[cleanairuk_news] Health Effects of Air Quality and Noise - update May 2014

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* Health Effects of Air Quality and Noise - update May 2014 *

By Barbara Rimmington, Researcher, East End Quality of Life Initiative

(Previous edition - April 2014:  
http://cleanairuk.org/pipermail/news_cleanairuk.org/2014-May/000070.html)

(Index for previous issues:  
http://www.cleanairuk.org/health-air-pollution.html)

*CONTENTS*

1) Exposure to air pollution and respiratory symptoms during the first  
7 years of life in an Italian birth cohort

2) Controlled Exposure of Humans with Metabolic Syndrome to  
Concentrated Ultrafine Ambient Particulate Matter Causes  
Cardiovascular Effects

3) Socioeconomic status and exposure to outdoor NO2 and benzene in the  
Asturias INMA birth cohort, Spain

4) National Patterns in Environmental Injustice and Inequality:  
Outdoor NO2 Air Pollution in the United States

5) Effects of long-term exposure to PM10 and NO2 on asthma and wheeze  
in a prospective birth cohort

6) Nitrogen dioxide and mortality: review and meta-analysis of  
long-term studies

7) Long term exposure to ambient air pollution and incidence of acute  
coronary events: prospective cohort study and meta-analysis in 11  
European cohorts from the ESCAPE Project

8) Long term exposure to particulate matter is associated with  
incidence of coronary events, and this association persists at levels  
of exposure below the current European limit values

9) Influence of Urbanicity and County Characteristics on the  
Association between Ozone and Asthma Emergency Department Visits in  
North Carolina

10) Associations between Traffic Noise, Particulate Air Pollution,  
Hypertension, and Isolated Systolic Hypertension in Adults: The KORA  
Study

11) Outdoor air pollution and asthma

12) Switch to diesel engines is significantly to blame for poor air  
quality in UK cities, experts say

13) Air Pollution Exposure and Abnormal Glucose Tolerance during  
Pregnancy: The Project Viva Cohort

14) Estimating Local Mortality Burdens associated with Particulate Air  
Pollution

15) Short-Term Associations of Cause-Specific Emergency  
Hospitalizations and Particulate Matter Chemical Components in Hong Kong

16) Review of Urban Bicyclists' Intake and Uptake of Traffic-Related  
Air Pollution

17) Environmental Burden of Disease in Europe: Assessing Nine Risk  
Factors in Six Countries

18) Concentrations and source contributions of particulate organic  
matter before and after implementation of a low emission zone in  
Munich, Germany

19) Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals and Their Lifetimes in PM2.5

20) Three EU LIFE projects have received funding: GIOCONDA, DYNAMAP,  
LIFE Solar Highways

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1) Exposure to air pollution and respiratory symptoms during the first  
7 years of life in an Italian birth cohort

Andrea Ranzi, Daniela Porta, Chiara Badaloni, Giulia Cesaroni, Paolo  
Lauriola, Marina Davoli, Francesco Forastiere

Exposure to traffic-related air pollution is only weakly associated  
with respiratory symptoms in young children in the first 7 years of  
life.

Occup Environ Med 2014;71:430-436 - read article  
(http://oem.bmj.com/content/71/6/430.full)

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2) Controlled Exposure of Humans with Metabolic Syndrome to  
Concentrated Ultrafine Ambient Particulate Matter Causes  
Cardiovascular Effects

Robert B. Devlin, Candice B. Smith, Michael T. Schmitt, Ana G.  
Rappold, Alan Hinderliter, Don Graff, Martha Sue Carraway

This controlled human exposure study is the first to show that ambient  
ultrafine particles can cause cardiovascular changes in people with  
metabolic syndrome, which affects nearly a quarter of the U.S. adult  
population.

