xin, Yuan Wenpeng, Manolis Tzatzarakis, Aristidis M.  
Tsatsakis, Kirill S. Golokhvast

Basophil sensitization is more important than cell count in VEP  
exposure. CD16+ cells are more effective than basophils on CD4+ T cell  
proliferation. CD16+ and CD16- monocytes respond to VEP exposure in  
opposite directions. CD8+ T cell proliferation is inhibited by all  
doses of VEPs. Globally, more stringent standards are needed for  
vehicle particle emissions.

Environmental Research 152, January 2017, 308–314 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935116305667?dgcid=raven_sd_via_email)

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Season's Greetings to all our readers

----------------------------------------------------------

Compiler and Editor: Barbara Rimmington, Researcher, East End Quality
of Life Initiative

10 Montgomery Terrace Road

Sheffield S6 3BU

Tel. 0114 285 9931

Fax 0114 278 7173

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