[cleanairuk_news] Health Effects of Air Quality and Noise - update June/ July 2014

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* Health Effects of Air Quality and Noise - update June/ July 2014 *

By Barbara Rimmington, Researcher, East End Quality of Life Initiative

(Previous edition - May 2014:  
http://cleanairuk.org/pipermail/news_cleanairuk.org/2014-May/000071.html)

(Index for previous issues:  
http://www.cleanairuk.org/health-air-pollution.html)

*CONTENTS*

1) Short-term effects of air pollution on a range of cardiovascular  
events in England and Wales: case-crossover analysis of the MINAP  
database, hospital admissions and mortality

2) Fine Particulate Matter Air Pollution and Cognitive Function Among  
U.S. Older Adults

3) Long-Term Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter: Association with  
Nonaccidental and Cardiovascular Mortality in the Agricultural Health  
Study Cohort

4) Epigenetic Influences on Associations between Air Pollutants and  
Lung Function in Elderly Men: The Normative Aging Study

5) Ambient Air Pollution and Depressive Symptoms in Older Adults:  
Results from the MOBILIZE Boston Study

6) Longitudinal effects of air pollution on exhaled nitric oxide: the  
Children's Health Study

7) Profitable to cut air pollution

8) Which specific causes of death are associated with short term  
exposure to fine and coarse particles in Southern Europe? Results from  
the MED-PARTICLES project

9) Controlled Exposures to Air Pollutants and Risk of Cardiac Arrhythmia
Jeremy P. Langrish, Simon J. Watts, Amanda J. Hunter, Anoop S.V. Shah,  
Jenny A. Bosson, Jon Unosson, Stefan Barath, Magnus Lundbäck, Flemming  
R. Cassee, Ken Donaldson, Thomas Sandström, Anders Blomberg, David E.  
Newby, Nicholas L. Mills

10) Associations of Short-Term Particle and Noise Exposures with  
Markers of Cardiovascular and Respiratory Health among Highway  
Maintenance Workers
Reto Meier, Wayne E. Cascio, Andrew J. Ghio, Pascal Wild, Brigitta  
Danuser, Michael Riediker

11) Association between Source-Specific Particulate Matter Air  
Pollution and hs-CRP: Local Traffic and Industrial Emissions

12) Air quality deteriorating in many of the world’s cities World  
Health Organization

13) The cost of air pollution: Health impacts of road transport

14) Short-Term Effects of Fine Particulate Air Pollution on Ischemic  
Stroke Occurrence: A Case-Crossover Study

15) A systematic review of air pollution and incidence of  
out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

16) Socioeconomic status and exposure to outdoor NO2 and benzene in  
the Asturias INMA birth cohort, Spain

17) Effects of long-term exposure to PM10 and NO2 on asthma and wheeze  
in a prospective birth cohort

18) Ambient air pollution and hypertensive disorder of pregnancy

19) Evaluating the impact of air pollution on the incidence of  
out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in the Perth Metropolitan Region:  
2000–2010

20) Association between wheeze and selected air pollution sources in  
an air pollution priority area in South Africa: a cross-sectional study

21) Use the law, beat pollution

22) Achieving Safety, Sustainability and Health Goals in Transport

23) Using Global Positioning Systems (GPS) and temperature data to  
generate time-activity classifications for estimating personal  
exposure in air monitoring studies: an automated method

24) Know your air for health

25) Multi-country willingness to pay study on road-traffic  
environmental health effects: are people willing and able to provide a  
number?

26) Road traffic noise frequency and prevalent hypertension in  
Taichung, Taiwan: A cross-sectional study

27) A national case-crossover analysis of the short-term effect of  
PM2.5 on hospitalizations and mortality in subjects with diabetes and  
neurological disorders

28) Traffic-related air pollution and obesity formation in children: a  
longitudinal, multilevel analysis

29) Association of traffic-related hazardous air pollutants and  
cervical dysplasia in an urban multiethnic population: a  
cross-sectional study

30) Chronic air pollution and social deprivation as modifiers of the  
association between high temperature and daily mortality

31) Multiple exposures to airborne pollutants and hospital admissions  
due to diseases of the circulatory system in Santiago de Chile

32) Comparison of particulate matter dose and acute heart rate  
variability response in cyclists, pedestrians, bus and train passengers

33) Personal exposure to ultrafine particles: The influence of  
time-activity patterns

34) A modeling investigation of the impact of street and building  
configurations on personal air pollutant exposure in isolated deep  
urban canyons

