[cleanairuk_news] Health Effects of Air Quality and Noise - update August 2014

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* Health Effects of Air Quality and Noise - update August 2014 *

By Barbara Rimmington, Researcher, East End Quality of Life Initiative

(Previous edition - July 2014:  
http://cleanairuk.org/pipermail/news_cleanairuk.org/2014-August/000073.html

Index page for Health Effects of Air Quality and Noise:  
http://www.cleanairuk.org/health-air-pollution.html)

*Notice*

Conference: Air Quality and Health in Sheffield Conference, Friday  
17th October 2014. Speakers include Dr Ian Mudway from Kings College  
London, Alan Andrews from Client Earth, and Councillor Jack Scott from  
Sheffield City Council. The conference will be chaired by Jack Peace,  
editor of the Air Quality Bulletin. Book online  
(https://www.eventbrite.co.uk/e/air-quality-and-health-in-sheffield-tickets-12134934917?gws_rd=ssl).

*CONTENTS*

1) Short-Term Exposure to Air Pollution and Digital Vascular Function

2) New directions : cleaning the air : will the European Commission's  
clean air policy package of December 2013 deliver?

3) Prenatal air pollution exposure and ultrasound measures of fetal  
growth in Los Angeles, California

4) Outdoor Air Pollution, Preterm Birth, and Low Birth Weight:  
Analysis of the World Health Organization Global Survey on Maternal  
and Perinatal Health

5) GSTP1 and TNF Gene Variants and Associations between Air Pollution  
and Incident Childhood Asthma: The Traffic, Asthma and Genetics (TAG)  
Study

6) Association of Long-Term Exposure to Traffic-Related Air Pollution  
with Blood Pressure and Hypertension in an Adult Population–Based  
Cohort in Spain (the REGICOR Study)

7) Multi-country willingness to pay study on road-traffic  
environmental health effects: are people willing and able to provide a  
number?

8) Maternal Exposure to Criteria Air Pollutants and Congenital Heart  
Defects in Offspring: Results from the National Birth Defects  
Prevention Study

9) Repeated Nitrogen Dioxide Exposures and Eosinophilic Airway  
Inflammation in Asthmatics: A Randomized Crossover Study

10) Performance of Multi-City Land Use Regression Models for Nitrogen  
Dioxide and Fine Particles

11) Associations of Fine Particulate Matter Species with Mortality in  
the United States: A Multicity Time-Series Analysis

12) Characterizing Spatial Patterns of Airborne Coarse Particulate  
(PM10–2.5) Mass and Chemical Components in Three Cities: The  
Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

13) Fine Particulate Matter Air Pollution and Cognitive Function Among  
Older US Adults

14) Association of Long-Term Exposure to Traffic-Related Air Pollution  
with Blood Pressure and Hypertension in an Adult Population–Based  
Cohort in Spain (the REGICOR Study)

15) Air pollution: which transport option is the healthiest?

- o -

1) Short-Term Exposure to Air Pollution and Digital Vascular Function

Petter L. Ljungman, Elissa H. Wilker, Mary B. Rice, Joel Schwartz,  
Diane R. Gold, Petros Koutrakis, Joseph A. Vita, Gary F. Mitchell,  
Ramachandran S. Vasan, Emelia J. Benjamin, Murray A. Mittleman, Naomi  
M. Hamburg

Our findings in a community-based sample exposed to relatively low  
pollution levels suggest that short-term exposure to ambient  
particulate pollution is not associated with vasodilator response, but  
that particulate air pollution is associated with baseline pulse  
amplitude, suggesting potentially adverse alterations in baseline  
vascular tone or compliance.

Am. J. Epidemiol. (2014) 180 (5): 482-489 - read abstract  
(http://aje.oxfordjournals.org/content/180/5/482.abstract?etoc)

- o -

2) New directions : cleaning the air : will the European Commission's  
clean air policy package of December 2013 deliver?

Harrison, Roy; Brunekreef, Bert; Keuken, Menno; Denier Van Der Gon,  
Hugo; Querol, Xavier

The proposals from the Commission have been underpinned by numerical  
modelling of both air quality and health impacts, as well as  
cost-benefit analysis. However, the voluminous documentation produced  
by the Commission does not provide sufficient detail for independent  
assessment of the air quality modelling and there must be a strong  
suspicion that the conclusions drawn by the Commission on the basis of  
models are grossly over-optimistic. We suggest that downward revisions  
of some of the Limit Values, as implied by the advice of REVIHAAP  
(WHO, 2013) specifically in relation to PM2.5, PM10, NO2 and long-term  
exposure to O3, might provide a valuable complementary driver towards  
air quality improvement alongside more ambitious emissions limits,  
especially in the medium term to 2020.