TOXICOLOGICAL SCIENCES 2014, doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfu063
Advance Access publication April 9, 2014 - read article  
(http://toxsci.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2014/04/20/toxsci.kfu063.full.pdf)

- o -

3) Socioeconomic status and exposure to outdoor NO2 and benzene in the  
Asturias INMA birth cohort, Spain

Ana Fernández-Somoano, Adonina Tardon

Education and social class were not clearly associated with pollution.  
Administrations should monitor the environment of residential areas  
regardless of the socioeconomic level, and they should increase the  
distances between housing and polluting sources to prevent settlements  
at distances that are harmful to health.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2014;68:29-36  
doi:10.1136/jech-2013-202722 - read   
(http://jech.bmj.com/content/68/1/29.abstract) abstract  
(http://jech.bmj.com/content/68/1/29.abstract)

- o -

4) National Patterns in Environmental Injustice and Inequality:  
Outdoor NO2 Air Pollution in the United States

Lara P. Clark, Dylan B. Millet, Julian D. Marshall

Our findings establish a national context for previous work that has  
documented air pollution environmental injustice and inequality within  
individual US metropolitan areas and regions. Results given here can  
aid policy-makers in identifying locations with high environmental  
injustice and inequality. For example, states with both high injustice  
and high inequality (top quintile) for outdoor residential NO2 include  
New York, Michigan, and Wisconsin.

PLoS ONE April 15, 2014DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0094431 - read  
article  
(http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0094431)

5) Effects of long-term exposure to PM10 and NO2 on asthma and wheeze  
in a prospective birth cohort

Anna Mölter, Raymond Agius, Frank de Vocht, Sarah Lindley, William  
Gerrard, Adnan Custovic, Angela Simpson

No evidence of a significant association between long-term exposure to  
PM10 and NO2 and the prevalence of either asthma or wheeze was found.

J Epidemiol Community Health doi:10.1136/jech-2013-202681 - read  
abstract  
(http://jech.bmj.com/content/early/2013/09/02/jech-2013-202681.abstract)

- o -

6) Nitrogen dioxide and mortality: review and meta-analysis of  
long-term studies

Annunziata Faustini, Regula Rapp, Francesco Forastiere

There is evidence of a long-term effect of NO2 on mortality as great  
as that of PM2.5. An independent effect of NO2 emerged from  
multipollutant models.

European Respiratory Journal February 20, 2014 erj01147-2013 - read  
abstract  
(http://erj.ersjournals.com/content/early/2014/02/20/09031936.00114713.abstract)

7) Long term exposure to ambient air pollution and incidence of acute  
coronary events: prospective cohort study and meta-analysis in 11  
European cohorts from the ESCAPE Project

Giulia Cesaroni, Francesco Forastiere, Massimo Stafoggia, Zorana J  
Andersen, Chiara Badaloni, Rob Beelen, Barbara Caracciolo, Ulf de  
Faire, Raimund Erbel, Kirsten T Eriksen, Laura Fratiglioni, Claudia  
Galassi, Regina Hampel, Margit Heier, Frauke Hennig, Agneta Hilding,  
Barbara Hoffmann, Danny Houthuijs, Karl-Heinz Jöckel, Michal Korek,  
Timo Lanki, Karin Leander, Patrik K E Magnusson, Enrica Migliore,  
Caes-Göran Ostenson, Kim Overvad, Nancy L Pedersen, Juha Pekkanen J,  
Johanna Penell, Göran Pershagen, Andrei Pyko, Ole Raaschou-Nielsen,  
Andrea Ranzi, Fulvio Ricceri, Carlotta Sacerdote, Veikko Salomaa, Wim  
Swart, Anu W Turunen, Paolo Vineis, Gudrun Weinmayr, Kathrin Wolf,  
Kees de Hoogh, Gerard Hoek, Bert Brunekreef, Annette Peters

- o -

8) Long term exposure to particulate matter is associated with  
incidence of coronary events, and this association persists at levels  
of exposure below the current European limit values

BMJ 2014;348:f7412 - read article (http://www.bmj.com/content/348/bmj.f7412)

- o -

9) Influence of Urbanicity and County Characteristics on the  
Association between Ozone and Asthma Emergency Department Visits in  
North Carolina

Jason D. Sacks, Ana G. Rappold, J. Allen Davis Jr., David B.  
Richardson, Anna E. Waller, Thomas J. Luben

