[cleanairuk_news] Health Effects of Air Quality and Noise - update March 2014

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* Health Effects of Air Quality and Noise - update March 2014 *

By Barbara Rimmington, Researcher, East End Quality of Life Initiative

(Previous edition - February 2014:  
http://cleanairuk.org/pipermail/news_cleanairuk.org/2014-February/000065.html)

(Index for all previous issues:  
http://www.cleanairuk.org/health-air-pollution.html)

*CONTENTS*

1) Air Pollution and Respiratory Infections during Early Childhood: An  
Analysis of 10 European Birth Cohorts within the ESCAPE Project

2) Physiological Daily Inhalation Rates for Health Risk Assessment in  
Overweight/Obese Children, Adults, and Elderly

3) Spatial Association Between Ambient Fine Particulate Matter and  
Incident Hypertension

4) Health effects of daily airborne particle dose in children: Direct  
association between personal dose and respiratory health effects

5) Modeled PM2.5 removal by trees in ten U.S. cities and associated  
health effects

6) A five-year study of particulate matter (PM2.5) and cerebrovascular  
diseases

7) Effects of long-term exposure to air pollution on natural-cause  
mortality: an analysis of 22 European cohorts within the multicentre  
ESCAPE project

8) Air pollution and mortality in Europe

9) A new EU clean air strategy up to 2030

10) Brachial Artery Responses to Ambient Pollution, Temperature, and  
Humidity in People with Type 2 Diabetes: A Repeated-Measures Study

11) Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Congenital Anomalies in Barcelona

12) Associations between short/medium-term variations in black smoke  
air pollution and mortality in the Glasgow conurbation, UK

13) (Barely) living in smog: China and air pollution

14) Fuel duty hike ‘could protect public health’

15) In Utero Exposure to Diesel Exhaust Air Pollution Promotes Adverse  
Intrauterine Conditions, Resulting in Weight Gain, Altered Blood  
Pressure, and Increased Susceptibility to Heart Failure in Adult Mice

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1) Air Pollution and Respiratory Infections during Early Childhood: An  
Analysis of 10 European Birth Cohorts within the ESCAPE Project

Elaina A. MacIntyre, Ulrike Gehring, Anna Mölter, Elaine Fuertes,  
Claudia Klümper, Ursula Krämer, Ulrich Quass, Barbara Hoffmann, Mireia  
Gascon, Bert Brunekreef, Gerard H. Koppelman, Rob Beelen, Gerard Hoek,  
Matthias Birk, Johan C. de Jongste, H.A. Smit, Josef Cyrys, Olena  
Gruzieva, Michal Korek, Anna Bergström, Raymond M. Agius, Frank de  
Vocht, Angela Simpson, Daniela Porta, Francesco Forastiere, Chiara  
Badaloni, Giulia Cesaroni, Ana Esplugues, Ana Fernández-Somoano,  
Aitana Lerxundi, Jordi Sunyer, Marta Cirach, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen,  
Göran Pershagen, Joachim Heinrich

Our meta-analysis of 10 European birth cohorts within the ESCAPE  
project found consistent evidence for an association between air  
pollution and pneumonia in early childhood, and some evidence for an  
association with otitis media.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1306755 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1306755/)

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2) Physiological Daily Inhalation Rates for Health Risk Assessment in  
Overweight/Obese Children, Adults, and Elderly

Pierre Brochu, Michèle Bouchard, Sami Haddad

Higher absolute rates generally found in overweight/obese individuals  
compared to their normal-weight counterparts suggest higher intakes of  
air pollutants (in μg/day) for the former compared to the latter  
during identical exposure concentrations and conditions. Highest  
absolute mean (24.57 m3/day) and 99th percentile (55.55 m3/day) values  
were found in obese class 2 adults. They inhale on average 8.21 m3  
more air per day than normal-weight adults.

Risk Analysis 22 OCT 2013, DOI: 10.1111/risa.12125 - read abstract  
(http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/risa.12125/abstract)

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3) Spatial Association Between Ambient Fine Particulate Matter and  
Incident Hypertension

Hong Chen, Richard T. Burnett, Jeffrey C. Kwong, Paul J. Villeneuve,  
Mark S. Goldberg, Robert D. Brook, Aaron van Donkelaar, Michael  
Jerrett, Randall V. Martin, Alexander Kopp, Jeffrey R. Brook, Ray Copes

This study supports an association between PM2.5 and incident hypertension.

Circulation 2014; 129: 562-569 - read abstract  
(http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/129/5/562.abstract)

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4) Health effects of daily airborne particle dose in children: Direct  
association between personal dose and respiratory health effects

Giorgio Buonanno, Guy B. Marks, Lidia Morawska.

Particle dose was estimated through personal monitoring on more than  
100 children. We focused on real-time daily dose of particle alveolar  
deposited surface area. Spirometry, skin prick and exhaled Nitric  
Oxide tests were performed. Negative link was found between changes in  
pulmonary functions and individual doses. A child's lifestyle appeared  
to have a strong impact on health respiratory outcomes.

