[cleanairuk_news] Health Effects of Air Quality and Noise - update August 2015

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* Health Effects of Air Quality and Noise - update August 2015 *

By Barbara Rimmington, Researcher, East End Quality of Life Initiative


(Previous edition - July 2015:
http://cleanairuk.org/pipermail/news_cleanairuk.org/2015-July/000088.html)

(Index for previous issues:
http://www.cleanairuk.org/health-air-pollution.html)

*CONTENTS*

1) Short-term exposure to noise, fine particulate matter and nitrogen  
oxides on ambulatory blood pressure: A repeated-measure study

2) Short-term associations between traffic-related noise, particle  
number and traffic flow in three European cities

3) Understanding Health Impacts of Air Pollution in London

4) Pollution and skin: From epidemiological and mechanistic studies to  
clinical implications

5) Environmental influences on skin aging and ethnic-specific manifestations

6) Airborne Particle Exposure and Extrinsic Skin Aging

7) Overweight and urban pollution: Preliminary results

8) Association of weather and air pollution interactions on daily  
mortality in 12 Canadian cities

9) Inflammatory markers in relation to long-term air pollution

10) Fetal growth and maternal exposure to particulate air pollution --  
More marked effects at lower exposure and modification by gestational  
duration

11) Effects of particulate air pollution on nasal and lung function  
development among Greek children: a 19-year cohort study

12) Long-term residential exposure to urban air pollution, and  
repeated measures of systemic blood markers of inflammation and  
coagulation

13) Integrating smart-phone based momentary location tracking with  
fixed site air quality monitoring for personal exposure assessment

14) Modelling street level PM10 concentrations across Europe: source  
apportionment and possible futures

15) City grime 'breathes back out' polluting nitrogen gases

- o -

1) Short-term exposure to noise, fine particulate matter and nitrogen  
oxides on ambulatory blood pressure: A repeated-measure study

Li-Te Chang, Kai-Jen Chuang, Wei-Ting Yang, Ven-Shing Wang, Hsiao-Chi  
Chuang, Bo-Ying Bao, Chiu-Shong Liu, Ta-Yuan Chang

Exposure to noise, PM2.5 or NOx may be independently associated with  
elevated blood pressure. Noise exposure has transient effects of  
increased SBP and DBP over 24 h. Exposure to PM2.5 has elevated  
effects on 24-h ambulatory SBP and DBP. NOx exposure only relates to  
elevated ambulatory DBP over 24 h.

Environmental Research 140, July 2015, 634–640 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935115001796)

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2) Short-term associations between traffic-related noise, particle  
number and traffic flow in three European cities

X. Morelli, M. Foraster, I. Aguilera, X. Basagana, E. Corradi, A.  
Deltell, R. Ducret-Stich, H. Phuleria, M.S. Ragettli, M. Rivera, A.  
Thomasson, N. Künzli, R. Slama

20-min measurements of air pollution, noise and road traffic were  
taken at 141 sites. Traffic noise levels and traffic counts were far  
more constant over time than ultrafine particles number  
concentrations. Simultaneous measurements of traffic count and noise  
were moderately to well correlated. Simultaneous measurements of  
ultrafine particles and noise were poorly correlated. This should  
allow future studies to disentangle the short-term effects of  
ultrafine particles and noise.

Atmospheric Environment 103, February 2015, 25–33 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1352231014009601)

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3) Understanding Health Impacts of Air Pollution in London

In a world first, King’s College London, commissioned by the Greater  
London Authority and Transport for London, have calculated the health  
impacts associated with the air pollutant nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in  
London.

This new study shows that in 2010 there was the equivalent of up to  
5,900 deaths across London associated with NO2 long term exposure.  
(Please note: these figures are also broken down on a  
borough-by-borough basis in the report.) At the same time the deaths  
associated with long-term exposure to PM2.5 were recalculated. The  
equivalent number of PM2.5 deaths has decreased from 4,300 (in 2008  
based on 2006 concentrations) to 3,500 (in 2010).

The PM2.5 and NO2 figures can be combined to create a total figure of  
up to 9,400 equivalent deaths in 2010. In using the 9,400 figure it is  
important to note that the numbers of equivalent deaths have not  
increased; we have just never calculated NO2 health impacts before. In  
fact, PM2.5 figures have decreased compared with the previous report  
published in 2010. The NO2 health effects have also been calculated  
using new methods which mean they are subject to greater uncertainty  
than the PM2.5 health effects.

