[cleanairuk_news] Health Effects of Air Quality and Noise - update February 2014

Network for Clean Air contact at cleanairuk.org
Thu Feb 27 19:53:33 GMT 2014


* Health Effects of Air Quality and Noise - update February 2014 *

By Barbara Rimmington, Researcher, East End Quality of Life Initiative

(Previous edition - January 2014:  
http://cleanairuk.org/pipermail/news_cleanairuk.org/2014-February/000064.html)

*CONTENTS*

1) Air pollution: how big a problem is it for cyclists?

2) Health effects of the London bicycle sharing system: health impact  
modelling study

3) Associations between arrhythmia episodes and temporally and  
spatially resolved black carbon and particulate matter in elderly  
patients

4) Have the short-term mortality effects of particulate matter air  
pollution changed in Australia over the period 1993–2007?

5) Oxidative stress of House Sparrow as bioindicator of urban pollution

6) An Autonomic Link Between Inhaled Diesel Exhaust and Impaired  
Cardiac Performance: Insight From Treadmill and Dobutamine Challenges  
in Heart Failure–Prone Rats

7) A five-year study of particulate matter (PM2.5) and cerebrovascular  
diseases

8) Air Pollution and Newly Diagnostic Autism Spectrum Disorders: A  
Population-Based Cohort Study in Taiwan

9) Prenatal air pollution exposure and ultrasound measures of fetal  
growth in Los Angeles, California

10) Ambient Fine Particulate Matter, Nitrogen Dioxide, and Term Birth  
Weight in New York, New York

11) Ambient Air Pollution and Traffic Exposures and Congenital Heart  
Defects in the San Joaquin Valley of California

12) Associations between ambient air pollution and Hypertensive  
Disorders of Pregnancy

13) Associations Between Inflammatory and Immune Response Genes and  
Adverse Respiratory Outcomes Following Exposure to Outdoor Air  
Pollution: A HuGE Systematic Review

14) A Case-Control Study of Long-Term Exposure to Ambient Volatile  
Organic Compounds and Lung Cancer in Toronto, Ontario, Canada

15) Invited Commentary: Epidemiologic Studies of the Impact of Air  
Pollution on Lung Cancer

16) The dispersion characteristics of air pollution from the world's  
megacities

17) Nitrogen Dioxide and Ultrafine Particles Dominate the Biological  
Effects of Inhaled Diesel Exhaust Treated by a Catalyzed Diesel  
Particulate Filter

18) Impact of Roadside Tree Lines on Indoor Concentrations of  
Traffic-Derived Particulate Matter

19) Does urban vegetation mitigate air pollution in northern conditions?

20) Variations in exposure to traffic pollution while travelling by  
different modes in a low density, less congested city

21) Research investigating in-use emissions of a range of buses  
operating in a modern commercial public transport fleet

22) Exposure to road traffic noise and children's behavioural problems  
and sleep disturbance: Results from the GINIplus and LISAplus studies

- o -

1) Air pollution: how big a problem is it for cyclists?

Peter Walker

Air pollution prematurely kills around 30,000 Britons a year, but at  
least on a bike there are measures you can take to reduce the risks

The Guardian 20 Feb 2014 - read article  
(http://www.theguardian.com/environment/bike-blog/2014/feb/20/air-pollution-cyclists-bike-blog)

- o -

2) Health effects of the London bicycle sharing system: health impact  
modelling study

James Woodcock, Marko Tainio, James Cheshire, Oliver O’Brien, Anna Goodman,

London’s bicycle sharing system has positive health impacts overall,  
but these benefits are clearer for men than for women and for older  
users than for younger users. The potential benefits of cycling may  
not currently apply to all groups in all settings.

BMJ 2014;348:g425 - read article  
(http://www.bmj.com/content/348/bmj.g425?etoc=)

- o -

3) Associations between arrhythmia episodes and temporally and  
spatially resolved black carbon and particulate matter in elderly  
patients

Antonella Zanobetti, Brent A Coull, Alexandros Gryparis, Itai Kloog,  
David Sparrow, Pantel S Vokonas, Robert O Wright, Diane R Gold, Joel  
Schwartz

Ambient air pollution has been associated with sudden deaths, some of  
which are likely due to ventricular arrhythmias. Defibrillator  
discharge studies have examined the association of air pollution with  
arrhythmias in sensitive populations. This study found that increased  
levels of short-term traffic-related pollutants may increase the risk  
of ventricular arrhythmia in elderly subjects.

Occup Environ Med 2014;71:201-207 - read abstract  
(http://oem.bmj.com/content/71/3/201.abstract.html?etoc)

- o -

4) Have the short-term mortality effects of particulate matter air  
pollution changed in Australia over the period 1993–2007?

