[cleanairuk_news] Health Effects of Air Quality and Noise - update April 2015

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* Health Effects of Air Quality and Noise - update April 2015 *

By Barbara Rimmington, Researcher, East End Quality of Life Initiative

(Previous edition - March 2015:  
http://cleanairuk.org/pipermail/news_cleanairuk.org/2015-April/000083.html)

(Index for previous issues:  
http://www.cleanairuk.org/health-air-pollution.html)

*CONTENTS*

1) Quantification of population exposure to NO2, PM2.5 and PM10 and  
estimated health impacts in Sweden 2010

2) Occupational exposure to diesel engine exhaust and alterations in  
lymphocyte subsets

3) Evaluation of green walls as a passive acoustic insulation system  
for buildings

4) Correlation of noise levels and particulate matter concentrations  
near two major freeways in Los Angeles, California

5) A Longitudinal Cohort Study of Body Mass Index and Childhood  
Exposure to Secondhand Tobacco Smoke and Air Pollution: The Southern  
California Children’s Health Study

6) A Unified Spatiotemporal Modeling Approach for Predicting  
Concentrations of Multiple Air Pollutants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of  
Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution

7) Prenatal Air Pollution Exposure and Newborn Blood Pressure

8) Air Pollution and Neonatal Blood Pressure: Examining Earlier Exposures

9) Ensemble-Based Source Apportionment of Fine Particulate Matter and  
Emergency Department Visits for Pediatric Asthma

10) Short term exposure to air pollution and stroke: systematic review  
and meta-analysis

11) Interaction Effects of Temperature and Ozone on Lung Function and  
Markers of Systemic Inflammation, Coagulation, and Fibrinolysis: A  
Crossover Study of Healthy Young Volunteers

12) Health risks of air pollution in Europe – HRAPIE project

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1) Quantification of population exposure to NO2, PM2.5 and PM10 and  
estimated health impacts in Sweden 2010

Malin Gustafsson, Bertil Forsberg, Hans Orru, Stefan Åström, Haben  
Tekie, Karin Sjöberg

We estimated approximately 3 500 preterm deaths per year from PM2.5  
without any division between sources and using the exposure-response  
coefficient 6.2% per 10 µg/m3. Assuming a division between sources we  
estimated that non-local sources caused just over 3 000 preterm deaths  
per year (exposure-response coefficient 6.2% per 10 µg/m3), and  
residential wood burning caused just over 1 000 preterm deaths per  
year (exposure-response coefficient 17% per 10 µg/m3). In addition, we  
estimated approximately 1 300 preterm deaths per year from locally  
generated vehicle exhaust using NO2 as an indicator (exposure-response  
coefficient 17% per 10 µg/m3 and a 5 µg/m3 cut-off). Preterm mortality  
related to short-term exposure to road dust PM, estimated to over 200  
deaths per year (exposure-response coefficient 1,7% per 10 µg/m3),  
should probably be added to the impact of local traffic in Sweden. In  
summary, the total number of preterm deaths can be estimated to  
approximately 5 500 per year when taking into account differences in  
exposureresponse for different PM sources. Note that the ground-level  
ozone has not been taken into account in this study, but can still  
cause premature deaths and other health issues.

IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute Ltd. December 2014, 74pp  
- read report  
(http://ivl.se/download/18.41ba7c1514a956c967d64d/1429095505500/IVL+B2197_Exponering_2010.pdf)

- o -

2) Occupational exposure to diesel engine exhaust and alterations in  
lymphocyte subsets

Qing Lan, Roel Vermeulen, Yufei Dai, Dianzhi Ren, Wei Hu, Huawei Duan,  
Yong Niu, Jun Xu, Wei Fu, Kees Meliefste, Baosen Zhou, Jufang Yang,  
Meng Ye, Xiaowei Jia, Tao Meng, Ping Bin, Christopher Kim, Bryan A  
Bassig, H Dean Hosgood III, Debra Silverman, Yuxin Zheng, Nathaniel  
Rothman

The International Agency for Research on Cancer recently classified  
diesel engine exhaust (DEE) as a Group I carcinogen based largely on  
its association with lung cancer. However, the exposure–response  
relationship is still a subject of debate and the underlying mechanism  
by which DEE causes lung cancer in humans is not well understood. This  
study provides new insights into the underlying mechanism of DEE  
carcinogenicity.

