[cleanairuk_news] Health Effects of Air Quality and Noise - update April 2014

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* Health Effects of Air Quality and Noise - update April 2014 *

By Barbara Rimmington, Researcher, East End Quality of Life Initiative

(Previous edition - March 2014:  
http://cleanairuk.org/pipermail/news_cleanairuk.org/2014-April/000069.html)

(Index for previous issues:  
http://www.cleanairuk.org/health-air-pollution.html)

*CONTENTS*

1) Outdoor Air Pollution, Preterm Birth, and Low Birth Weight:  
Analysis of the World Health Organization Global Survey on Maternal  
and Perinatal Health

2) GSTP1 and TNF Gene Variants and Associations between Air Pollution  
and Incident Childhood Asthma: The Traffic, Asthma and Genetics (TAG)  
Study

3) Association of Long-Term Exposure to Traffic-Related Air Pollution  
with Blood Pressure and Hypertension in an Adult Population–Based  
Cohort in Spain (the REGICOR Study)

4) Differential Effects of Source-Specific Particulate Matter on  
Emergency Hospitalizations for Ischemic Heart Disease in Hong Kong

5) Air Pollution Exposure and Abnormal Glucose Tolerance during  
Pregnancy: The Project Viva Cohort

6) Disease Burdens Associated with PM2.5 Exposure: How a New Model  
Provided Global Estimates

7) An Integrated Risk Function for Estimating the Global Burden of  
Disease Attributable to Ambient Fine Particulate Matter Exposure

8) Evaluating the impact of air pollution on the incidence of  
out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in the Perth Metropolitan Region:  
2000–2010

9) Personal exposure to ultrafine particles: The influence of  
time-activity patterns

10) Disparities in Exposure to Automobile and Truck Traffic and  
Vehicle Emissions Near the Los Angeles–Long Beach Port Complex

11) Apples to Apples: Comparing PM2.5 Exposures and Birth Outcomes in  
Understudied Countries

12) Outdoor Air Pollution, Preterm Birth, and Low Birth Weight:  
Analysis of the World Health Organization Global Survey on Maternal  
and Perinatal Health

13) Effects of fine particulate matter and its constituents on low  
birth weight among full-term infants in California

14) Air pollution and childhood leukaemia: a nationwide case-control  
study in Italy

15) Maternal residential proximity to major roads in north west  
England and adverse pregnancy outcomes

16) Endotoxin in concentrated coarse and fine ambient particles  
induces acute systemic inflammation in controlled human exposures

17) 7 million deaths annually linked to air pollution

18) Short-Term Effects of Fine Particulate Air Pollution on Emergency  
Room Visits for Cardiac Arrhythmias: A Case-Crossover Study in Taipei

19) The toxic truth about air pollution: a lethal scandal of British inaction

20) We can't just blame an ill wind. We need to take smog seriously

21) Implementation of a low emission zone and evaluation of effects on  
air quality by long-term monitoring

22) Longitudinal Effects on Mental Health of Moving to Greener and  
Less Green Urban Areas

- o -

1) Outdoor Air Pollution, Preterm Birth, and Low Birth Weight:  
Analysis of the World Health Organization Global Survey on Maternal  
and Perinatal Health

Nancy L. Fleischer, Mario Merialdi, Aaron van Donkelaar, Felipe  
Vadillo-Ortega, Randall V. Martin, Ana Pilar Betran, João Paulo Souza,  
Marie S. O´Neill

Outdoor PM2.5 concentrations were associated with low birth weight but  
not preterm birth. In rapidly developing countries, such as China, the  
highest levels of air pollution may be of concern for both outcomes.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1306837 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1306837/)

- o -

2) GSTP1 and TNF Gene Variants and Associations between Air Pollution  
and Incident Childhood Asthma: The Traffic, Asthma and Genetics (TAG)  
Study

Elaina A. MacIntyre, Michael Brauer, Erik Melén, Carl Peter Bauer,  
Mario Bauer, Dietrich Berdel, Anna Bergström, Bert Brunekreef, Moira  
Chan-Yeung, Claudia Klümper, Elaine Fuertes, Ulrike Gehring, Anna  
Gref, Joachim Heinrich, Olf Herbarth, Marjan Kerkhof, Gerard H.  
Koppelman, Anita L. Kozyrskyj, Göran Pershagen, Dirkje S. Postma,  
Elisabeth Thiering, Carla M.T. Tiesler, Christopher Carlsten, for the  
TAG Study Group