Steven Roberts

We explore whether the mortality effect of PM10 has changed in  
Australia over time. Evidence is found that the effect of PM10 has  
declined in Brisbane and Sydney. It is possible that the decline is  
due to a reduction in the toxicity of PM10.

Environmental Pollution 182, November 2013, 9–14 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0269749113003606)

- o -

5) Oxidative stress of House Sparrow as bioindicator of urban pollution

Amparo Herrera-Dueñas, Javier Pineda,  María Teresa Antonio, José I. Aguirre

House Sparrow as a bioindicator of urban ecosystem quality. Oxidative  
stress markers could be reliable tool for monitoring urban air  
quality. Non-invasive sampling techniques allows to use threatened  
species for monitoring.

Ecological Indicators Available online 12 September 2013 In Press,  
Corrected Proof - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1470160X13003130)

- o -

6) An Autonomic Link Between Inhaled Diesel Exhaust and Impaired  
Cardiac Performance: Insight From Treadmill and Dobutamine Challenges  
in Heart Failure–Prone Rats

Alex P. Carll, Mehdi S. Hazari, Christina M. Perez, Q. Todd Krantz,  
Charly J. King, Najwa Haykal-Coates, Wayne E. Cascio, Daniel L. Costa,  
Aimen K. Farraj

This is the first evidence that air pollutant inhalation both causes  
time-dependent oscillations between sympathetic and parasympathetic  
dominance and decreases cardiac performance via aberrant sympathetic  
dominance.

Toxicol. Sci. (2013) 135 (2): 425-436 - read abstract  
(http://toxsci.oxfordjournals.org/content/135/2/425.abstract)

- o -

7) A five-year study of particulate matter (PM2.5) and cerebrovascular  
diseases

Manuel A. Leiva G, Daniela A. Santibañez, Sergio Ibarra E, Patricia  
Matus C, Rodrigo Seguel

Particulate matter pollution – cerebrovascular diseases (stroke)  
relationship is not well known. Cerebrovascular diseases are the  
second leading cause of mortality and the leading cause of morbidity.  
PM2.5 increase 10 μg/m3 the risk of hospital admissions for stroke  
causes increases by 1.29%. The results are similar to that of other  
cities worldwide.

Environmental Pollution 181, October 2013, 1–6 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0269749113003175)

- o -

8) Air Pollution and Newly Diagnostic Autism Spectrum Disorders: A  
Population-Based Cohort Study in Taiwan

Chau-Ren Jung, Yu-Ting Lin, Bing-Fang Hwang

Our results provide evidence that children's exposure to O3, CO, NO2,  
and SO2 in the preceding 1 year to 4 years may increase the risk of  
ASD diagnosis.

PLoS ONE 8(9): e75510. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0075510 - read article  
(http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0075510)

- o -

9) Prenatal air pollution exposure and ultrasound measures of fetal  
growth in Los Angeles, California

Beate Ritz, Jiaheng Qiu, Pei-Chen Lee, Fred Lurmann, Bryan Penfold,  
Robert Erin Weiss, Rob McConnell, Chander Arora, Calvin Hobel,  
Michelle Wilhelm

We collected multiple ultrasound measures in a prospective pregnancy  
cohort. We modeled traffic-related air pollution with  
dispersion/land-use regression models. Ambient government air monitors  
provided us with measures for CO and NO2. Fetal biparietal diameter  
decreased with different traffic pollution measures. Head size but no  
other fetal growth measures were affected by air pollution.

Environmental Research 130, April 2014, 7–13 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935114000103)

10) Ambient Fine Particulate Matter, Nitrogen Dioxide, and Term Birth  
Weight in New York, New York

David A. Savitz, Jennifer F. Bobb, Jessie L. Carr, Jane E. Clougherty,  
Francesca Dominici, Beth Elston, Kazuhiko Ito, Zev Ross, Michelle Yee,  
Thomas D. Matte

Adjusted estimates for particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter  
less than 2.5 μm indicated that for each 10-µg/m3 increase in  
exposure, birth weights declined by 18.4, 10.5, 29.7, and 48.4 g for  
exposures in the first, second, and third trimesters and for the total  
pregnancy, respectively. Adjusted estimates for nitrogen dioxide  
indicated that for each 10-ppb increase in exposure, birth weights  
declined by 14.2, 15.9, 18.0, and 18.0 g for exposures in the first,  
second, and third trimesters and for the total pregnancy,  
respectively. These results strongly support the association of urban  
air pollution exposure with reduced fetal growth.

American Journal of Epidemiology 2014, 179, 4, 457-466 - read abstract  
(http://aje.oxfordjournals.org/content/179/4/457.abstract.html?etoc)

- o -

11) Ambient Air Pollution and Traffic Exposures and Congenital Heart  
Defects in the San Joaquin Valley of California

Amy M. Padula, Ira B. Tager, Suzan L. Carmichael, S. Katharine  
Hammond, Wei Yang, Frederick Lurmann, Gary M. Shaw

PM10 and traffic density may contribute to the occurrence of pulmonary  
valve stenosis and ventricular septal defects, respectively. The  
results were mixed for other pollutants and had little consistency  
with previous studies.

Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology 27,4, 329–339, July 2013 - read  
abstract (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ppe.12055/abstract)

- o -

12) Associations between ambient air pollution and Hypertensive  
Disorders of Pregnancy

Zahra Mobasher, Muhammad T. Salam, T.Murphy Goodwin, Frederick  
Lurmann, Sue A. Ingles, Melissa L. Wilson

CO and PM2.5 significantly increase the HDP risk in the first  
pregnancy trimester. Ozone O3 significantly increases the HDP risk in  
the second pregnancy trimester. CO and PM2.5 are associated with  
increased odds of HDP only among non-obese women.

Environmental Research 123, May 2013, 9–16 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935113000108)

- o -

13) Associations Between Inflammatory and Immune Response Genes and  
Adverse Respiratory Outcomes Following Exposure to Outdoor Air  
Pollution: A HuGE Systematic Review

Seema Vawda, Rafif Mansour, Andrea Takeda, Paula Funnell, Sally Kerry,  
Ian Mudway, Jeenath Jamaludin, Seif Shaheen, Chris Griffiths, Robert  
Walton

Variants of inflammatory and immune response genes have been  
associated with adverse respiratory outcomes following exposure to air  
pollution. However, the genes involved and their associations are not  
well characterized, and there has been no systematic review. This  
review indicates that genes controlling innate immune recognition of  
foreign material (TLR4) and the subsequent inflammatory response  
(TGFB1, TLR4) modify the associations of exposure to air pollution  
with respiratory function. The associations observed have biological  
plausibility; however, larger studies with improved reporting are  
needed to confirm these findings.

American Journal of Epidemiology 2014, 179, 4, 432-442 - read abstract  
(http://aje.oxfordjournals.org/content/179/4/432.abstract.html?etoc)

- o -

14) A Case-Control Study of Long-Term Exposure to Ambient Volatile  
Organic Compounds and Lung Cancer in Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Paul J. Villeneuve, Michael Jerrett, Darren Brenner, Jason Su, Hong  
Chen, John R. McLaughlin

Our study suggests that long-term exposure to ambient volatile organic  
compounds and nitrogen dioxide at relatively low concentrations is  
associated with lung cancer. Further work is needed to evaluate joint  
relationships between these pollutants, smoking, and lung cancer.

American Journal of Epidemiology 2014, 179, 4 443-451 - read abstract  
(http://aje.oxfordjournals.org/content/179/4/443.abstract.html?etoc)

- o -

15) Invited Commentary: Epidemiologic Studies of the Impact of Air  
Pollution on Lung Cancer

Jaime E. Hart

In this issue of the Journal, Villeneuve et al. (Am J Epidemiol.  
2014;179(4):443–451) present epidemiologic evidence supporting the  
literature on the adverse effects of air pollution on risk of lung  
cancer. They found that ambient exposure to volatile organic  
compounds, especially when measured at longer time scales, was  
associated with increased odds of lung cancer in citizens of Toronto,  
Ontario, Canada, between 1997 and 2002. These findings add weight to  
the substantial (and rapidly growing) body of literature on the  
relation of air pollution with lung cancer risk, as well as illustrate  
important aspects of the effects of different exposure assessment  
choices and potential sources of key interest.

American Journal of Epidemiology 2014, 179, 4 452-454 - read abstract  
(http://aje.oxfordjournals.org/content/179/4/452.short)  and authors'  
response (http://aje.oxfordjournals.org/content/179/4/455.short)

- o -

16) The dispersion characteristics of air pollution from the world's  
megacities

M. Cassiani, A. Stohl, S. Eckhardt

In general this study showed that the pollution of urban origin in the  
lower troposphere of the Arctic is mainly generated by northern  
European sources. We also found that the deposition of the modeled  
artificial BC (black carbon) aerosol in the Antarctic due to  
megacities is comparable to the emissions of BC generated by local  
shipping activities. Finally multiplying population and ground level  
concentration maps, we found that the exposure of human population to  
megacity pollution occurs mainly inside the city boundaries, and this  
is especially true if deposition is accounted for. However, some  
exceptions exist (Beijing, Tianjin, Karachi) where the impact on  
population outside the city boundary is larger than that inside the  
city boundary.

Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 9975-9996, doi:10.5194/acp-13-9975-2013, 2013  
- read abstract  
(http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/13/9975/2013/acp-13-9975-2013.html)

- o -

17) Nitrogen Dioxide and Ultrafine Particles Dominate the Biological  
Effects of Inhaled Diesel Exhaust Treated by a Catalyzed Diesel  
Particulate Filter

Subramanian Karthikeyan, Errol M. Thomson, Prem Kumarathasan, Josée  
Guénette, Debbie Rosenblatt, Tak Chan, Greg Rideout, Renaud Vincent

The potential benefits of particulate matter reduction using a  
catalyzed DPF may be confounded by increase in NO2 emission and  
release of reactive ultrafine particles.