35) Field assessment of the effects of roadside vegetation on  
near-road black carbon and particulate matter

36) Getting Cars Off the Road: The Cost-Effectiveness of an Episodic  
Pollution Control Program

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1) Short-term effects of air pollution on a range of cardiovascular  
events in England and Wales: case-crossover analysis of the MINAP  
database, hospital admissions and mortality

Ai Milojevic, Paul Wilkinson, Ben Armstrong, Krishnan Bhaskaran, Liam  
Smeeth, Shakoor Hajat

This study found no clear evidence for pollution effects on STEMIs and  
stroke, which ultimately represent thrombogenic processes, though it  
did for pulmonary embolism. The strongest associations with air  
pollution were observed with selected non-MI outcomes.

Heart doi:10.1136/heartjnl-2013-304963 - read article  
(http://heart.bmj.com/content/early/2014/04/10/heartjnl-2013-304963.full)

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2) Fine Particulate Matter Air Pollution and Cognitive Function Among  
U.S. Older Adults

Jennifer A. Ailshire, Philippa Clarke

Older adults living in areas with high concentrations of PM2.5 had an  
error rate 1.5 times greater than those exposed to lower  
concentrations, net of individual and neighborhood-level demographic  
and socioeconomic characteristics.

J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci (2014) doi: 10.1093/geronb/gbu064 -  
read article  
(http://psychsocgerontology.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2014/06/05/geronb.gbu064.full)

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3) Long-Term Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter: Association with  
Nonaccidental and Cardiovascular Mortality in the Agricultural Health  
Study Cohort

Scott Weichenthal, Paul J. Villeneuve, Richard T. Burnett, Aaron van  
Donkelaar, Randall V. Martin, Rena R. Jones, Curt T. DellaValle, Dale  
P. Sandler, Mary H. Ward, Jane A. Hoppin

Rural PM2.5 may be associated with cardiovascular mortality in men;  
however, similar associations were not observed among women. Further  
evaluation is required to explore these sex differences.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1307277 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1307277/)

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4) Epigenetic Influences on Associations between Air Pollutants and  
Lung Function in Elderly Men: The Normative Aging Study

Johanna Lepeule, Marie-Abele Catherine Bind, Andrea A. Baccarelli,  
Petros Koutrakis, Letizia Tarantini, Augusto Litonjua, David Sparrow,  
Pantel Vokonas, Joel D. Schwartz

Subchronic exposure to traffic-related pollutants was associated with  
significantly reduced lung function in the elderly; nontraffic  
pollutants (particles, ozone) had weaker associations. Epigenetic  
mechanisms related to inflammation and immunity may influence these  
associations.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1206458 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1206458/)

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5) Ambient Air Pollution and Depressive Symptoms in Older Adults:  
Results from the MOBILIZE Boston Study

Yi Wang, Melissa N. Eliot, Petros Koutrakis, Alexandros Gryparis, Joel  
D. Schwartz, Brent A. Coull, Murray A. Mittleman, William P. Milberg,  
Lewis A. Lipsitz, Gregory A. Wellenius

We found no evidence suggesting that ambient air pollution is  
associated with depressive symptoms among older adults living in a  
metropolitan area in attainment of current U.S. regulatory standards.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1205909 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1205909/)

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6) Longitudinal effects of air pollution on exhaled nitric oxide: the  
Children's Health Study

Kiros Berhane, Yue Zhang, Muhammad T Sala1, Sandrah P Ecke1, William S  
Linn, Edward B Rappaport, Theresa M Bastain, Fred Lurmann, Frank D  
Gilliland

Changes in annual average exposure to current levels of ambient air  
pollutants are significantly associated with changes in FeNO levels in  
children, independent of short-term exposures and asthma status. Use  
of this biomarker in population-based epidemiological research has  
great potential for assessing the impact of changing real world  
mixtures of ambient air pollutants on children's respiratory health.

Occup Environ Med 2014;71:507-513 - read abstract  
(http://oem.bmj.com/content/71/7/507.abstract.html?etoc)

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7) Profitable to cut air pollution

Christer Ågren

The monetised health benefits alone of less air pollution are up to 42  
times greater than the emission abatement costs. In addition there  
will be substantial benefits to ecosystems, forests, agricultural  
crops and materials. Health benefits alone will save €38–139 billion  
per year if a new NEC directive is implemented.