Children carrying GSTP1 rs1138272 or rs1695 minor alleles may  
constitute a susceptible population at increased risk of asthma  
associated with air pollution.
Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1307459 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1307459/)

- o -

3) Association of Long-Term Exposure to Traffic-Related Air Pollution  
with Blood Pressure and Hypertension in an Adult Population–Based  
Cohort in Spain (the REGICOR Study)

Maria Foraster, Xavier Basagaña, Inmaculada Aguilera, Marcela Rivera,  
David Agis, Laura Bouso, Alexandre Deltell, Jaume Marrugat, Rafel  
Ramos, Jordi Sunyer, Joan Vila, Roberto Elosua, Nino Künzli

We observed a positive association between long-term exposure to NO2  
and systolic blood pressure (SBP), after adjustment for transportation  
noise, which was sensitive to the methodology used to account for  
medication.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1306497 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1306497/)

- o -

4) Differential Effects of Source-Specific Particulate Matter on  
Emergency Hospitalizations for Ischemic Heart Disease in Hong Kong

Vivian Chit Pun, Ignatius Tak-sun Yu, Kin-fai Ho, Hong Qiu, Zhiwei  
Sun, Linwei Tian

Emergency ischemic heart disease (IHD) hospitalization was  
significantly linked with PM10 from vehicle exhaust, nitrate-rich  
secondary PM, and sea salt–related PM. Findings may help prioritize  
toxicological research and guide future monitoring and  
emission-control polices.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1307213 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1307213/)

- o -

5) Air Pollution Exposure and Abnormal Glucose Tolerance during  
Pregnancy: The Project Viva Cohort

Abby F. Fleisch, Diane R. Gold, Sheryl L. Rifas-Shiman, Petros  
Koutrakis, Joel D. Schwartz, Itai Kloog, Steven Melly, Brent A. Coull,  
Antonella Zanobetti, Matthew W. Gillman, Emily Oken

Greater exposure to PM2.5 and other traffic-related pollutants during  
pregnancy was associated with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) but not  
gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Air pollution may contribute to  
abnormal glycemia in pregnancy.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1307065 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1307065/)

- o -

6) Disease Burdens Associated with PM2.5 Exposure: How a New Model  
Provided Global Estimates

Carrie Arnold

Like traffic jams and cell phones, particulate air pollution is a  
reality of modern living. Whether it’s from cigarette smoking,  
industrial emissions, or the burning of wood and dung for fuel, fine  
particulate matter (PM2.5) has been strongly linked to cardiovascular  
disease, inflammation, lung cancer, and other lung diseases. As part  
of the Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD) 2010 collaboration, an  
international team of environmental health scientists estimated the  
worldwide disease burden attributable to PM2.5 exposure. In this issue  
of EHP, they explain the underpinnings of how they did it.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.122-A111 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/122-A111/)

- o -

7) An Integrated Risk Function for Estimating the Global Burden of  
Disease Attributable to Ambient Fine Particulate Matter Exposure

Richard T. Burnett, C. Arden Pope III, Majid Ezzati, Casey Olives,  
Stephen S. Lim, Sumi Mehta, Hwashin H. Shin, Gitanjali Singh, Bryan  
Hubbell, Michael Brauer, H. Ross Anderson, Kirk R. Smith, John R.  
Balmes, Nigel G. Bruce, Haidong Kan, Francine Laden, Annette  
Prüss-Ustün, Michelle C. Turner, Susan M. Gapstur, W. Ryan Diver,  
Aaron Cohen

We developed a fine particulate mass–based RR model that covered the  
global range of exposure by integrating RR information from different  
combustion types that generate emissions of particulate matter. The  
model can be updated as new RR information becomes available.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1307049 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1307049/)

- o -

8) Evaluating the impact of air pollution on the incidence of  
out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in the Perth Metropolitan Region:  
2000–2010

Lahn Straney, Judith Finn, Martine Dennekamp, Alexandra Bremner,  
Andrew Tonkin, Ian Jacobs

Elevated ambient PM2.5 and CO are associated with an increased risk of  
out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA).

