[cleanairuk_news] Health Effects of Air Quality and Noise - update September 2015

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Tue Oct 27 15:41:36 GMT 2015


* Health Effects of Air Quality and Noise - update September 2015 *

By Barbara Rimmington, Researcher, East End Quality of Life Initiative

(Previous edition - August 2015:
http://cleanairuk.org/pipermail/news_cleanairuk.org/2015-September/000089.html)

(Index for previous issues:
http://www.cleanairuk.org/health-air-pollution.html)

*CONTENTS*

1) Developing Community-Level Policy and Practice to Reduce  
Traffic-Related Air Pollution Exposure

2) Traffic-Related Air Pollution, Noise at School, and Behavioral  
Problems in Barcelona Schoolchildren: A Cross-Sectional Study

3) Carotid Intima-Media Thickness and Long-Term Exposure to  
Traffic-Related Air Pollution in Middle-Aged Residents of Taiwan: A  
Cross-Sectional Study

4) Associations between Long-Term Air Pollutant Exposures and Blood  
Pressure in Elderly Residents of Taipei City: A Cross-Sectional Study

5) Air Pollution from Road Traffic and Systemic Inflammation in  
Adults: A Cross-Sectional Analysis in the European ESCAPE Project

6) In Utero Fine Particle Air Pollution and Placental Expression of  
Genes in the Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Signaling Pathway: An  
ENVIRONAGE Birth Cohort Study

7) Air Pollution and Lung Function in Dutch Children: A Comparison of  
Exposure Estimates and Associations Based on Land Use Regression and  
Dispersion Exposure Modeling Approache

8) Exposure to allergen and diesel exhaust particles potentiates  
secondary allergen-specific memory responses, promoting asthma  
susceptibility

9) Air Pollution in China: Mapping of Concentrations and Sources

10) Air Pollution and Birth Weight: New Clues about a Potential  
Critical Window of Exposure

11) Differences in Birth Weight Associated with the 2008 Beijing  
Olympics Air Pollution Reduction: Results from a Natural Experiment

12) Association of Atmospheric Particulate Matter and Ozone with  
Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

13) Perinatal Exposure to Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Atopy at 1  
Year of Age in a Multi-Center Canadian Birth Cohort Study

14) Long-Term Ambient Residential Traffic–Related Exposures and  
Measurement Error–Adjusted Risk of Incident Lung Cancer in the  
Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer

15) Comment on “Ambient Coarse Particulate Matter and Hospital  
Admissions in the Medicare Cohort Air Pollution Study, 1999–2010”

16) Using metal ratios to detect emissions from municipal waste  
incinerators in ambient air pollution data

- o -

1) Developing Community-Level Policy and Practice to Reduce  
Traffic-Related Air Pollution Exposure

Doug Brugge, Allison P. Patton, Alex Bob, Ellin Reisner, Lydia Lowe,  
Oliver-John M. Bright, John L. Durant, Jim Newman, and Wig Zamore

The literature consistently shows associations of adverse  
cardiovascular and pulmonary outcomes with residential proximity to  
highways and major roadways. Air monitoring shows that trafficrelated  
air pollutants (TRAP) are elevated within 200–400 meters of these  
roads. Community-level tactics for reducing exposure include the  
following: 1) high-efficiency particulate arrestance (HEPA)  
filtration; 2) appropriate air-intake locations; 3) sound proofing,  
insulation; 4) land-use buffers; 5) vegetation or wall barriers; 6)  
street-side trees, hedges and vegetation; 7) decking over highways; 8)  
urban design including placement of buildings; 9) garden and park  
locations; and 10) active-travel locations, including bicycling and  
walking paths. A multidisciplinary design charrette was held to test  
the feasibility of incorporating these tactics into near-highway  
housing and school developments that were in the planning stages. The  
resulting designs successfully utilized many of the protective tactics  
and also led to engagement with the designers and developers of the  
sites. There is a need to increase awareness of TRAP in terms of  
building design and urban planning.