Acid News No. 2, June 2014 - read article  
(http://www.airclim.org/acidnews/profitable-cut-air-pollution)

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8) Which specific causes of death are associated with short term  
exposure to fine and coarse particles in Southern Europe? Results from  
the MED-PARTICLES project

Evangelia Samoli, Massimo Stafoggia, Sophia Rodopoulou, Bart Ostro,  
Ester Alessandrini, Xavier Basagaña, Julio Díaz, Annunziata Faustini,  
Martina Gandini, Angeliki Karanasiou, Apostolos G. Kelessis, Alain Le  
Tertre, Cristina Linares, Andrea Ranzi, Cecilia Scarinzi, Klea  
Katsouyanni, Francesco Forastiere, the MED-PARTICLES Study group

We investigated particles' effects on cause-specific mortality in 10  
European areas. PM2.5 exposure was related to deaths due to diabetes,  
cardiac causes and COPD. Associations were stronger during the hot  
period of the year. Associations with coarse particles were weaker and  
more variable.

Environment International 67, June 2014, 54–61 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412014000634)

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9) Controlled Exposures to Air Pollutants and Risk of Cardiac Arrhythmia
Jeremy P. Langrish, Simon J. Watts, Amanda J. Hunter, Anoop S.V. Shah,  
Jenny A. Bosson, Jon Unosson, Stefan Barath, Magnus Lundbäck, Flemming  
R. Cassee, Ken Donaldson, Thomas Sandström, Anders Blomberg, David E.  
Newby, Nicholas L. Mills

Acute controlled exposure to air pollutants did not increase the  
short-term risk of arrhythmia in participants. Research employing  
these techniques remains crucial in identifying the important  
pathophysiological pathways involved in the adverse effects of air  
pollution, and is vital to inform environmental and public health  
policy decisions.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1307337 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1307337/)

- o -

10) Associations of Short-Term Particle and Noise Exposures with  
Markers of Cardiovascular and Respiratory Health among Highway  
Maintenance Workers
Reto Meier, Wayne E. Cascio, Andrew J. Ghio, Pascal Wild, Brigitta  
Danuser, Michael Riediker

Our findings suggest that exposure to particles and noise during  
highway maintenance work might pose a cardiovascular health risk.  
Actions to reduce these exposures could lead to better health for this  
population of workers.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1307100 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1307100/)

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11) Association between Source-Specific Particulate Matter Air  
Pollution and hs-CRP: Local Traffic and Industrial Emissions

Frauke Hennig, Kateryna Fuks, Susanne Moebus, Gudrun Weinmayr, Michael  
Memmesheimer, Hermann Jakobs, Martina Bröcker-Preuss, Dagmar  
Führer-Sakel, Stefan Möhlenkamp, Raimund Erbel, Karl-Heinz Jöckel,  
Barbara Hoffmann, on behalf of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study  
Investigative Group

Long-term exposure to local traffic-specific PM (PM2.5, PM10) was more  
strongly associated with systemic inflammation than total PM.  
Associations of local industry-specific PM were slightly stronger but  
not significantly different from associations with total PM.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1307081 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1307081/)

- o -

12) Air quality deteriorating in many of the world’s cities World  
Health Organization

Only 12% of the people living in cities reporting on air quality  
reside in cities where this complies with WHO air quality guideline  
levels. About half of the urban population being monitored is exposed  
to air pollution that is at least 2.5 times higher than the levels WHO  
recommends - putting those people at additional risk of serious,  
long-term health problems.

WHO News Release 2014 - read article  
(http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/releases/2014/air-quality/en/)

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13) The cost of air pollution: Health impacts of road transport

OECD report

Outdoor air pollution kills more than 3.5 million people a year  
globally, far more than was previously estimated. Air pollution has  
now become the biggest environmental cause of premature death,  
overtaking poor sanitation and a lack of clean drinking water. In most  
OECD countries, the death toll from heart and lung diseases caused by  
air pollution is much higher than the one from traffic accidents -  
read report (http://www.oecd.org/environment/cost-of-air-pollution.htm)

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14) Short-Term Effects of Fine Particulate Air Pollution on Ischemic  
Stroke Occurrence: A Case-Crossover Study

Hui-Fen Chiu, Chun-Yuh Yang

This study provides evidence that higher levels of PM2.5 enhance the  
risk of hospital admissions for IS.

Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, 76;21, 2013, 1188-1197  
- read abstract  
(http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/15287394.2013.842463#.U7Jz75SwJnE)

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15) A systematic review of air pollution and incidence of  
out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

Tiew-Hwa Katherine Teng, Teresa A Williams, Alexandra Bremner, Hideo  
Tohira, Peter Franklin, Andrew Tonkin, Ian Jacobs, Judith Finn

Larger studies have suggested an increased risk of OHCA with air  
pollution exposure from PM2.5 and ozone.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2014;68:37-43 - read abstract  
(http://jech.bmj.com/content/68/1/37.abstract)

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16) Socioeconomic status and exposure to outdoor NO2 and benzene in  
the Asturias INMA birth cohort, Spain

Ana Fernández-Somoano, Adonina Tardon

Education and social class were not clearly associated with pollution.  
Administrations should monitor the environment of residential areas  
regardless of the socioeconomic level, and they should increase the  
distances between housing and polluting sources to prevent settlements  
at distances that are harmful to health.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2014;68:29-36 - read article  
(http://jech.bmj.com/content/68/1/29.full)

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17) Effects of long-term exposure to PM10 and NO2 on asthma and wheeze  
in a prospective birth cohort

Anna Mölter, Raymond Agius, Frank de Vocht, Sarah Lindley, William  
Gerrard, Adnan Custovic, Angela Simpson

No evidence of a significant association between long-term exposure to  
PM10 and NO2 and the prevalence of either asthma or wheeze was found.
J Epidemiol Community Health 2014;68:21-28 - read abstract  
(http://jech.bmj.com/content/68/1/21.abstract)

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18) Ambient air pollution and hypertensive disorder of pregnancy

Xiaohui Xu, Hui Hu, Sandie Ha, Jeffrey Roth

This study suggests that exposure to high levels of air pollution  
during early pregnancy and the full gestational period was associated  
with increased prevalence of HDP in Florida, USA.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2014;68:13-20 - read abstract  
(http://jech.bmj.com/content/68/1/13.abstract)

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19) Evaluating the impact of air pollution on the incidence of  
out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in the Perth Metropolitan Region:  
2000–2010

Lahn Straney, Judith Finn, Martine Dennekamp, Alexandra Bremner,  
Andrew Tonkin, Ian Jacobs

Elevated ambient PM2.5 and CO are associated with an increased risk of OHCA.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2014;68:6-12 - read abstract  
(http://jech.bmj.com/content/68/1/6.abstract)

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20) Association between wheeze and selected air pollution sources in  
an air pollution priority area in South Africa: a cross-sectional study

Joyce Shirinde, Janine Wichmann, Kuku Voyi

It was concluded that children living in one of the air pollution  
priority areas of South Africa, have an increased risk of wheezing due  
to exposure to both indoor and outdoor air pollution sources.

Environmental Health 2014, 13:32 - read article  
(http://www.ehjournal.net/content/13/1/32)

21) Use the law, beat pollution

Client Earth has produced “The Clean Air Handbook: A practical guide  
to EU air quality law” to provide individuals, groups and lawyers with  
a straightforward, easy to use guide to EU air quality law - download  
handbook

(http://www.clientearth.org/201405282553/news/latest-news/use-the-law-beat-pollution-2553)

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22) Achieving Safety, Sustainability and Health Goals in Transport

On the anniversary of the transfer of responsibility for public health  
to local government, PACTS has produced a major report Achieving  
Safety, Sustainability and Health Goals in Transport. The report looks  
at recent calls for greater alignment of policy and practice across  
the road safety, sustainable transport and public health sectors in  
order to provide more effective delivery and improved outcomes. The  
report draws on the views of a cross-section of experts in order to  
determine how much joined-up working is currently underway and to how  
it could be improved and increased -

read report  
(http://www.pacts.org.uk/2014/03/achieving-safety-sustainability-and-health-goals-in-transport/)

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23) Using Global Positioning Systems (GPS) and temperature data to  
generate time-activity classifications for estimating personal  
exposure in air monitoring studies: an automated method

Elizabeth Nethery, Gary Mallach, Daniel Rainham, Mark S Goldberg,  
Amanda J Wheeler

Mean times spent in different locations as categorized by a GPS-based  
method were comparable to those from a time-activity diary, but there  
were differences in estimates of exposure to PM2.5 from the two  
methods. An automated GPS-based time-activity method will reduce  
participant burden, potentially providing more accurate and unbiased  
assessments of location. Combined with continuous air measurements,  
the higher resolution GPS data could present a different and more  
accurate picture of personal exposures to air pollution.

Environmental Health 2014, 13:33 - read article  
(http://www.ehjournal.net/content/13/1/33)

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24) Know your air for health

Breathing in dirty air has immediate effects – such as coughing and  
wheezing – but recent research shows that the long-term effects of  
polluted air on health are far greater. Asthma and lung diseases such  
as Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) can be a consequence  
of the air we breathe.

