[cleanairuk_news] Health Effects of Air Quality and Noise - update May 2015

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Tue Jun 30 15:58:59 BST 2015


* Health Effects of Air Quality and Noise - update May 2015 *

By Barbara Rimmington, Researcher, East End Quality of Life Initiative

(Previous edition - April 2015:  
http://cleanairuk.org/pipermail/news_cleanairuk.org/2015-May/000084.html)

(Index for previous issues:  
http://www.cleanairuk.org/health-air-pollution.html)

*Notice*

Clean Air Convergence (Sat 4 July 2015, London): An unconference for  
better air quality & less air pollution. All welcome. Organised by  
Network for Clean Air. Details:  
http://www.cleanairuk.org/convergence.html

*CONTENTS*

1) The impacts of traffic-related and woodsmoke particulate matter on  
measures of cardiovascular health: a HEPA filter intervention study

2) Associations between Long-Term Exposure to Chemical Constituents of  
Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) and Mortality in Medicare Enrollees in  
the Eastern United States

3) Fine Particulate Matter Components and Emergency Department Visits  
for Cardiovascular and Respiratory Diseases in the St. Louis,  
Missouri–Illinois, Metropolitan Area

4) Association between Ambient Air Pollution and Diabetes Mellitus in  
Europe and North America: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

5) Environmental Noise: Valuing impacts on: sleep disturbance,  
annoyance, hypertension, productivity and quiet. A report informed by:  
the Interdepartmental Group on Costs and Benefits Noise Subject Group

6) Long-term air pollution exposure and diabetes in a population-based  
Swiss cohort

7) The impact of an urban park on air pollution and noise levels in  
the Mediterranean city of Tel-Aviv, Israel

8) Influence of avenue-trees on air quality at the urban neighborhood  
scale. Part II: Traffic pollutant concentrations at pedestrian level

9) Traffic-related pollution and asthma prevalence in children.  
Quantification of associations with nitrogen dioxide

10) Differences in Birth Weight Associated with the 2008 Beijing  
Olympic Air Pollution Reduction: Results from a Natural Experiment

11) Air pollution ‘costs UK economy £54 billion a year’

12) Correspondence: Ambient Air Pollution and Depressive Symptoms in  
Older Adults

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1) The impacts of traffic-related and woodsmoke particulate matter on  
measures of cardiovascular health: a HEPA filter intervention study

Majid Kajbafzadeh, Michael Brauer, Barbara Karlen, Chris Carlsten,  
Stephan van Eeden, Ryan W Allen

Evidence of an association between C reactive protein and indoor PM2.5  
among healthy adults in traffic-impacted areas is consistent with the  
hypothesis that traffic-related particles, even at relatively low  
concentrations, play an important role in the cardiovascular effects  
of the urban PM mixture.

Occup Environ Med 2015;72:394-400 - read abstract  
(http://oem.bmj.com/content/72/6/394.abstract?etoc)

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2) Associations between Long-Term Exposure to Chemical Constituents of  
Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) and Mortality in Medicare Enrollees in  
the Eastern United States

Yeonseung Chung, Francesca Dominici, Yun Wang, Brent A. Coull,  
Michelle L. Bell

Long-term exposures to PM2.5 and several constituents were associated  
with mortality in the elderly population of the eastern United States.  
Moreover, some constituents increased the association between  
long-term exposure to PM2.5 and mortality. These results provide new  
evidence that chemical composition can partly explain the differential  
toxicity of PM2.5.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1307549 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1307549/)

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3) Fine Particulate Matter Components and Emergency Department Visits  
for Cardiovascular and Respiratory Diseases in the St. Louis,  
Missouri–Illinois, Metropolitan Area

Stefanie Ebelt Sarnat, Andrea Winquist, James J. Schauer, Jay R.  
Turner, Jeremy A. Sarnat

Our findings add to the growing field examining the health effects of  
PM2.5 components. Combustion-related components of the pollutant mix  
showed particularly strong associations with cardiorespiratory ED  
visit outcomes.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1307776 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1307776/)

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4) Association between Ambient Air Pollution and Diabetes Mellitus in  
Europe and North America: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Ikenna C. Eze, Lars G. Hemkens, Heiner C. Bucher, Barbara Hoffmann,  
Christian Schindler, Nino Künzli, Tamara Schikowski, Nicole M.  
Probst-Hensch

Existing evidence indicates a positive association of air pollution  
and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) risk, albeit there is high risk of  
bias. High-quality studies assessing dose–response effects are needed.  
Research should be expanded to developing countries where outdoor and  
indoor air pollution are high.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1307823 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1307823/) and editorial  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/123-A134/)

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5) Environmental Noise: Valuing impacts on: sleep disturbance,  
annoyance, hypertension, productivity and quiet. A report informed by:  
the Interdepartmental Group on Costs and Benefits Noise Subject Group

Five key areas addressed by this report are: sleep disturbance,  
annoyance, hypertension, productivity and quiet areas. Key  
Recommendations:

1. It is recommended that the impacts of noise on sleep disturbance  
are monetised and reflected in appraisal, where it is proportionate to  
do so.
2. Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) should be used to reflect  
the value of impacts related to annoyance from environmental noise,  
where it is proportionate to do so.
3. Where a decision is expected to alter the level of environmental  
noise, the impacts on hypertension—and consequently on dementia and  
stroke should be considered and where proportionate quantified and  
valued.
4. Further research into the productivity impacts of noise should be  
prioritised, particularly on the impacts arising from noise-related  
sleep disturbance.
5. The method set out in Chapter 6 should be used to value impacts  
that occur on quiet areas, where sufficient evidence is available.  
This approach aims to reflect the public good properties of quiet  
areas and therefore how individual preferences need to be aggregated  
to obtain a public value.