J Epidemiol Community Health 2014;68:6-12 - read abstract  
(http://jech.bmj.com/content/68/1/6.abstract)

- o -

9) Personal exposure to ultrafine particles: The influence of  
time-activity patterns

G. Buonanno, L. Stabile, L. Morawska

Personal exposure to ultrafine particles was measured for home and  
full time workers. The average exposure and dose were higher for women  
during both summer and winter. Results show that winter exposure was  
higher in respect to summer. Cooking activities contribute in a  
significant way. The highest dose intensity activity for men was time  
spent using transportation.

Science of The Total Environment 468–469, 15 January 2014,  903–907 -  
read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969713010449)

- o -

10) Disparities in Exposure to Automobile and Truck Traffic and  
Vehicle Emissions Near the Los Angeles–Long Beach Port Complex

Douglas Houston, Wei Li, Jun Wu

Disparities in traffic and vehicle particulate matter exposure are  
nuanced depending on the exposure metric used, the distribution of the  
traffic and emissions, and pollutant dispersal patterns. Future  
comparative research is needed to assess potential disparities in  
other transportation and goods movement corridors.

American Journal of Public Health January 2014, Vol. 104, No. 1, pp.  
156-164 - read abstract  
(http://ajph.aphapublications.org/doi/abs/10.2105/AJPH.2012.301120)

- o -

11) Apples to Apples: Comparing PM2.5 Exposures and Birth Outcomes in  
Understudied Countries

Julia R. Barrett

Mixed evidence suggests inhalation of fine particulate matter (PM2.5),  
a component of air pollution, may adversely affect birth outcomes, and  
research to elucidate the potential connection is ongoing. A new study  
in EHP provides further evidence for previously described associations  
between PM2.5 levels and low birth weight, but it goes a step farther  
by focusing on low- and middle-income countries, which have generally  
been excluded from previous analyses.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.122-A110 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/122-A110/)

- o -

12) Outdoor Air Pollution, Preterm Birth, and Low Birth Weight:  
Analysis of the World Health Organization Global Survey on Maternal  
and Perinatal Health

Nancy L. Fleischer, Mario Merialdi, Aaron van Donkelaar, Felipe  
Vadillo-Ortega, Randall V. Martin, Ana Pilar Betran, João Paulo Souza,  
Marie S. O´Neill

Outdoor PM2.5 concentrations were associated with low birth weight but  
not preterm birth. In rapidly developing countries, such as China, the  
highest levels of air pollution may be of concern for both outcomes.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1306837 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1306837/)

- o -

13) Effects of fine particulate matter and its constituents on low  
birth weight among full-term infants in California

Rupa Basu, Maria Harris, Lillian Sie, Brian Malig, Rachel Broadwin,  
Rochelle Green

Examine full gestational and trimester fine particle and its  
constituents on term birth weight. Fine particles and several of its  
constituents associated with birth weight reductions. Largest  
reductions for traffic-related particles, sulfur constituents, and  
metals. Greater birth weight reductions for younger mothers, and  
varied by race/ethnicity.

Environmental Research 128, January 2014, Pages 42–51 - read article  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935113001837)

14) Air pollution and childhood leukaemia: a nationwide case-control  
study in Italy

C Badaloni, A Ranucci, G Cesaroni, G Zanini, D Vienneau, F Al-Aidrous,  
K De Hoogh, C Magnani, F Forastiere, on behalf of the SETIL Study Group

Using various exposure assessment strategies, air pollution appears  
not to affect the incidence of childhood leukaemia.

Occup Environ Med doi:10.1136/oemed-2013-101604 - read abstract  
(http://oem.bmj.com/content/early/2013/09/18/oemed-2013-101604)

- o -

15) Maternal residential proximity to major roads in north west  
England and adverse pregnancy outcomes

Hannam K, McNamee R, Baker P, Sibley C, Agius R.

These results, from a study with high statistical power, suggest that  
living less than 200 m from a major road per se does not pose any  
great risk of an adverse perinatal outcome. Nevertheless, it may be  
limited to this geographic location. Further work is needed to  
quantify individual pollutant effects in pregnancy.