Toxicol. Sci. (2013) 135 (2): 437-450 - read abstract  
(http://toxsci.oxfordjournals.org/content/135/2/437.abstract)

18) Impact of Roadside Tree Lines on Indoor Concentrations of  
Traffic-Derived Particulate Matter

Barbara A. Maher, Imad A. M. Ahmed, Brian Davison, Vassil  
Karloukovski, Robert Clarke

Electron microscopy analyses show that leaf-captured PM is  
concentrated in agglomerations around leaf hairs and within the leaf  
microtopography. Iron-rich, ultrafine, spherical particles, probably  
combustion-derived, are abundant, form a particular hazard to health,  
and likely contribute much of the measured magnetic remanences. Leaf  
magnetic measurements show that PM capture occurs on both the  
road-proximal and -distal sides of the trees. The efficacy of roadside  
trees for mitigation of PM health hazard might be seriously  
underestimated in some current atmospheric models.

Environ. Sci. Technol., 2013, 47 (23), pp 13737–13744 - read abstract  
(http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/es404363m)

- o -

19) Does urban vegetation mitigate air pollution in northern conditions?

Heikki Setälä, Viljami Viippola, Anna-Lea Rantalainen, Arto Pennanen,  
Vesa Yli-Pelkonen

The ability of northern urban vegetation to remove air pollutants is  
minor. Vegetation-related environmental variables had no effect on air  
pollution levels. The ability of vegetation to clean air did not  
differ between summer and winter. Dry deposition passive samplers  
proved applicable in urban air pollution study.

Environmental Pollution 183, December 2013, 104–112 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0269749112004885)

- o -

20) Variations in exposure to traffic pollution while travelling by  
different modes in a low density, less congested city

Simon Kingham, Ian Longley, Jenny Salmond, Woodrow Pattinson, Kreepa Shrestha

This research assessed the comparative risk associated with exposure  
to traffic pollution when travelling via different transport modes in  
Christchurch, New Zealand. Concentrations of PM1, UFPs and CO were  
monitored on pre-defined routes during the morning and evening commute  
on people travelling concurrently by car, bus and bicycle. It was  
found that car drivers were consistently exposed to the highest levels  
of CO; on-road cyclists were exposed to higher levels of all  
pollutants than off-road cyclists; car and bus occupants were exposed  
to higher average levels of UFP than cyclists, and travellers were  
occasionally exposed to very high levels of pollution for short  
periods of time. PM10 and PM2.5 were found to be poor indicators of  
exposure to traffic pollution. Studying Christchurch adds to our  
understanding as it was a lower density city with limited traffic  
congestion compared most other cities previously studied.

Environmental Pollution 181, October 2013, 211–218 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0269749113003540)

- o -

21) Research investigating in-use emissions of a range of buses  
operating in a modern commercial public transport fleet

The vehicles being tested represent a cross-section of the Brighton &  
Hove fleet, from the oldest, which conform to Euro III level emissions  
regulations, up to Euro V-compliant conventional and hybrid buses.  In  
each case, the vehicle under test operates on a standard service route  
through the city centre that captures a range of driving conditions  
and gradients.

Ricardo & Horiba Instruments - read press release  
(http://www.ricardo.com/en-GB/News--Media/Press-releases/News-releases1/2014/Ricardo-and-Brighton--Hove-buses-work-towards-a-cleaner-environment/)

- o -

22) Exposure to road traffic noise and children's behavioural problems  
and sleep disturbance: Results from the GINIplus and LISAplus studies

Carla M.T. Tiesler, Matthias Birk, Elisabeth Thiering, Gabriele  
Kohlböck, Sibylle Koletzko, Carl-Peter Bauer, Dietrich Berdel, Andrea  
von Berg, Wolfgang Babisch, Joachim Heinrich, for the GINIplus and  
LISAplus Study Groups

We studied road traffic noise exposure at home and child behavioural  
problems. Two modelled noise indicators, one for 24 h and one for  
night noise, were used. Noise levels at the least exposed façade were  
related to more emotional symptoms. Noise at the most exposed façade  
was related to more hyperactivity symptoms.

Environmental Research 123, May 2013, 1–8 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935113000364)

- o -

---------------------------------------------------------------------

Compiler and Editor: Barbara Rimmington, Researcher, East End Quality
of Life Initiative

10 Montgomery Terrace Road

Sheffield S6 3BU

Tel. 0114 285 9931

Fax 0114 278 7173

Email: barbara at sheffieldct.co.uk

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