Occup Environ Med 2015;72:354-359 - read abstract  
(http://oem.bmj.com/content/72/5/354.abstract?etoc)

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3) Evaluation of green walls as a passive acoustic insulation system  
for buildings

Z. Azkorra, G. Pérez, J. Coma, L.F. Cabeza, S. Bures, J.E. Álvaro, A.  
Erkoreka, M. Urrestarazu

Weighted sound reduction index of 15 db were obtained by green wall.  
Weighted sound absorption coefficient of 0.40 were found by green  
wall. Green wall have significant potential sound insulation for  
vegetal architecture.

Applied Acoustics 89, March 2015, 46–56 - read article  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0003682X14002333)

- o -

4) Correlation of noise levels and particulate matter concentrations  
near two major freeways in Los Angeles, California

Shi Shu, Pu Yang, Yifang Zhu

Spatial distributions of PM and noise were concurrently measured near  
freeways. Noise showed a more symmetrical profile on both sides of  
freeways. UFP concentrations decay with increasing distance to freeway  
only on downwind side. Moderate correlations between UFP and noise  
were identified at downwind side. Presence of sound wall changed the  
correlation between UFP and noise.

Environmental Pollution 193, October 2014, 130–137 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0269749114002577)

- o -

5) A Longitudinal Cohort Study of Body Mass Index and Childhood  
Exposure to Secondhand Tobacco Smoke and Air Pollution: The Southern  
California Children’s Health Study

Rob McConnell, Ernest Shen, Frank D. Gilliland, Michael Jerrett,  
Jennifer Wolch, Chih-Chieh Chang, Frederick Lurmann, Kiros Berhane

Our findings strengthen emerging evidence that exposure to tobacco  
smoke and NRP (near-roadway pollution exposure) contribute to  
development of childhood obesity and suggest that combined exposures  
may have synergistic effects.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1307031 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1307031/)

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6) A Unified Spatiotemporal Modeling Approach for Predicting  
Concentrations of Multiple Air Pollutants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of  
Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution

Joshua P. Keller, Casey Olives, Sun-Young Kim, Lianne Sheppard, Paul  
D. Sampson, Adam A. Szpiro, Assaf P. Oron, Johan Lindström, Sverre  
Vedal, Joel D. Kaufman
This novel spatiotemporal modeling approach provides accurate  
fine-scale predictions in multiple regions for four pollutants. We  
have generated participant-specific predictions for MESA Air to  
investigate health effects of long-term air pollution exposures. These  
successes highlight modeling advances that can be adopted more widely  
in modern cohort studies.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1408145 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1408145/)

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7) Prenatal Air Pollution Exposure and Newborn Blood Pressure

Lenie van Rossem, Sheryl L. Rifas-Shiman, Steven J. Melly, Itai Kloog,  
Heike Luttmann-Gibson, Antonella Zanobetti, Brent A. Coull, Joel D.  
Schwartz, Murray A. Mittleman, Emily Oken, Matthew W. Gillman, Petros  
Koutrakis, Diane R. Gold

Exposures to PM2.5 and BC (black carbon) in late pregnancy were  
positively associated with newborn SBP (systolic blood pressure),  
whereas O3 was negatively associated with SBP. Longitudinal follow-up  
will enable us to assess the implications of these findings for health  
during later childhood and adulthood.
Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1307419 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1307419/)

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8) Air Pollution and Neonatal Blood Pressure: Examining Earlier Exposures

Wendee Nicole

Ambient air pollution has been associated in some studies (but not  
all) with increased blood pressure in adults1 and children.2,3 A study  
in this issue of EHP examines even earlier exposures during gestation,  
an important period of cardiovascular growth and development.4 The  
results show a small but significant increase in newborn systolic  
blood pressure associated with exposure in the third trimester to  
black carbon (BC) and, to a lesser extent, fine particulate matter  
(PM2.5).