Greater London Authority, July 2015, - read abstract  
(https://www.london.gov.uk/priorities/environment/clearing-londons-air/understanding-the-health-impacts-of-air-pollution-in-london) , with links to  
reports

- o -

4) Pollution and skin: From epidemiological and mechanistic studies to  
clinical implications

Jean Krutmann, Wei Liu, Li Lid, Xiaochuan Pan, Martha Crawford,  
Gabrielle Sore, Sophie Seite

Pollution-induced skin damage is a global problem with particular  
relevance in China and India. Ambient particulate matter exposure  
contributes to premature skin aging. Ozone depletes antioxidants from  
skin. Air pollution exerts detrimental effects on healthy and diseased  
skin. The arylhydrocarbon receptor is key in mediating air  
pollution-induced skin damage. Individuals with sensitive skin may  
represent a susceptible subgroup. Specific cosmetic products are  
required to protect skin from air pollution-induced damage.

Journal of Dermatological Science 76:3, December 2014, 163–168 - read  
abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0923181114001935)

- o -

5) Environmental influences on skin aging and ethnic-specific manifestations

Andrea Vierkötter, Jean Krutmann

In this review we summarize the influence of the different  
environmental factors: sun exposure, smoking and air pollution on skin  
aging and further present ethnic-specific manifestations of extrinsic  
skin aging.

Dermato-Endocrinology 4:3, 2012, 227-231 - read abstract  
(http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.4161/derm.19858#.VdG7uaRVhHw)  
with link to article

- o -

6) Airborne Particle Exposure and Extrinsic Skin Aging

Andrea Vierkötter, Tamara Schikowski, Ulrich Ranft, Dorothea Sugiri,  
Mary Matsui, Ursula Krämer, Jean Krutmann

The impact of air pollution on skin aging was analyzed by linear and  
logistic regression and adjusted for potential confounding variables.  
Air pollution exposure was significantly correlated to extrinsic skin  
aging signs, in particular to pigment spots and less pronounced to  
wrinkles.

Journal of Investigative Dermatology (2010) 130, 2719–2726 - read  
article  
(http://www.nature.com/jid/journal/v130/n12/full/jid2010204a.html)

- o -

7) Overweight and urban pollution: Preliminary results

Barnaba Giuseppina Ponticiello, Assunta Capozzella, Valeria Di  
Giorgio, Teodorico Casale, Roberto Giubilati, Gianfranco Tomei,  
Francesco Tomei, Maria Valeria Rosati, Angela Sancini

Workers exposed to urban pollution have an additional risk for BMI  
increasing. Female exposed workers have a significant higher mean  
weight compared with controls. Gender differences in health  
surveillance of exposed workers have to be considered. Our preliminary  
study encourages to continue this line of research.

Science of The Total Environment 518–519, 15 June 2015, 61–64 - read  
abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969715002363?np=y)

- o -

8) Association of weather and air pollution interactions on daily  
mortality in 12 Canadian cities

J. K. Vanos, S. Cakmak, L. S. Kalkstein, Abderrahmane Yagouti

Our findings demonstrate the mortality risks of air pollution exposure  
to differ by weather type, with increased accuracy obtained when  
accounting for interactive effects through adjustment for dependent  
pollutants using a  distributed lag nonlinear modeling.

Air Qual Atmos Health (2015) 8:307–320 - read article  
(http://download.springer.com/static/pdf/823/art%253A10.1007%252Fs11869-014-0266-7.pdf?originUrl=http%3A%2F%2Flink.springer.com%2Farticle%2F10.1007%2Fs11869-014-0266-7&token2=exp=1439807280~acl=%2Fstatic%2Fpdf%2F823%2Fart%25253A10.1007%25252Fs11869-014-0266-7.pdf%3ForiginUrl%3Dhttp%253A%252F%252Flink.springer.com%252Farticle%252F10.1007%252Fs11869-014-0266-7*~hmac=02d3df608fd0ddf7420b70972d5343947d0dc2a60ab6bbacf5dc2e269de8b26e)

- o -

9) Inflammatory markers in relation to long-term air pollution

Nahid Mostafavi, Jelle Vlaanderen, Marc Chadeau-Hyam, Rob Beelen, Lars  
Modig, Domenico Palli, Ingvar A. Bergdahl, Paolo Vineis, Gerard Hoek,  
Soterios Α. Kyrtopoulos, Roel Vermeulen

We assessed the association between long-term exposure to NOx and  
plasma concentration of a panel of inflammatory markers. We included  
data from two prospective cohorts from Italy and Sweden (n=587  
individuals). Our panel of inflammatory markers includes 28 cytokines,  
chemokines, and growth factors. We used a state of the art long-term  
air pollution exposure assessment developed within the ESCAPE project.  
We observed indications for an association between NOx and interleukin  
2, 8, 10, and tumor necrosis factor alpha.

Environment International 81, August 2015, 1–7 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412015000872)

- o -

10) Fetal growth and maternal exposure to particulate air pollution --  
More marked effects at lower exposure and modification by gestational  
duration

Ellen Winckelmans, Bianca Cox, Evelyne Martens, Frans Fierens, Benoit  
Nemery, Tim S. Nawrot
We examine the association between maternal PM10 exposure and fetal  
growth. The study population consists of 525,635 newborns born between  
1999 and 2009. We stratify for gestational age (extreme, moderate  
preterm and full term). We observe a (non-linear) association for  
moderate preterm and full term births. Increasing maternal exposure  
has a higher impact at lower PM10 concentration.