Environmental Justice 8,3 2015 - read article  
(http://online.liebertpub.com/doi/pdf/10.1089/env.2015.0007)

- o -

2) Traffic-Related Air Pollution, Noise at School, and Behavioral  
Problems in Barcelona Schoolchildren: A Cross-Sectional Study

Joan Forns, Payam Dadvand, Maria Foraster, Mar Alvarez-Pedrerol, Ioar  
Rivas, Mònica López-Vicente, Elisabet Suades-Gonzalez, Raquel  
Garcia-Esteban, Mikel Esnaola, Marta Cirach, James Grellier, Xavier  
Basagaña, Xavier Querol, Mònica Guxens, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen, Jordi  
Sunyer

In our study population of 7–11 year old children residing in  
Barcelona, exposure to traffic-related air pollutants (TRAPs) at  
school was associated with more behavioral problems in schoolchildren.  
Noise exposure at school was associated with more ADHD symptoms.
Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1409449 - read   
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1409449/#tab1) abstract  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1409449/#tab1)

- o -

3) Carotid Intima-Media Thickness and Long-Term Exposure to  
Traffic-Related Air Pollution in Middle-Aged Residents of Taiwan: A  
Cross-Sectional Study

Ta-Chen Su, Juey-Jen Hwang, Yu-Cheng Shen, Chang-Chuan Chan

Long-term exposures to traffic-related air pollution of PM2.5abs,  
PM10, NO2, and NOx were positively associated with subclinical  
atherosclerosis in middle-aged adults.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1408553 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1408553/)

- o -

4) Associations between Long-Term Air Pollutant Exposures and Blood  
Pressure in Elderly Residents of Taipei City: A Cross-Sectional Study

Szu-Ying Chen, Chang-Fu Wu, Jui-Huan Lee, Barbara Hoffmann, Annette  
Peters, Bert Brunekreef, Da-Chen Chu, Chang-Chuan Chan

One-year exposures to PM10, PM2.5–10, PM2.5 absorbance, and NOx were  
associated with higher diastolic blood pressure (BP) in elderly  
residents of Taipei.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1408771 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1408771/)

- o -

5) Air Pollution from Road Traffic and Systemic Inflammation in  
Adults: A Cross-Sectional Analysis in the European ESCAPE Project

Timo Lanki, Regina Hampel, Pekka Tiittanen, Silke Andrich, Rob Beelen,  
Bert Brunekreef, Julia Dratva, Ulf De Faire, Kateryna B. Fuks, Barbara  
Hoffmann, Medea Imboden, Pekka Jousilahti, Wolfgang Koenig, Amir A.  
Mahabadi, Nino Künzli, Nancy L. Pedersen, Johanna Penell, Göran  
Pershagen, Nicole M. Probst-Hensch, Emmanuel Schaffner, Christian  
Schindler, Dorothea Sugiri, Wim J.R. Swart, Ming-Yi Tsai, Anu W.  
Turunen, Gudrun Weinmayr, Kathrin Wolf, Tarja Yli-Tuomi, Annette Peters

Living close to busy traffic was associated with increased C-reactive  
protein (CRP concentrations, a known risk factor for cardiovascular  
diseases. However, it remains unclear which specific air pollutants  
are responsible for the association.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1408224 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1408224/)

- o -

6) In Utero Fine Particle Air Pollution and Placental Expression of  
Genes in the Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Signaling Pathway: An  
ENVIRONAGE Birth Cohort Study

Nelly D. Saenen, Michelle Plusquin, Esmée Bijnens, Bram G. Janssen,  
Wilfried Gyselaers, Bianca Cox, Frans Fierens, Geert Molenberghs,  
Joris Penders, Karen Vrijens, Patrick De Boever, Tim S. Nawrot