Atmospheric Environment, vol 91, pp. 172-174 - read article  
(http://pure-oai.bham.ac.uk/ws/files/16250299/Cleaning_the_Air_New_Direction_PostPrint.pdf)

- o -

3) Prenatal air pollution exposure and ultrasound measures of fetal  
growth in Los Angeles, California

Beate Ritz, Jiaheng Qiu, Pei-Chen Lee, Fred Lurmann, Bryan Penfold,  
Robert Erin Weiss, Rob McConnell, Chander Arora, Calvin Hobel,  
Michelle Wilhelm

We collected multiple ultrasound measures in a prospective pregnancy  
cohort. We modeled traffic-related air pollution with  
dispersion/land-use regression models. Ambient government air monitors  
provided us with measures for CO and NO2. Fetal biparietal diameter  
decreased with different traffic pollution measures. Head size but no  
other fetal growth measures were affected by air pollution.

Environmental Research 130, April 2014, 7–13 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935114000103)

- o -

4) Outdoor Air Pollution, Preterm Birth, and Low Birth Weight:  
Analysis of the World Health Organization Global Survey on Maternal  
and Perinatal Health

Nancy L. Fleischer, Mario Merialdi, Aaron van Donkelaar, Felipe  
Vadillo-Ortega, Randall V. Martin, Ana Pilar Betran, João Paulo Souza,  
Marie S. O´Neill

Outdoor PM2.5 concentrations were associated with low birth weight but  
not preterm birth. In rapidly developing countries, such as China, the  
highest levels of air pollution may be of concern for both outcomes.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1306837 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1306837/)

- o -

5) GSTP1 and TNF Gene Variants and Associations between Air Pollution  
and Incident Childhood Asthma: The Traffic, Asthma and Genetics (TAG)  
Study

Elaina A. MacIntyre, Michael Brauer, Erik Melén, Carl Peter Bauer,  
Mario Bauer, Dietrich Berdel, Anna Bergström, Bert Brunekreef, Moira  
Chan-Yeung, Claudia Klümper, Elaine Fuertes, Ulrike Gehring, Anna  
Gref, Joachim Heinrich, Olf Herbarth, Marjan Kerkhof, Gerard H.  
Koppelman, Anita L. Kozyrskyj, Göran Pershagen, Dirkje S. Postma,  
Elisabeth Thiering, Carla M.T. Tiesler, Christopher Carlsten, for the  
TAG Study Group

Our aim was to investigate the impact of gene variants associated with  
oxidative stress and inflammation on associations between air  
pollution and incident childhood asthma. Children carrying GSTP1  
rs1138272 or rs1695 minor alleles may constitute a susceptible  
population at increased risk of asthma associated with air pollution.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1307459 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1307459/)

- o -

6) Association of Long-Term Exposure to Traffic-Related Air Pollution  
with Blood Pressure and Hypertension in an Adult Population–Based  
Cohort in Spain (the REGICOR Study)

Maria Foraster, Xavier Basagaña, Inmaculada Aguilera, Marcela Rivera,  
David Agis, Laura Bouso, Alexandre Deltell, Jaume Marrugat, Rafel  
Ramos, Jordi Sunyer, Joan Vila, Roberto Elosua, Nino Künzli

We observed a positive association between long-term exposure to NO2  
and SBP (systolic blood pressure) , after adjustment for  
transportation noise, which was sensitive to the methodology used to  
account for medication.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1306497 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1306497/)

- o -

7) Multi-country willingness to pay study on road-traffic  
environmental health effects: are people willing and able to provide a  
number?

Tifanny Istamto, Danny Houthuijs, Erik Lebret

With a proportion of about 50%, DK (don’t know) answers may be a more  
relevant issue affecting WTP (willingness-to-pay) than PV’s (protest  
vote). The likelihood to give PV and DK response were influenced by  
socio-demographic, economic and health factors, as well as  
environmental concerns and appreciation of environmental conditions  
and policies. In contested policy issues where actual policy may be  
based on WTP studies, PV and DK answers may indeed affect the outcome  
of the WTP study. PV and DK answers and their determinants therefore  
deserve further study in CV (contingent valuation) studies on  
environmental health effects.

Environmental Health 2014, 13:35 - read article  
(http://www.ehjournal.net/content/13/1/35)

- o -

8) Maternal Exposure to Criteria Air Pollutants and Congenital Heart  
Defects in Offspring: Results from the National Birth Defects  
Prevention Study

Jeanette A. Stingone, Thomas J. Luben, Julie L. Daniels, Montserrat  
Fuentes, David B. Richardson, Arthur S. Aylsworth, Amy H. Herring,  
Marlene Anderka, Lorenzo Botto, Adolfo Correa, Suzanne M. Gilboa,  
Peter H. Langlois, Bridget Mosley, Gary M. Shaw, Csaba Siffel, Andrew  
F. Olshan, and the National Birth Defects Prevention Study

Using daily maximum pollutant levels and exploring individual  
exposure-weeks revealed some positive associations between certain  
pollutants and defects and suggested potential windows of  
susceptibility during pregnancy.
Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1307289 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1307289/)

- o -

9) Repeated Nitrogen Dioxide Exposures and Eosinophilic Airway  
Inflammation in Asthmatics: A Randomized Crossover Study