Know your air for health is a joint project by the Health &  
Environment Alliance (HEAL) and the European Federation of Allergy and  
Airways Diseases Patients Associations (EFA). The main objective is to  
help communicate EU air quality information to European citizens and  
alerts to allergy, asthma and COPD patients in Europe to achieve  
cleaner air and greater protection -

read more (http://www.knowyourairforhealth.eu/)

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25) Multi-country willingness to pay study on road-traffic  
environmental health effects: are people willing and able to provide a  
number?

Tifanny Istamto, Danny Houthuijs, Erik Lebret

With a proportion of about 50%, DK answers may be a more relevant  
issue affecting WTP than PV’s. The likelihood to give PV and DK  
response were influenced by socio-demographic, economic and health  
factors, as well as environmental concerns and appreciation of  
environmental conditions and policies. In contested policy issues  
where actual policy may be based on WTP studies, PV and DK answers may  
indeed affect the outcome of the WTP study. PV and DK answers and  
their determinants therefore deserve further study in CV studies on  
environmental health effects.

Environmental Health 2014, 13:35 - read article  
(http://www.ehjournal.net/content/13/1/35)

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26) Road traffic noise frequency and prevalent hypertension in  
Taichung, Taiwan: A cross-sectional study

Ta-Yuan Chang, Rob Beelen, Su-Fei Li, Tzu-I Chen, Yen-Ju Lin, Bo-Ying  
Bao, Chiu-Shong Liu

With the possible bias of exposure misclassification and a bias from  
using diagnosed hypertension, these results suggest that exposure to  
road traffic noise at low and hearing-sensitive frequencies may be  
associated with hypertension and exposure to noise at 125 Hz may have  
the greatest risk for hypertension.

Environmental Health 2014, 13:37 - read article  
(http://www.ehjournal.net/content/13/1/37)

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27) A national case-crossover analysis of the short-term effect of  
PM2.5 on hospitalizations and mortality in subjects with diabetes and  
neurological disorders

Antonella Zanobetti, Francesca Dominici, Yun Wang, Joel D Schwartz

We found that short-term exposure to fine particles increased the risk  
of hospitalizations for Parkinson’s disease and diabetes, and of  
all-cause mortality. While the association between short term exposure  
to PM2.5 and mortality was higher among Medicare enrollees that had a  
previous admission for diabetes and neurological disorders than among  
Medicare enrollees that did not had a prior admission for these  
diseases, the effect modification was not statistically significant.  
We believe that these results provide useful insights regarding the  
mechanisms by which particles may affect the brain. A better  
understanding of the mechanisms will enable the development of new  
strategies to protect individuals at risk and to reduce detrimental  
effects of air pollution on the nervous system.

Environmental Health 2014, 13:38 - read article  
(http://www.ehjournal.net/content/13/1/38)

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28) Traffic-related air pollution and obesity formation in children: a  
longitudinal, multilevel analysis

Michael Jerrett, Rob McConnell, Jennifer Wolch, Roger Chang, Claudia  
Lam, Genevieve Dunton, Frank Gilliland, Fred Lurmann, Talat Islam,  
Kiros Berhane
Traffic pollution was positively associated with growth in BMI in  
children aged 5-11 years. Traffic pollution may be controlled via  
emission restrictions; changes in land use that promote jobs-housing  
balance and use of public transit and hence reduce vehicle miles  
traveled; promotion of zero emissions vehicles, transit and  
car-sharing programs; or by limiting high pollution traffic, such as  
diesel trucks, from residential areas or places where children play  
outdoors, such as schools and parks. Such controls may have beneficial  
effects in terms of reduced obesity formation in children.

Environmental Health 2014, 13:49 - read abstract/provisional article  
(http://www.ehjournal.net/content/13/1/49/abstract)

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29) Association of traffic-related hazardous air pollutants and  
cervical dysplasia in an urban multiethnic population: a  
cross-sectional study

Michael E Scheurer, Heather E Danysh, Michele Follen, Philip J Lupo
Traffic-related HAPs, such as benzene, DPM, and PAHs, are not as  
well-regulated and monitored as criteria air pollutants (e.g., ozone),  
underscoring the need for studies evaluating the role of these  
toxicants on disease risk. Our results suggest that exposure to  
traffic-related air toxics may increase cervical dysplasia prevalence.

