[cleanairuk_news] Health Effects of Air Quality and Noise - update March 2015

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* Health Effects of Air Quality and Noise - update March 2015 *

By Barbara Rimmington, Researcher, East End Quality of Life Initiative

(Previous edition - February 2015:  
http://cleanairuk.org/pipermail/news_cleanairuk.org/2015-February/000082.html)

(Index for previous issues:  
http://www.cleanairuk.org/health-air-pollution.html)

*CONTENTS*

1) Respiratory and inflammatory responses to short-term exposure to  
traffic-related air pollution with and without moderate physical  
activity

2) Source-specific fine particulate air pollution and systemic  
inflammation in ischaemic heart disease patients

3) Using real-time syndromic surveillance systems to help explore the  
acute impact of the air pollution incident of March/April 2014 in  
England

4) Chronic effects of air pollution on respiratory health in Southern  
California children: findings from the Southern California Children’s  
Health Study

5) Traffic-related air pollution and risk of preterm birth in the San  
Joaquin Valley of California

6) Association of Improved Air Quality with Lung Development in Children

7) Autism Spectrum Disorder and Particulate Matter Air Pollution  
before, during, and after Pregnancy: A Nested Case–Control Analysis  
within the Nurses’ Health Study II Cohort

8) Associations between daily mortality in London and combined oxidant  
capacity, ozone and nitrogen dioxide

9) Associations between air pollution and socioeconomic  
characteristics, ethnicity and age profile of neighbourhoods in  
England and the Netherlands

10) Characterisation of nanoparticle emissions and exposure at traffic  
intersections through fast–response mobile and sequential measurements

11) A model study on changes of European and Swiss particulate matter,  
ozone and nitrogen deposition between 1990 and 2020 due to the revised  
Gothenburg protocol

12) Photocatalytic de-pollution in the Leopold II tunnel in Brussels:  
NOx abatement results

13) Potential for reducing air-pollutants while achieving 2 °C global  
temperature change limit target

14) Modelled atmospheric contribution to nitrogen eutrophication in  
the English Channel and the southern North Sea

15) Air pollution impacting on wildlife, campaign group claims

16) A valuation of the environmental performance of vehicles: an  
analysis and comparison of two methodologies


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1) Respiratory and inflammatory responses to short-term exposure to  
traffic-related air pollution with and without moderate physical  
activity

Nadine Janet Kubesch, Audrey de Nazelle, Dane Westerdahl, David  
Martinez, Gloria Carrasco-Turigas, Laura Bouso, Stefano Guerra, Mark J  
Nieuwenhuijsen

In a healthy population, intermittent moderate physical activity has  
beneficial effects on pulmonary function even when performed in a  
highly polluted environment. This study also suggests that particulate  
air pollution is inducing pulmonary and systemic inflammatory responses.

Occup Environ Med 2015;72:284-293 - read abstract  
(http://oem.bmj.com/content/72/4/284.abstract?etoc)

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2) Source-specific fine particulate air pollution and systemic  
inflammation in ischaemic heart disease patients

Taina Siponen, Tarja Yli-Tuomi, Minna Aurela, Hilkka Dufva, Risto  
Hillamo, Maija-Riitta Hirvonen, Kati Huttunen, Juha Pekkanen, Arto  
Pennanen, Iiris Salonen, Pekka Tiittanen, Raimo O Salonen, Timo Lanki

Results suggest that PM2.5 from several sources, such as biomass  
combustion and traffic, are promoters of systemic inflammation, a risk  
factor for cardiovascular diseases.

Occup Environ Med 2015;72:277-283  - read article  
(http://oem.bmj.com/content/72/4/277.full)

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3) Using real-time syndromic surveillance systems to help explore the  
acute impact of the air pollution incident of March/April 2014 in  
England

Gillian E. Smith, Zharain Bawa, Yolande Macklin, Roger Morbey, Alec  
Dobney, Sotiris Vardoulakis, Alex J. Elliot

Syndromic surveillance was used during an air pollution incident. We  
examined increases in health care usage during the period of poor air  
quality. GP consultations, NHS 111 calls and emergency department  
attendances were monitored. We detected increases in indicators of  
asthma, difficulty breathing and wheeze. Syndromic surveillance is  
useful for monitoring the health effects of air pollution.

Environmental Research 136, January 2015, 500–504 - read article  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935114003387)

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4) Chronic effects of air pollution on respiratory health in Southern  
California children: findings from the Southern California Children’s  
Health Study

Zhanghua Chen, Muhammad T. Salam, Sandrah P. Eckel, Carrie V. Breton,  
Frank D. Gilliland

The Children’s Health Study (CHS) is a continuing series of  
longitudinal studies that first began in 1993 and has focused on  
demonstrating the chronic impacts of air pollution on respiratory  
illnesses from early childhood through adolescence. A large body of  
evidence from the CHS has documented that exposures to both regional  
ambient air and traffic-related pollutants are associated with  
increased asthma prevalence, new-onset asthma, risk of bronchitis and  
wheezing, deficits of lung function growth, and airway inflammation.  
These associations may be modulated by key genes involved in  
oxidative-nitrosative stress pathways via gene-environment  
interactions. To further ameliorate adverse health effects  
attributable to air pollution, many more toxic pollutants may require  
regulation and control of motor vehicle emissions and other combustion  
sources may need to be strengthened.