Air pollution epidemiologic studies, often conducted in large  
metropolitan areas because of proximity to regulatory monitors, are  
limited in their ability to examine potential associations between air  
pollution exposures and health effects in rural locations.  
Associations between short-term O3 exposures and asthma ED visits  
differed by overall county health and urbanicity, with stronger  
associations in Less Urbanized counties, and no positive association  
in Rural counties. Results also suggest that children are at increased  
risk of O3-related respiratory effects.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1306940 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1306940/)

- o -

10) Associations between Traffic Noise, Particulate Air Pollution,  
Hypertension, and Isolated Systolic Hypertension in Adults: The KORA  
Study

Wolfgang Babisch, Kathrin Wolf, Markus Petz, Joachim Heinrich, Josef  
Cyrys, Annette Peters

Traffic noise and PM2.5 were both associated with a higher prevalence  
of hypertension. Mutually adjusted associations with hypertension were  
positive but no longer statistically significant.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1306981 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1306981/)

- o -

11) Outdoor air pollution and asthma

Michael Guarnieri, Dr John R Balmes

Young children with asthma, especially those growing up in  
economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods, are at increased risk of  
adverse effects from exposures to air pollution. Unravelling which  
components of the traffic pollution mixture are responsible for asthma  
exacerbations and onset is a substantial challenge. Improved air  
quality to prevent exacerbations and new cases of asthma will require  
strong governmental efforts to move economies in both developed and  
developing countries away from combustion of fossil fuels for  
transportation and energy production; this approach is also needed to  
mitigate climate change.

The Lancet, 383:9928, 1581-1592, 3 May 2014 - read article  
(http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(14)60617-6/fulltext?elsca1=ETOC-LANCET&elsca2=email&elsca3=E24A35F)

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12) Switch to diesel engines is significantly to blame for poor air  
quality in UK cities, experts say

Ingrid Torjesen

Government policies to encourage motorists to switch to diesel engines  
may have backfired, experts have said, as diesel fumes are now being  
blamed for the poor air quality in UK cities that is damaging health  
and reducing life expectancy.

BMJ 2014;348:g3033 - read article  
(http://www.bmj.com/content/348/bmj.g3033?etoc=)

- o -

13) Air Pollution Exposure and Abnormal Glucose Tolerance during  
Pregnancy: The Project Viva Cohort

Abby F. Fleisch, Diane R. Gold, Sheryl L. Rifas-Shiman, Petros  
Koutrakis, Joel D. Schwartz, Itai Kloog, Steven Melly, Brent A. Coull,  
Antonella Zanobetti, Matthew W. Gillman, Emily Oken

Greater exposure to PM2.5 and other traffic-related pollutants during  
pregnancy was associated with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) but not  
gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Air pollution may contribute to  
abnormal glycemia in pregnancy.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1307065 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1307065/)

- o -

14) Estimating Local Mortality Burdens associated with Particulate Air  
Pollution

Current levels of particulate air pollution have a considerable impact  
on public health. Measures to reduce levels of particulate air  
pollution, or to reduce exposure of the population to such pollution,  
are regarded as an important public health initiative.

Public Health England April 2014 - read report  
(http://www.hpa.org.uk/webc/HPAwebFile/HPAweb_C/1317141074607)  (933kb)

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15) Short-Term Associations of Cause-Specific Emergency  
Hospitalizations and Particulate Matter Chemical Components in Hong Kong

Vivian Chit Pun, Ignatius Tak-Sun Yu, Hong Qiu, Kin-Fai Ho, Zhiwei  
Sun, Peter K.K. Louie, Tze Wai Wong, Linwei Tian

These findings lend support to the growing body of literature  
concerning the health associations of particulate matter composition  
and provide important insight into the differential health risks of  
components found in fine and coarse modes of PM10.