J Occup Environ Med. 2013 Nov;55(11):1329-36 - read abstract  
(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24164770)

- o -

16) Endotoxin in concentrated coarse and fine ambient particles  
induces acute systemic inflammation in controlled human exposures

Behrooz Behbod, Bruce Urch, Mary Speck, James A Scott, Ling Liu,  
Raymond Poon, Brent Coull, Joel Schwartz, Petros Koutrakis, Frances  
Silverman, Diane R Gold

In healthy adults, controlled coarse and fine ambient particle  
exposures independently induced acute systemic inflammatory responses.  
Endotoxin contributes to the inflammatory role of particle air  
pollution.

Occup Environ Med 2013;70:761-767 - read abstract  
(http://oem.bmj.com/content/70/11/761.abstract)

- o -

17) 7 million deaths annually linked to air pollution

In new estimates released, WHO reports that in 2012 around 7 million  
people died - one in eight of total global deaths – as a result of air  
pollution exposure. This finding more than doubles previous estimates  
and confirms that air pollution is now the world’s largest single  
environmental health risk. Reducing air pollution could save millions  
of lives.

WHO (World Health Organization) - visit web site for more details  
(http://www.who.int/phe/health_topics/outdoorair/databases/en/)

- o -

18) Short-Term Effects of Fine Particulate Air Pollution on Emergency  
Room Visits for Cardiac Arrhythmias: A Case-Crossover Study in Taipei

Hui-Fen Chiu, Shang-Shyue Tsai, Hsu-Huei Weng, Chun-Yuh Yang

This study provides evidence that higher levels of PM2.5 increase the  
risk of number of emergency room (ER) visits for cardiac arrhythmias.

Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, 76,10 2013, 614-623 -  
read abstract  
(http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/15287394.2013.801763#.U0KE0ahdWN8)

- o -

19) The toxic truth about air pollution: a lethal scandal of British inaction

John Vidal

The 'Saharan' smog is a crisis of our own making. But don't expect  
ministers to do anything sensible like restricting traffic on the roads

The Guardian, Wednesday 2 April 2014 - read article  
(http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2014/apr/02/toxic-truth-air-pollution-lethal-scandal-saharan-smog)

- o -

20) We can't just blame an ill wind. We need to take smog seriously

Observer editorial

The smog that choked much of Britain reminds us that we have serious  
home-grown pollution problems to tackle Invisible and insidious, the  
tiny chemical particles that pollute the air we breathe have become a  
major cause of death in the UK. Each year, 29,000 premature deaths  
,mostly from strokes and heart attacks, are caused by air pollution.  
This is greater than those deaths triggered annually by obesity or  
passive smoking.

The Observer, Sunday 6 April 2014 - read article  
(http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2014/apr/06/smog-pollution-london-britain-environment)

- o -

21) Implementation of a low emission zone and evaluation of effects on  
air quality by long-term monitoring

Pavlos Panteliadis, Maciej Strak, Gerard Hoec, Ernie Weijerd, Saskia  
van der Zeb, Marieke Dijkema

The current study demonstrated significant decreases in  
traffic-related air pollution concentrations in the vicinity of a  
roadside monitoring station after the implementation of a low emission  
zone in Amsterdam.

Atmospheric Environment 86, April 2014, 113–119 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1352231013009801)

- o -

22) Longitudinal Effects on Mental Health of Moving to Greener and  
Less Green Urban Areas

Ian Alcock, Mathew P. White, Benedict W. Wheeler, Lora E. Fleming,  
Michael H. Depledge

Moving to greener urban areas was associated with sustained mental  
health improvements, suggesting that environmental policies to  
increase urban green space may have sustainable public health benefits.

Environ. Sci. Technol., 2014, 48 (2), pp 1247–1255 - read abstract  
(http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/es403688w)

- o -

---------------------------------------------------------------------

Compiler and Editor: Barbara Rimmington, Researcher, East End Quality
of Life Initiative

10 Montgomery Terrace Road

Sheffield S6 3BU

Tel. 0114 285 9931

Fax 0114 278 7173

Email: barbara at sheffieldct.co.uk

Web: www.sheffieldeastend.org.uk

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