Environmental Research 140, July 2015, 611–618 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935115001619)

- o -

11) Effects of particulate air pollution on nasal and lung function  
development among Greek children: a 19-year cohort study

Dionisios Spyratos, Constantinos Sioutas, Anastasios Tsiotsios,  
Anna-Bettina Haidich, Diamantis Chloros, Georgios Triantafyllou,  
Lazaros Sichletidis

Particulate air pollution had significant and negative effects on  
nasal but not on lung function development.
International Journal of Environmental Health Research 25:5 2015  
480-489 - read abstract  
(http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09603123.2014.979775#.VdGX2aRVhHw)

- o -

12) Long-term residential exposure to urban air pollution, and  
repeated measures of systemic blood markers of inflammation and  
coagulation

Anja Viehmann, Sabine Hertel, Kateryna Fuks, Lewin Eisele, Susanne  
Moebus, Stefan Möhlenkamp, Michael Nonnemacher, Hermann Jakobs,  
Raimund Erbel, Karl-Heinz Jöckel, Barbara Hoffmann, on behalf of the  
Heinz Nixdorf Recall Investigator Group

In this population-based cohort, we found associations of long-term  
exposure to PM with markers of inflammation (hs-CRP) and coagulation  
(platelets). This finding supports the hypothesis that inflammatory  
processes might contribute to chronic effects of air pollution on  
cardiovascular disease.

Occup Environ Med 2015;72:656-663 - read abstract  
(http://oem.bmj.com/content/72/9/656.abstract?etoc)

- o -

13) Integrating smart-phone based momentary location tracking with  
fixed site air quality monitoring for personal exposure assessment

Jason G. Su, Michael Jerrett, Ying-Ying Meng, Melissa Pickett, Beate Ritz

Integrating location tracking and air quality monitoring to estimate  
personal exposure. Application of "topics models" to aggregate data in  
space-time and reduce data noise. Application of  
Deletion/Substitution/Addition modeling technique to avoid  
over-fitting. Identified the usefulness of using WiFi network only for  
personal location tracking. Identified typical issues associated with  
location tracking through smart phones. Personal exposure could be  
substantially different from home addressed based exposure.

Science of The Total Environment 506–507, 15 February 2015, 518–526 -  
read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969714016040)

- o -

14) Modelling street level PM10 concentrations across Europe: source  
apportionment and possible futures

G. Kiesewetter, J. Borken-Kleefeld, W. Schöpp, C. Heyes, P. Thunis, B.  
Bessagnet, E. Terrenoire, H. Fagerli, A. Nyiri, M. Amann

The modelling scheme is applied here to quantify explicitly source  
contributions to ambient concentrations at several critical monitoring  
stations, displaying the differences in spatial origin and chemical  
composition of urban roadside PM10 across Europe. Furthermore, we  
analyse the predicted evolution of PM10 concentrations in the European  
Union until 2030 under different policy scenarios. Significant  
improvements in ambient PM10 concentrations are expected assuming  
successful implementation of already agreed legislation; however,  
these will not be large enough to ensure attainment of PM10 limit  
values in hot spot locations such as Southern Poland and major  
European cities. Remaining issues are largely eliminated in a scenario  
applying the best available emission control technologies to the  
maximal technically feasible extent.

Atmos. Chem. Phys 15, 1539–1553, 2015 - read article  
(http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/15/1539/2015/acp-15-1539-2015.pdf)

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15) City grime 'breathes back out' polluting nitrogen gases

Jonathan Webb

Scientists say the grime which clings to urban surfaces "breathes out"  
nitrogen gases when hit by sunlight. The dark muck was known to absorb  
such gases from the air, but it appears the nitrogen does not stay  
locked away. In rooftop experiments in Germany, the researchers  
tracked the content of grime in both sunshine and shade. They say  
sunlit grime releases nitrogen in two forms: the toxic pollutant  
nitrogen dioxide (NO2), plus nitrous acid - a key driver of smog  
formation. The findings, presented at a conference of the American  
Chemical Society in Boston, were welcomed by pollution experts - and  
may explain a "missing" source of smog-producing gas in the skies of  
London.

BBC News 18 August 2015 - read article  
(http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-33970233)

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---------------------------------------------------------------------

Compiler and Editor: Barbara Rimmington, Researcher, East End Quality
of Life Initiative

10 Montgomery Terrace Road

Sheffield S6 3BU

Tel. 0114 285 9931

Fax 0114 278 7173

Email: barbara at sheffieldct.co.uk

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