J Thorac Dis 2015;7(1):46-58 - read article  
(http://www.jthoracdis.com/article/view/3694/html)

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5) Traffic-related air pollution and risk of preterm birth in the San  
Joaquin Valley of California

Amy M. Padula, Kathleen M. Mortimer, Ira B. Tager, S. Katharine  
Hammond, Frederick W. Lurmann, Wei Yang, David K. Stevenson, Gary M.  
Shaw

The results confirm associations between traffic-related air pollution  
and prematurity, particularly among very early preterm births and low  
SES neighborhoods.

Annals of Epidemiology 24 (2014) 888-895 - read article  
(http://www.annalsofepidemiology.org/article/S1047-2797(14)00446-3/pdf)

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6) Association of Improved Air Quality with Lung Development in Children

W. James Gauderman, Robert Urman, Edward Avol, Kiros Berhane, Rob  
McConnell, Edward Rappaport, Roger Chang, Fred Lurmann, Frank Gilliland,

Air-pollution levels have been trending downward progressively over  
the past several decades in southern California, as a result of the  
implementation of air quality–control policies. We assessed whether  
long-term reductions in pollution were associated with improvements in  
respiratory health among children. We found that long-term  
improvements in air quality were associated with statistically and  
clinically significant positive effects on lung-function growth in  
children. (Funded by the Health Effects Institute and others.)

N Engl J Med 2015; 372:905-913 - read article  
(http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1414123?query=TOC#t=articleTop)

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7) Autism Spectrum Disorder and Particulate Matter Air Pollution  
before, during, and after Pregnancy: A Nested Case–Control Analysis  
within the Nurses’ Health Study II Cohort

Raanan Raz, Andrea L. Roberts, Kristen Lyall, Jaime E. Hart, Allan C.  
Just, Francine Laden, Marc G. Weisskopf

Higher maternal exposure to PM2.5 during pregnancy, particularly the  
third trimester, was associated with greater odds of a child having ASD.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1408133 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1408133/) and editorial  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/123-A68/)

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8) Associations between daily mortality in London and combined oxidant  
capacity, ozone and nitrogen dioxide

M. L. Williams, R. W. Atkinson, H. R. Anderson, F. J. Kelly

Both nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3) are powerful oxidants in  
ambient air that are intimately linked through atmospheric chemistry  
and which continuously interchange over very short timescales. Based  
upon atmospheric chemistry alone, there is a strong, a priori, reason  
for considering O3 and NO2 together in epidemiological studies, rather  
than either of the two pollutants separately in single-pollutant  
models This novel approach in air pollution epidemiology captures the  
simultaneous impact of both oxidants whilst avoiding many of the  
statistical issues associated with two-pollutant models and  
potentially simplifies health impact calculations.

Air Qual Atmos Health (2014) 7:407–414 - read article  
(http://download.springer.com/static/pdf/125/art%253A10.1007%252Fs11869-014-0249-8.pdf?auth66=1425560881_b7631cedc30f09b25d79fc85b80dca5f&ext=.pdf)

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9) Associations between air pollution and socioeconomic  
characteristics, ethnicity and age profile of neighbourhoods in  
England and the Netherlands

Daniela Fecht, Paul Fischer, Léa Fortunato, Gerard Hoek, Kees de  
Hoogh, Marten Marra, Hanneke Kruize, Danielle Vienneau, Rob Beelen,  
Anna Hansell

Air pollution inequalities are believed to vary between  
subpopulations. We explore this across two European countries at  
different geographical levels. We found that air pollution  
inequalities are largely an urban problem. Ethnically diverse  
neighbourhoods have the highest air pollution levels. Associations  
vary across two countries that might be thought to be quite similar.

Environmental Pollution 198, March 2015, 201–210 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0269749114005144)

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10) Characterisation of nanoparticle emissions and exposure at traffic  
intersections through fast–response mobile and sequential measurements

Anju Goel, Prashant Kumar

Particle number size distributions were measured inside and outside  
the car. Peak number concentration at traffic signal was 29-fold of  
those during free–flow. Size-resolved inside to outside concentration  
ratio follows a power-law fit form. Number concentration is  
exponentially dependent on driving speed at intersections. About 2% of  
total commuting time at intersections corresponded to ∼25% of total  
doses.