Developmental processes in the placenta and the fetal brain are shaped  
by the same biological signals. Recent evidence suggests that adaptive  
responses of the placenta to the maternal environment may influence  
central nervous system development. Placental expression of  
Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) and synapsin 1 (SYN1), two  
genes implicated in normal neurodevelopmental trajectories, decreased  
with increasing in utero exposure to PM2.5. Future studies are needed  
to confirm our findings and evaluate the potential relevance of  
associations between PM2.5 and placental expression of BDNF and SYN1  
on neurodevelopment. We provide the first molecular epidemiological  
evidence concerning associations between in utero fine particle air  
pollution exposure and the expression of genes that may influence  
neurodevelopmental processes.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1408549 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1408549/)

- o -

7) Air Pollution and Lung Function in Dutch Children: A Comparison of  
Exposure Estimates and Associations Based on Land Use Regression and  
Dispersion Exposure Modeling Approaches

Meng Wang, Ulrike Gehring, Gerard Hoek, Menno Keuken, Sander Jonkers,  
Rob Beelen, Marloes Eeftens, Dirkje S. Postma, Bert Brunekreef
Predictions from land use regression (LUR) and dispersion models  
correlated very well for PM2.5, NO2, and PM2.5 soot but not for PM10.  
Health effect estimates did not depend on the type of model used to  
estimate exposure in a population of Dutch children.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1408541 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1408541/)

- o -

8) Exposure to allergen and diesel exhaust particles potentiates  
secondary allergen-specific memory responses, promoting asthma  
susceptibility

Eric B. Brandt, Jocelyn M. Biagini Myers, Thomas H. Acciani, Patrick  
H. Ryan, Umasundari Sivaprasad, Brandy Ruff, Grace K. LeMasters, David  
I. Bernstein, James E. Lockey, Timothy D. LeCras, Gurjit K. Khurana  
Hershey

These findings suggest that diesel exhaust particles (DEP) exposure  
results in accumulation of allergen-specific TH2/TH17 cells in the  
lungs, potentiating secondary allergen recall responses and promoting  
the development of allergic asthma.

Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology August 2015 136,2  
295–303.e7 - read abstract  
(http://www.jacionline.org/article/S0091-6749(15)00094-9/abstract)

- o -

9) Air Pollution in China: Mapping of Concentrations and Sources

Robert A. Rohde, Richard A. Muller

China has recently made available hourly air pollution data from over  
1500 sites, including airborne particulate matter (PM), SO2, NO2, and  
O3. We apply Kriging interpolation to four months of data to derive  
pollution maps for eastern China. Consistent with prior findings, the  
greatest pollution occurs in the east, but significant levels are  
widespread across northern and central China and are not limited to  
major cities or geologic basins. Sources of pollution are widespread,  
but are particularly intense in a northeast corridor that extends from  
near Shanghai to north of Beijing. During our analysis period, 92% of  
the population of China experienced >120 hours of unhealthy air (US  
EPA standard), and 38% experienced average concentrations that were  
unhealthy. China’s population-weighted average exposure to PM2.5 was  
52 μg/m3. The observed air pollution is calculated to contribute to  
1.6 million deaths/year in China [0.7–2.2 million deaths/year at 95%  
confidence], roughly 17%
of all deaths in China.

PLoS ONE 10(8): e0135749. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0135749 - read  
article  
(http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0135749)

- o -

10) Air Pollution and Birth Weight: New Clues about a Potential  
Critical Window of Exposure

Nancy Averett

Researchers have previously reported associations between exposure to  
air pollution during pregnancy and decreased birth weights. However,  
in any given location there is usually very little variation in air  
pollutant concentrations over short time periods, barring events such  
as wildfires and other seasonally influenced sources of pollution. It  
has therefore been difficult to pinpoint a particular window of time  
during gestation when an exposed fetus might be particularly  
susceptible to air pollutants. In this issue of EHP, investigators  
report findings on birth weight arising from a unique research  
opportunity: the temporary decline in air pollution during the 47 days  
comprising the 2008 Beijing Summer Olympic Games and Paralympic Games.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.123-A242 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/123-A242/)