Am. J. Epidemiol. (2014) 179 (9): 1086-1095 - read abstract  
(http://aje.oxfordjournals.org/content/179/9/1086.abstract.html?etoc)

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16) Review of Urban Bicyclists' Intake and Uptake of Traffic-Related  
Air Pollution

Alexander Y. Bigazzi, Miguel A. Figliozzi

This review includes not only bicyclists' exposure to air pollution  
concentrations but also respiration rates, intake doses (the amount of  
pollutant that is inhaled), and uptake doses (the amount of pollutant  
that is incorporated into the body). Research gaps and opportunities  
for future research are discussed. This is the first review to  
specifically address bicyclists' health risks from traffic-related air  
pollution and to explicitly include intake and uptake doses in  
addition to exposure concentrations for travelers.

Transport Reviews 34,2, 2014, 221-245 - read abstract  
(http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01441647.2014.897772#.U2DXaahdWN-)

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17) Environmental Burden of Disease in Europe: Assessing Nine Risk  
Factors in Six Countries

Otto Hänninen, Anne B. Knol, Matti Jantunen, Tek-Ang Lim, André  
Conrad, Marianne Rappolder, Paolo Carrer, Anna-Clara Fanetti, Rokho  
Kim, Jurgen Buekers, Rudi Torfs, Ivano Iavarone, Thomas Classen,  
Claudia Hornberg, Odile C.L. Mekel, and the EBoDE Working Group

Environmental health effects vary considerably with regard to their  
severity, type of disease, and duration. Integrated measures of  
population health, such as environmental burden of disease (EBD), are  
useful for setting priorities in environmental health policies and  
research. This review is a summary of the full Environmental Burden of  
Disease in European countries (EBoDE) project report.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1206154 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1206154/)

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18) Concentrations and source contributions of particulate organic  
matter before and after implementation of a low emission zone in  
Munich, Germany

R.M. Qadir, G. Abbaszade, J. Schnelle-Kreis, J.C. Chow, R. Zimmermann

Samples of PM2.5 were analyzed before and after implementation of the  
low emission zone (LEZ). Significant effect of implementation of LEZ  
was detected on the concentrations of EC and some of the POC. Source  
apportionment of PM2.5 was obtained using positive matrix  
factorization (PMF). Data included particulate organic compounds (POC)  
and EC/OC. The contribution of traffic factor decreased about 60%  
after implementation of the LEZ.

Environmental Pollution 175, April 2013, 158–167 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0269749113000067)

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19) Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals and Their Lifetimes in PM2.5

William Gehling, Barry Dellinger

The radical signal in PM2.5 was remarkably similar to semiquinones in  
cigarette smoke. Accordingly, radicals inhaled from PM2.5 were related  
to the radicals inhaled from smoking cigarettes, expressed as the  
number of equivalent cigarettes smoked. This calculated to 0.4–0.9  
cigarettes per day for nonextreme air quality in the United States.

Environ. Sci. Technol., 2013, 47 (15), 8172–8178 - read abstract  
(http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/es401767m)

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20) Three EU LIFE projects have received funding: GIOCONDA, DYNAMAP,  
LIFE Solar Highways

GIOCONDA  
(http://ec.europa.eu/environment/life/project/Projects/index.cfm?fuseaction=search.dspPage&n_proj_id=5074) (Institute of Clinical Physiology - National Research Council) - to provide local authorities with an innovative methodology that can effectively support policies on environment and health, by involving young people in decision-making  
processes.

DYNAMAP  
(http://ec.europa.eu/environment/life/project/Projects/index.cfm?fuseaction=search.dspPage&n_proj_id=4878) (ANAS SpA) - to develop a dynamic noise mapping system that is able to detect and represent in real time the acoustic impact of road  
infrastructures.

LIFE Solar Highways  
(http://ec.europa.eu/environment/life/project/Projects/index.cfm?fuseaction=search.dspPage&n_proj_id=5115)  - to demonstrate the technical feasibility and the environmental, social and financial benefits of using multifunctional constructive elements for building highway noise barriers, in which bifacial PV modules have been  
integrated.

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---------------------------------------------------------------------

Compiler and Editor: Barbara Rimmington, Researcher, East End Quality
of Life Initiative

10 Montgomery Terrace Road

Sheffield S6 3BU

Tel. 0114 285 9931

Fax 0114 278 7173

Email: barbara at sheffieldct.co.uk

Web: www.sheffieldeastend.org.uk

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