Environmental Pollution 180, September 2013, 246–250 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0269749113002881)

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5) Modeled PM2.5 removal by trees in ten U.S. cities and associated  
health effects

David J. Nowak, Satoshi Hirabayashi, Allison Bodine, Robert Hoehn

Paper provides the first broad-scale estimates of city-wide tree  
impacts on PM2.5. Trees improve overall air quality by intercepting  
particulate matter. Particle resuspension can lead to short-term  
increases in pollutant concentrations. Urban trees produce substantial  
health improvements and values.

Environmental Pollution 178, July 2013, 395–402 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0269749113001838)

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6) A five-year study of particulate matter (PM2.5) and cerebrovascular  
diseases

Manuel A. Leiva G, Daniela A. Santibañez, Sergio Ibarra E, Patricia  
Matus C, Rodrigo Seguel

Particulate matter pollution – cerebrovascular diseases relationship  
is not well known. Cerebrovascular diseases are the second leading  
cause of mortality and the leading cause of morbidity. PM2.5 increase  
10 μg/m3 the risk of hospital admissions for stroke causes increases  
by 1.29%. The results are similar to that of other cities worldwide.

Environmental Pollution 181, October 2013, 1–6 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0269749113003175)

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7) Effects of long-term exposure to air pollution on natural-cause  
mortality: an analysis of 22 European cohorts within the multicentre  
ESCAPE project

Rob Beelen, Ole Raaschou-Nielsenb, Massimo Stafoggia, Zorana Jovanovic  
Andersen, Gudrun Weinmayr, Barbara Hoffmann, Kathrin Wolf, Evangelia  
Samoli, Paul Fischer, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen, Paolo Vineis, Wei W Xun,  
Klea Katsouyanni, Konstantina Dimakopoulou, Anna Oudin, Bertil  
Forsberg, Lars Modig, Aki S Havulinna, Timo Lanki, Anu Turunen, Bente  
Oftedal, Wenche Nystad, Per Nafstad, Ulf De Faire, Nancy L Pedersen,  
Claes-Göran Östenson, Laura Fratiglioni, Johanna Penell, Michal Korek,  
Göran Pershagen, Kirsten Thorup Eriksen, Kim Overvad, Thomas  
Ellermann, Marloes Eeftens, Petra H Peeters, Kees Meliefste, Meng  
Wang, Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, Dorothea Sugiri, Ursula Krämer, Joachim  
Heinrich, Kees de Hoogh, Timothy Key, Annette Peters, Regina Hampel,  
Hans Concin, Gabriele Nagel, Alex Ineichen, Emmanuel Schaffner, Nicole  
Probst-Hensch, Nino Künzli, Christian Schindler, Tamara Schikowski,  
Martin Adam, Harish Phuleria, Alice Vilier, Françoise Clavel-Chapelon,  
Christophe Declercq, Sara Grioni, Vittorio Krogh, Ming-Yi Tsai, Fulvio  
Ricceri, Carlotta Sacerdote, Claudia Galassi, Enrica Migliore, Andrea  
Ranzi, Giulia Cesaroni, Chiara Badaloni, Francesco Forastiere, Ibon  
Tamayo, Pilar Amiano, Miren Dorronsoro, Michail Katsoulis, Antonia  
Trichopoulou, Bert Brunekreef, Gerard Hoek

Long-term exposure to fine particulate air pollution was associated  
with natural-cause mortality, even within concentration ranges well  
below the present European annual mean limit value.

The Lancet, 383;9919, 785 - 795, 1 March 2014 - read article  
(http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(13)62158-3/fulltext?elsca1=ETOC-LANCET&elsca2=email&elsca3=E24A35F)

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8) Air pollution and mortality in Europe

Jeremy P Langrish, Nicholas L Mills

Despite major improvements in air quality in the past 50 years, the  
data from Beelen and colleagues' report draw attention to the  
continuing effects of air pollution on health. These data, along with  
the findings from other large cohort studies, suggest that further  
public and environmental health policy interventions are necessary and  
have the potential to reduce morbidity and mortality across Europe.  
Movement towards more stringent guidelines, as recommended by WHO,  
should be an urgent priority.

Editorial in The Lancet, 383;9919, 758 - 760, 1 March 2014 - read  
article  
(http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(13)62570-2/fulltext?elsca1=ETOC-LANCET&elsca2=email&elsca3=E24A35F)

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9) A new EU clean air strategy up to 2030

Christer Ågren

More than 95% of the EU’s urban citizens are exposed to harmful levels  
of PM2.5 and ozone, i.e. higher than the reference values recommended  
by the World Health Organization (WHO). Air pollution is the number  
one environmental cause of death in the EU, with over 400,000  
premature deaths in 2010 – more than ten times the annual deaths from  
traffic accidents. For that same year, the external costs of health  
damage due to air pollution have been estimated to amount to €330–940  
billion. The objectives are not new, they have been in place since the  
EU’s 5th Environmental Action Programme (EAP), dating back to 1992,  
and were again confirmed in the 7th EAP, adopted on 20 November 2013.  
Environmental groups want the long-term objectives to be achieved as  
soon as possible, at the latest by 2030.