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.123-A94 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/123-A94/)

- o -

9) Ensemble-Based Source Apportionment of Fine Particulate Matter and  
Emergency Department Visits for Pediatric Asthma

Katherine Gass, Sivaraman Balachandran, Howard H. Chang, Armistead G.  
Russell, Matthew J. Strickland

Adverse associations with pediatric asthma were observed for 8-day  
exposure to particles generated from diesel-fueled vehicles (rate  
ratio = 1.06, 95% confidence interval: 1.01, 1.10) and gasoline-fueled  
vehicles (rate ratio = 1.10, 95% confidence interval: 1.04, 1.17).

Am. J. Epidemiol (2015) 181(7): 504-512 - read abstract  
(http://aje.oxfordjournals.org/content/181/7/504.abstract?etoc)

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10) Short term exposure to air pollution and stroke: systematic review  
and meta-analysis

Anoop S V Shah, Kuan Ken Lee, David A McAllister, Amanda Hunter,  
Harish Nair,  William Whiteley, Jeremy P Langrish, David E Newby,  
Nicholas L Mills

Gaseous and particulate air pollutants have a marked and close  
temporal association with admissions to hospital for stroke or  
mortality from stroke. Public and environmental health policies to  
reduce air pollution could reduce the burden of stroke.
BMJ 2015;350:h1295 - read article  
(http://www.bmj.com/content/350/bmj.h1295?etoc=)

The relation between past exposure to fine particulate air pollution  
and prevalent anxiety: observational cohort study
Melinda C Power, Marianthi-Anna Kioumourtzoglou, Jaime E Hart, Olivia  
I Okereke,  Francine Laden, Marc G Weisskopf
Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) was associated with high  
symptoms of anxiety, with more recent exposures potentially more  
relevant than more distant exposures. Research evaluating whether  
reductions in exposure to ambient PM2.5 would reduce the population  
level burden of clinically relevant symptoms of anxiety is warranted.

BMJ 2015;350:h1111 - read article  
(http://www.bmj.com/content/350/bmj.h1111?etoc=)

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11) Interaction Effects of Temperature and Ozone on Lung Function and  
Markers of Systemic Inflammation, Coagulation, and Fibrinolysis: A  
Crossover Study of Healthy Young Volunteers

Juliette J. Kahle, Lucas M. Neas, Robert B. Devlin, Martin W. Case,  
Michael T. Schmitt, Michael C. Madden, David Diaz-Sanchez

Ozone-induced systemic but not respiratory effects varied according to  
temperature. Our study suggests that at moderate temperature ozone may  
activate the fibrinolytic pathway, while at elevated temperature ozone  
may impair it. These findings provide a biological basis for the  
interaction between temperature and ozone on mortality observed in  
some epidemiologic studies.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1307986 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1307986/)

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12) Health risks of air pollution in Europe – HRAPIE project

New emerging risks to health from air pollution – results from the  
survey of experts

Susann Henschel and Gabrielle Chan

The main findings of the survey are that the majority of  respondents  
identified the general categories of “road traffic”, “space heating  
and air conditioning”, and “shipping” as the top three emission source  
categories of concern associated with emerging issues for public  
health. The experts felt that fine and ultra-fine particles and their  
metal content are of greatest concern in relation to health effects.  
Some of the issues identified are not new but may not have been  
sufficiently recognized or given priority in the past, while their  
significance or importance is now coming to the fore. The experts also  
felt that many well-known issues still require attention. The views of  
the experts are generally consistent with the findings of the REVIHAAP  
evidence review.

World Health Organization 2013, 65pp - read report  
(http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0017/234026/e96933.pdf?ua=1)

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---------------------------------------------------------------------

Compiler and Editor: Barbara Rimmington, Researcher, East End Quality
of Life Initiative

10 Montgomery Terrace Road

Sheffield S6 3BU

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Fax 0114 278 7173

Email: barbara at sheffieldct.co.uk

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