- o -

11) Differences in Birth Weight Associated with the 2008 Beijing  
Olympics Air Pollution Reduction: Results from a Natural Experiment

David Q. Rich, Kaibo Liu, Jinliang Zhang, Sally W. Thurston, Timothy  
P. Stevens, Ying Pan, Cathleen Kane, Barry Weinberger, Pamela  
Ohman-Strickland, Tracey J. Woodruff, Xiaoli Duan, Vanessa  
Assibey-Mensah, Junfeng Zhang

Short-term decreases in air pollution late in pregnancy in Beijing  
during the 2008 Summer Olympics, a normally heavily polluted city,  
were associated with higher birth weight.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1408795 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1408795/)

- o -

12) Association of Atmospheric Particulate Matter and Ozone with  
Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

Hui Hu, Sandie Ha, Barron H. Henderson, Tamara D. Warner, Jeffrey  
Roth, Haidong Kan, Xiaohui Xu

This population-based study suggests that exposure to air pollution  
during pregnancy is associated with increased risk of Gestational  
Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) in Florida, USA.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1408456 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1408456/)

- o -

13) Perinatal Exposure to Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Atopy at 1  
Year of Age in a Multi-Center Canadian Birth Cohort Study

Hind Sbihi, Ryan W. Allen, Allan Becker, Jeffrey R. Brook, Piush  
Mandhane, James A. Scott, Malcolm R. Sears, Padmaja Subbarao, Tim K.  
Takaro, Stuart E. Turvey, Michael Brauer

Using refined exposure estimates that incorporated temporal  
variability and residential mobility, we found that traffic-related  
air pollution during the first year of life was associated with atopy.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1408700 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1408700/)

- o -

14) Long-Term Ambient Residential Traffic–Related Exposures and  
Measurement Error–Adjusted Risk of Incident Lung Cancer in the  
Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer

Jaime E. Hart, Donna Spiegelman, Rob Beelen, Gerard Hoek, Bert  
Brunekreef, Leo J. Schouten, Piet van den Brandt

These findings add support to a growing body of literature on the  
effects of air pollution on lung cancer. In addition, they highlight  
variation in measurement error by pollutant and support the  
implementation of measurement error corrections when possible.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1408762 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1408762/)

- o -

15) Comment on “Ambient Coarse Particulate Matter and Hospital  
Admissions in the Medicare Cohort Air Pollution Study, 1999–2010”

Eduardo Hernández-Garduño

Recent climate change studies also have shown an association between  
weather variables and cardiorespiratory mortality. A recent  
multicounty/multicity study in Northeast Asia by Chung et al. (2015)  
found that extreme ambient temperatures were associated with  
cardiorespiratory mortality after adjusting for atmospheric pressure,  
relative humidity, and air pollution data. An interesting finding in  
this study was the decrease of cold effect on mortality by 2.36% (95%  
CI: −4.27, −0.45) associated with an increase in the interquartile  
range of annual average daily mean atmospheric pressure.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1510123 - read letter  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1510123/)

- o -

16) Using metal ratios to detect emissions from municipal waste  
incinerators in ambient air pollution data

Anna Font, Kees de Hoogh, Maria Leal-Sanchez, Danielle C. Ashworth,  
Richard J.C. Brown, Anna L. Hansell, Gary W. Fuller

Metal ratios used to fingerprint emissions from UK municipal waste  
incinerators (including Sheffield). Weekly ambient metals data and  
high-resolved met data were used. No evidence of incinerator emissions  
within 10 km around four installations. Ambient metal ratios agreeing  
with emissions in sites within 10 km of two plants. Plume grounding  
detected for less than 0.2% of the time, contributing little to PM.

Atmospheric Environment 113, July 2015, 177–186 - read article  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1352231015300753)

- o -

Compiler and Editor: Barbara Rimmington, Researcher, East End Quality
of Life Initiative

10 Montgomery Terrace Road
Sheffield S6 3BU
Tel. 0114 285 9931
Fax 0114 278 7173

Email: barbara at sheffieldct.co.uk

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