Véronique Ezratty, Gaëlle Guillossou, Catherine Neukirch, Monique  
Dehoux, Serge Koscielny, Marcel Bonay, Pierre-André Cabanes, Jonathan  
M. Samet, Patrick Mure, Luc Ropert, Sandra Tokarek, Jacques Lambrozo,  
Michel Aubier

We observed that repeated peak exposures of NO2 performed without  
allergen exposure were associated with airway eosinophilic  
inflammation in asthmatics in a dose-related manner.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1307240 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1307240/)

- o -

10) Performance of Multi-City Land Use Regression Models for Nitrogen  
Dioxide and Fine Particles

Meng Wang, Rob Beelen, Tom Bellander, Matthias Birk, Giulia Cesaroni,  
Marta Cirach, Josef Cyrys, Kees de Hoogh, Christophe Declercq,  
Konstantina Dimakopoulou, Marloes Eeftens, Kirsten T. Eriksen,  
Francesco Forastiere, Claudia Galassi, Georgios Grivas, Joachim  
Heinrich, Barbara Hoffmann, Alex Ineichen, Michal Korek, Timo Lanki,  
Sarah Lindley, Lars Modig, Anna Mölter, Per Nafstad, Mark J.  
Nieuwenhuijsen, Wenche Nystad, David Olsson, Ole Raaschou-Nielsen,  
Martina Ragettli, Andrea Ranzi, Morgane Stempfelet, Dorothea Sugiri,  
Ming-Yi Tsai, Orsolya Udvardy, Mihaly J. Varró, Danielle Vienneau,  
Gudrun Weinmayr, Kathrin Wolf, Tarja Yli-Tuomi, Gerard Hoek, Bert  
Brunekreef

Using a large data set from 23 European study areas, we were able to  
develop LUR models for NO2 and PM metrics that predicted measurements  
made at independent sites and areas reasonably well. This finding is  
useful for assessing exposure in health studies conducted in areas  
where no measurements were conducted.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1307271 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1307271/)

- o -

11) Associations of Fine Particulate Matter Species with Mortality in  
the United States: A Multicity Time-Series Analysis

Lingzhen Dai, Antonella Zanobetti, Petros Koutrakis, Joel D. Schwartz

Our study showed an increased risk of mortality associated with PM2.5,  
which varied with seasons and species. The results suggest that mass  
alone might not be sufficient to evaluate the health effects of  
particles.
Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1307568 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1307568/)

- o -

12) Characterizing Spatial Patterns of Airborne Coarse Particulate  
(PM10–2.5) Mass and Chemical Components in Three Cities: The  
Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

Kai Zhang, Timothy V. Larson, Amanda Gassett, Adam A. Szpiro, Martha  
Daviglus, Gregory L. Burke, Joel D. Kaufman, Sara D. Ada

Characterization of fine-scale spatial variability of these often  
heterogeneous pollutants using geographic covariates should reduce  
exposure misclassification and increase the power of epidemiological  
studies investigating the long-term health impacts of PM10–2.5.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1307287 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1307287/)

- o -

13) Fine Particulate Matter Air Pollution and Cognitive Function Among  
Older US Adults

Jennifer A. Ailshire, Eileen M. Crimmins

This study adds to a growing body of research highlighting the  
importance of air pollution to cognitive function in older adults.  
Improving air quality in large metropolitan areas, where much of the  
aging US population resides, may be an important mechanism for  
reducing age-related cognitive decline.

Am. J. Epidemiol. (2014) 180 (4): 359-366- read abstract  
(http://aje.oxfordjournals.org/content/180/4/359.abstract?etoc)  and  
comment (http://aje.oxfordjournals.org/content/180/4/367.short)

- o -

14) Association of Long-Term Exposure to Traffic-Related Air Pollution  
with Blood Pressure and Hypertension in an Adult Population–Based  
Cohort in Spain (the REGICOR Study)

Maria Foraster, Xavier Basagaña, Inmaculada Aguilera, Marcela Rivera,  
David Agis, Laura Bouso, Alexandre Deltell, Jaume Marrugat, Rafel  
Ramos, Jordi Sunyer, Joan Vila, Roberto Elosua, Nino Künzli

We observed a positive association between long-term exposure to NO2  
and SBP, after adjustment for transportation noise, which was  
sensitive to the methodology used to account for medication.

Environ Health Perspect; 122;4 April 2014, DOI:10.1289/ehp.1306497 -  
read article (http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1306497/)

- o -

15) Air pollution: which transport option is the healthiest?

Transport is the main contributor to air pollution in our cities, and  
how we move around in them can have huge consequences for how much air  
pollution we are exposed to. The Healthy Air Campaign teamed up with  
King’s College London, Camden Council and London cyclist, Vivienne  
Westwood, to see which travel options are the healthiest. - watch the  
video (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ERqYpsKv4V0&feature=youtu.be)

- o -

---------------------------------------------------------------------

Compiler and Editor: Barbara Rimmington, Researcher, East End Quality
of Life Initiative

10 Montgomery Terrace Road

Sheffield S6 3BU

Tel. 0114 285 9931

Fax 0114 278 7173

Email: barbara at sheffieldct.co.uk

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