DEFRA November 2014 61pp - read report  
(https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/380852/environmental-noise-valuing-imapcts-PB14227.pdf)

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6) Long-term air pollution exposure and diabetes in a population-based  
Swiss cohort

Ikenna C. Eze, Emmanuel Schaffner, Evelyn Fischer, Tamara Schikowski,  
Martin Adam, Medea Imboden, Ming Tsai, David Carballo, Arnold von  
Eckardstein, Nino Künzli, Christian Schindler, Nicole Probst-Hensch

We model associations of ambient air pollution and diabetes  
prevalence. The effect of incremental adjustment for potential  
confounders was studied. A stable positive association was observed,  
which might be non-linear. Beta-blocker may be protective for the  
effects of PM10 on diabetes prevalence. Associations were present at  
pollution levels below air quality guidelines.

Environment International 70, September 2014, 95–105

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7) The impact of an urban park on air pollution and noise levels in  
the Mediterranean city of Tel-Aviv, Israel

Pninit Cohen, Oded Potchter, , Izhak Schnell

The impact of an urban park on air pollution and noise levels is  
examined. The urban park is an effective tool for noise and air  
pollution mitigation. Urban parks can reduce noise, NOx, CO and PM10  
values and increase O3 levels. Park's mitigation effect is greater at  
higher NOx and PM10 levels. Tree impact on dust mitigation is most  
effective during dust flow episodes.

Environmental Pollution 195, December 2014, 73–83 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0269749114003546)

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8) Influence of avenue-trees on air quality at the urban neighborhood  
scale. Part II: Traffic pollutant concentrations at pedestrian level

Christof Gromke, Bert Blocken

The impacts of trees on flow and dispersion in an urban neighborhood  
were studied. Trees cause quantitative and qualitative changes (flow  
reversals) in the wind field. Trees cause low to moderate increases in  
average concentrations (<13.2%). Trees cause strong locally restricted  
changes in concentrations (−87 to +1378%). Avenue-trees have to be  
considered for reliable urban air quality assessments.

Environmental Pollution 196, January 2015, 176–184 - read article  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0269749114004382)

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9) Traffic-related pollution and asthma prevalence in children.  
Quantification of associations with nitrogen dioxide

Graziella Favarato, H. Ross Anderson  , Richard Atkinson, Gary Fuller,  
Inga Mills, Heather Walton

Individual studies tended to have only weak positive associations  
between nitrogen dioxide and asthma prevalence but the summary  
estimate bordered on statistical significance at the 5 % level.  
Although small, the potential impact on asthma prevalence could be  
considerable because of the high level of baseline prevalence in many  
cities. Whether the association is causal or indicates the effects of  
a correlated pollutant or other confounders, the estimate obtained by  
the meta-analysis would be appropriate for estimating impacts of  
traffic pollution on asthma prevalence.

Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health 2014 10.1007/s11869-014-0265-8 - read  
article  
(http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11869-014-0265-8/fulltext.html)

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10) Differences in Birth Weight Associated with the 2008 Beijing  
Olympic Air Pollution Reduction: Results from a Natural Experiment

David Q. Rich, Kaibo Liu, Jinliang Zhang, Sally W. Thurston, Timothy  
P. Stevens, Ying Pan, Cathleen Kane, Barry Weinberger, Pamela Ohman  
Strickland, Tracey J. Woodruff, Xiaoli Duan, Vanessa Assibey-Mensah,  
and Junfeng Zhang

Short-term decreases in air pollution late in pregnancy in Beijing  
during the 2008 Summer Olympics, a normally heavily polluted city,  
were associated with higher birth weight.

Environ Health Perspect doi: 10.1289/ehp1408795 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/wp-content/uploads/advpub/2015/4/ehp.1408795.acco.pdf)

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11) Air pollution ‘costs UK economy £54 billion a year’

Michael Holder

Indoor and outdoor air pollution costs European economies as much as  
US$1.6 trillion (£1.05 trillion) each year in deaths and diseases  
according to a new study published by the World Health Organisation  
today (April 28).

Air Quality News, April 2015 - read article  
(http://www.airqualitynews.com/2015/04/28/air-pollution-costs-uk-economy-54-billion-a-year/)

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12) Correspondence: Ambient Air Pollution and Depressive Symptoms in  
Older Adults

Yongqing Gao, Tan Xu, Wenjie Sun

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1409657  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1409657/)
and Wellenius et al. Respond
Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1409657R  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1409657R/)


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Compiler and Editor: Barbara Rimmington, Researcher, East End Quality  
of Life Initiative

10 Montgomery Terrace Road

Sheffield S6 3BU

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Fax 0114 278 7173

Email: barbara at sheffieldct.co.uk

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