Acid News 2014 No. 1, March 2014 - read article  
(http://www.airclim.org/acidnews/new-eu-clean-air-strategy-2030)

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10) Brachial Artery Responses to Ambient Pollution, Temperature, and  
Humidity in People with Type 2 Diabetes: A Repeated-Measures Study

Antonella Zanobetti, Heike Luttmann-Gibson, Edward S. Horton, Allison  
Cohen, Brent A. Coull, Barbara Hoffmann, Joel D. Schwartz, Murray A.  
Mittleman, Yongsheng Li, Peter H. Stone, Celine de Souza, Brooke  
Lamparello, Petros Koutrakis, Diane R. Gold

Brachial artery diameter, a predictor of cardiovascular risk,  
decreased in association with particle pollution and increased in  
association with ambient temperature in our study population of adults  
with type 2 diabetes.

Environ Health Perspect; March 2014, DOI:10.1289/ehp.1206136 - read  
article (http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1206136/)

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11) Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Congenital Anomalies in Barcelona

Anna Schembari, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen, Joaquin Salvador, Audrey de  
Nazelle, Marta Cirach, Payam Dadvand, Rob Beelen, Gerard Hoek, Xavier  
Basagaña, Martine Vrijheid

Our results overall do not indicate an association between exposure to  
traffic-related air pollution and many groups of congenital anomalies  
in Barcelona, even though the air pollution levels are some of the  
highest in Europe. The positive association of NO2 and NOx with  
coarctation of the aorta is consistent with a findings of a  
meta-analysis of previous studies, and requires further study.  
Associations of digestive system anomalies with NO2 and NOx, and of  
abdominal wall defects with PMcoarse, also call for confirmation.

Environ Health Perspect; March 2014, DOI:10.1289/ehp.1306802 - read  
article (http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1306802/)

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12) Associations between short/medium-term variations in black smoke  
air pollution and mortality in the Glasgow conurbation, UK

I.J. Beverland, M. Carder, G.R. Cohen, M.R. Heal, R.M. Agius

A time series study of air pollution and mortality over a 25 year  
period. Compares estimates of short and medium term exposure–mortality  
associations. Effects of black smoke on mortality evident for lag  
periods in excess of two weeks. Medium term exposure–mortality  
associations greater than short-term associations. This study has  
provided evidence of association between black smoke exposure and  
mortality at longer lag periods than have been investigated in the  
majority of time series analyses.

Environment International 62, January 2014, 126–132 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412013000056)

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13) (Barely) living in smog: China and air pollution

There are few cities in the world where the first thing you do on  
waking is check the air quality app on your mobile phone—even before  
switching off the alarm. Beijing is such a city. On Feb 25, Beijing  
had been shrouded in heavy smog and hazardous levels of respirable  
fine particulate matter (PM2·5) for 6 consecutive days. That morning  
the PM2·5 level read 383 μg/m3, which is 15 times the recommended safe  
WHO limit (25 μg/m3 for 24-h PM2·5), but not the worst reported in a  
week when levels soared to 500 μg/m3.

Editorial in The Lancet, 383;9920, 845, 8 March 2014 - read article  
(http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(14)60427-X/fulltext?elsca1=ETOC-LANCET&elsca2=email&elsca3=E24A35F)

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14) Fuel duty hike ‘could protect public health’

Simon Evans

The UK government is expected to freeze fuel duty again in its 19  
March budget. A higher duty on diesel fuel has been linked to reduced  
air pollution and could be justified as a public health measure,  
according to Australian scientists. The findings were published  
shortly before the 19 March UK Budget, in which chancellor George  
Osborne once again froze fuel duty.
The Australian research found that roadside air pollution in Brisbane  
was lower when diesel prices were high. The researchers took air  
quality data from two roadside pollution monitors over three years to  
mid-2013. They assumed that pump prices up to two weeks earlier could  
affect vehicle use. Levels of nitrogen oxides (NOx) were about 30%  
lower when diesel cost $1.50 a litre than when the price was $1.26.  
“Our results show that concentrations of some traffic-related  
pollutants were greatly reduced in the short-term when [diesel] fuel  
prices were high,” the University of Queensland scientists write.  
Petrol prices were not found to have a significant impact on air  
pollution. The scientists conclude that raising diesel taxes “could be  
justified as a public health measure”. “Our results imply that tax  
increases to fuel could be used to improve the nation’s health by  
reducing the adverse health effects associated with traffic-related  
air pollution and increasing the use of public
and active transport,” they write.

The ENDS Report, 18 March 2014

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15) In Utero Exposure to Diesel Exhaust Air Pollution Promotes Adverse  
Intrauterine Conditions, Resulting in Weight Gain, Altered Blood  
Pressure, and Increased Susceptibility to Heart Failure in Adult Mice

Chad S. Weldy, Yonggang Liu, H. Denny Liggitt, Michael T. Chin

These observations provide important data to suggest that  
developmental exposure to air pollution may strongly influence adult  
susceptibility to cardiovascular disease.

PLoS ONE 9(2): e88582. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0088582 - read article  
(http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0088582)

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---------------------------------------------------------------------

Compiler and Editor: Barbara Rimmington, Researcher, East End Quality
of Life Initiative

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