Atmospheric Environment Available online 3 February 2015 - read  
abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1352231015001193)

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11) A model study on changes of European and Swiss particulate matter,  
ozone and nitrogen deposition between 1990 and 2020 due to the revised  
Gothenburg protocol

S. Aksoyoglu, J. Keller, G. Ciarelli, A. S. H. Prévôt, U. Baltensperger
The model results suggest that nitrogen deposition has decreased by  
10–30% in the eastern part of Europe since 1990, while it has  
increased by about 20% in the Iberian Peninsula. The decrease is  
mainly due to the deposition of oxidized nitrogen species, whereas  
deposition of reduced nitrogen compounds increased. In Switzerland,  
nitrogen deposition is larger in the northern part of the Alps, where  
ammonia emissions are the highest. Applying the baseline scenario, we  
found that the deposition of oxidized nitrogen compounds will have  
decreased by a further 40% by 2020, whereas deposition of reduced  
species will continue to increase. This will lead to a 10–20% decrease  
in the total nitrogen deposition in most of the model domain, with a  
10% increase in the eastern part of Europe.

Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 13081-13095, 2014 - read abstract  
(http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/14/13081/2014/acp-14-13081-2014.html)

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12) Photocatalytic de-pollution in the Leopold II tunnel in Brussels:  
NOx abatement results

M. Gallus, V. Akylas, F. Barmpas, A. Beeldens, E. Boonen, A. Boréave,  
M. Cazaunau, H. Chen, V. Daële, J.F. Doussin, Y. Dupart, C. Gaimoz, C.  
George, B. Grosselin, H. Herrmann, S. Ifang, R. Kurtenbach, M. Maille,  
A. Mellouki, K. Miet, F. Mothes, N. Moussiopoulos, L. Poulain, R.  
Rabe, P. Zapf, J. Kleffmann

A photocatalytic tunnel site was set up during the Life+ project  
PhotoPAQ. Observed NOx reduction was ≤2% and smaller than expected.  
Severe surface passivation was observed under the polluted tunnel  
conditions. Optimized conditions for future applications are  
discussed. Small scale prior reactivity tests under real tunnel  
conditions are recommended.

Building and Environment 84, January 2015, 125–133 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0360132314003540)

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13) Potential for reducing air-pollutants while achieving 2 °C global  
temperature change limit target

Tatsuya Hanaoka, Osamu Akashi, Kazuya Fujiwara, Yuko Motoki, Go Hibino

We use the AIM/Enduse model that is a bottom-up optimization model. We  
examine technological GHG mitigation potentials and costs. We assess  
co-benefits of reducing air pollutants due to GHG mitigation measures.  
Co-benefit of reducing air pollutants are large by shifting to  
low-carbon energies. Impacts of co-benefit are different because of  
characteristics of emission sources.

Environmental Pollution 195, December 2014, 336–343 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0269749114002541)

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14) Modelled atmospheric contribution to nitrogen eutrophication in  
the English Channel and the southern North Sea

G. Djambazov, K. Pericleous

Weather data, emissions data and Lagrangian computations form the  
numerical model. Deposition maps in a target geographical region are  
produced and compared. Individual polluting industrial or transport  
sectors can be traced. Atmospheric deposition of nitrogen  
eutrophicants increases in wet weather. Heaviest atmospheric  
deposition adds to high riverine input in some coastal regions.

Atmospheric Environment 102, February 2015, 191–199 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1352231014009509)

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15) Air pollution impacting on wildlife, campaign group claims

Air pollution is having an impact on the health of UK birds and  
domestic pets as well as humans, according to the Campaign for Air  
Pollution Public Inquiry (CAPPI). CAPPI also gains support from  
Environment Agency chair Lord Smith and charity Sustrans.

Air Quality News, February 23, 2015 - read article  
(http://www.airqualitynews.com/2015/02/23/air-pollution-impacting-on-wildlife-campaign-group-claims/)

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16) A valuation of the environmental performance of vehicles: an  
analysis and comparison of two methodologies

Maarten Messagie, Nele Sergeanta, Surendraprabu Rangaraju, Javier San  
Felix Forner, Luis Oliveira, Thierry Coosemans, Cathy Macharis, Joeri  
Van Mierlo

In this paper, both methodologies (European Clean Vehicle Directive  
and the Belgian Ecoscore system) are compared and used to analyze the  
environmental performance of passenger cars with different fuel types  
and from different vehicle segments. Similar rankings between both  
methodologies are obtained; however, the large impact of energy use  
(and CO2 emissions) in the Clean Vehicle methodology disadvantages  
compressed natural gas cars, as well as diesel cars equipped with  
particulate filters, compared to the Ecoscore methodology.

Transportation Planning and Technology 38,3, 2015 335-346 - read  
abstract  
(http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/03081060.2015.1008797#.VO2VAXysWN8)

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---------------------------------------------------------------------

Compiler and Editor: Barbara Rimmington, Researcher, East End Quality
of Life Initiative

10 Montgomery Terrace Road

Sheffield S6 3BU

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Fax 0114 278 7173

Email: barbara at sheffieldct.co.uk

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