Environmental Health 2014, 13:52 - read article  
(http://www.ehjournal.net/content/13/1/52)

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30) Chronic air pollution and social deprivation as modifiers of the  
association between high temperature and daily mortality

Tarik Benmarhnia, Youssef Oulhote, Claire Petit, Annabelle Lapostolle,  
Pierre Chauvin, Denis Zmirou-Navier, Séverine Deguen

Our results may have implications in considering chronically polluted  
areas as vulnerable in heat action plans and in the long-term measures  
to reduce the burden of heat stress especially in the context of  
climate change.

Environmental Health 2014, 13:53 - read article  
(http://www.ehjournal.net/content/13/1/53)

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31) Multiple exposures to airborne pollutants and hospital admissions  
due to diseases of the circulatory system in Santiago de Chile

Ulrich Franck, Arne Marian Leitte, Peter Suppan

We assessed the effects of multiple airborne exposures on  
cardiovascular hospital admissions in Santiago de Chile. We found  
significant adverse effects for CO, NO2, PM10 and PM2.5, but not O3.  
Effect strength and lag time depend on the type of pollutant.  
Different airborne pollutants account for varying adverse effects  
within different cardiovascular disease groups.

Science of The Total Environment Vol.468–469, 2014, 746–756 - read  
article  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969713010152)

32) Comparison of particulate matter dose and acute heart rate  
variability response in cyclists, pedestrians, bus and train passengers

Marguerite Nyhan, Aonghus McNabola, Bruce Misstear

We assess acute relative variations in HRV with PM lung deposition in  
commuters. PM lung deposited dose was predicted by a numerical human  
respiratory tract model. Previous studies relating PM to HRV have not  
accounted for varying ventilation rates. Active commuters had higher  
modelled PM deposited doses than inactive commuters. Increased PM lung  
deposition is linked to declines in HRV in pedestrians and cyclists.
Science of The Total Environment Vol.468–469, 2014, 821–831 - read  
article  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969713010231)

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33) Personal exposure to ultrafine particles: The influence of  
time-activity patterns

G. Buonanno, L. Stabile, L. Morawska

Personal exposure to ultrafine particles was measured for home and  
full time workers. The average exposure and dose were higher for women  
during both summer and winter. Results show that winter exposure was  
higher in respect to summer. Cooking activities contribute in a  
significant way. The highest dose intensity activity for men was time  
spent using transportation.

Science of The Total Environment vol.468–469, 2014, 903–907 - read  
article  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969713010449)

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34) A modeling investigation of the impact of street and building  
configurations on personal air pollutant exposure in isolated deep  
urban canyons

Wai-Yin Ng, Chi-Kwan Chau

Indirect exposure approach was used to evaluate canyon air quality.  
Certain building spacing and setback configurations could reduce  
personal exposures. Building setbacks were the best option in lowering  
personal exposures. Decision making hierarchy guides the canyon  
planning in high density urban cities.

Science of The Total Environment Vol.468–469, 2014, 429–448 - read  
article  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969713010048)

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35) Field assessment of the effects of roadside vegetation on  
near-road black carbon and particulate matter

Halley L. Brantley, Gayle S.W. Hagler, Parikshit J. Deshmukh, Richard  
W. Baldauf

Vegetation barriers altered near-road black carbon concentrations.  
Vegetation reduced downwind black carbon concentrations by  
approximately 12%. Downwind fine and coarse particle concentration  
were unaffected by vegetation. Black carbon gradients more gradual  
behind vegetation compared to a clearing.

Science of The Total Environment Vol.468–469, 2014, 120–129 - read  
article  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969713009145)

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36) Getting Cars Off the Road: The Cost-Effectiveness of an Episodic  
Pollution Control Program

Maureen L. Cropper, Yi Jiang, Anna Alberini, Patrick Baur

Ground-level ozone remains a serious problem in the United States.  
Because ozone non-attainment is a summer problem, episodic rather than  
continuous controls of ozone precursors are possible.  Although  
year-round measures, such as the Tier II emissions standards, might be  
preferred on benefit-cost grounds, an episodic permit system might be  
considered as an interim measure before the Tier II emissions  
standards are fully reflected in the vehicle fleet.

Environmental and Resource Economics 2014, 57;1, 117-143 - read  
abstract (http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10640-013-9669-4)

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---------------------------------------------------------------------

Compiler and Editor: Barbara Rimmington, Researcher, East End Quality
of Life Initiative

10 Montgomery Terrace Road

Sheffield S6 3BU

Tel. 0114 285 9931

Fax 0114 278 7173

Email: barbara at sheffieldct.co.uk

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