[cleanairuk_news] Health Effects of Air Quality and Noise - update September 2013

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Wed Sep 11 11:35:55 BST 2013


*Health Effects of Air Quality and Noise - update September 2013*

By Barbara Rimmington, Researcher, East End Quality of Life Initiative

*CONTENTS*

1) Short-term Associations between Fine and Coarse Particulate Matter  
and Hospitalizations in Southern Europe: Results from the  
MED-PARTICLES Project

2) Long-term Exposure to Black Carbon and Carotid Intima-Media  
Thickness: The Normative Aging Study

3) Respiratory Disparity? Obese People May Not Benefit from Improved  
Air Quality

4) Improved Air Quality and Attenuated Lung Function Decline:  
Modification by Obesity in the SAPALDIA Cohort

5) Particulate Matter and Cardiovascular Disease: Researchers Turn an  
Eye toward Microvascular Changes

6) Retinal Microvascular Responses to Short-Term Changes in  
Particulate Air Pollution in Healthy Adults

7) Maternal Stress and Effects of Prenatal Air Pollution on Offspring  
Mental Health Outcomes in Mice

8) Impact of Geocoding Methods on Associations between Long-term  
Exposure to Urban Air Pollution and Lung Function

9) A National Prediction Model for PM2.5 Component Exposures and  
Measurement Error?Corrected Health Effect Inference

-o-

1) Short-term Associations between Fine and Coarse Particulate Matter  
and Hospitalizations in Southern Europe: Results from the  
MED-PARTICLES Project

Massimo Stafoggia, Evangelia Samoli, Ester Alessandrini, Ennio Cadum,  
Bart Ostro, Giovanna Berti, Annunziata Faustini, Benedicte Jacquemin,  
Cristina Linares, Mathilde Pascal, Giorgia Randi, Andrea Ranzi, Elisa  
Stivanello, Francesco Forastiere, and the MED-PARTICLES Study Group

PM2.5 and PM2.5?10 were positively associated with cardiovascular and  
respiratory admissions in eight Mediterranean cities. Information on  
the short-term effects of different PM fractions on morbidity in  
Southern Europe will be useful to inform European policies on air  
quality standards.

Environmental Health Perspectives 121, 9, September 2013 1026-1033 -  
read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/wp-content/uploads/121/9/ehp.1206151.pdf)

-o-


2) Long-term Exposure to Black Carbon and Carotid Intima-Media  
Thickness: The Normative Aging Study

Elissa H. Wilker, Murray A. Mittleman, Brent A. Coull, Alexandros  
Gryparis, Michiel L. Bots, Joel Schwartz, David Sparrow

Annual mean black carbon concentration based on spatially resolved  
exposure estimates was associated with CIMT in a population of elderly  
men. These findings support an association between long-term air  
pollution exposure and atherosclerosis.

Environmental Health Perspectives 121, 9, September 2013, 1061-1067 -  
read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/wp-content/uploads/121/9/ehp.1104845.pdf)

-o-

3) Respiratory Disparity? Obese People May Not Benefit from Improved  
Air Quality

Carol Potera

Excess weight is associated with reduced ability of the lung to  
stretch, which increases the mechanical work needed to breathe.  
Improved air quality may not be enough to compensate for these  
physical changes in overweight and obese people. Additionally, excess  
weight14 and air pollution15 are both associated with chronic  
inflammation and together may be more likely to lead to permanent  
damage of lung tissue, reducing the benefits of breathing cleaner air.

Environmental Health Perspectives,121,9, September 2013, A238 - read  
article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/wp-content/uploads/121/9/ehp.121-a283.pdf)

-o-

4) Improved Air Quality and Attenuated Lung Function Decline:  
Modification by Obesity in the SAPALDIA Cohort

Tamara Schikowski, Emmanuel Schaffner, Flurina Meier, Harish C.  
Phuleria, Andrea Vierkötter, Christian Schindler, Susi Kriemler,  
Elisabeth Zemp, Ursula Krämer, Pierre-Olivier Bridevaux, Thierry  
Rochat, Joel Schwartz, Nino Künzli, Nicole Probst-Hensch

The results point to the importance of considering health effects of  
air pollution exposure and obesity in parallel. Further research must  
address the mechanisms underlying the observed interaction.

Environmental Health Perspectives 121, 9, September 2013, 1034-1039 -  
read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/wp-content/uploads/121/9/ehp.1206145.pdf)

-o-

5) Particulate Matter and Cardiovascular Disease: Researchers Turn an  
Eye toward Microvascular Changes

Julia R. Barrett

The estimated changes in CRAE (central retinal arteriolar equivalents)  
were about three times larger than those associated with similar  
levels of air pollution in the MESA analysis. However, the authors of  
the current study suggest that the younger and healthier study  
population may have had blood vessels that were better able to adapt  
to changing pollution conditions. The current study also looked solely  
at short-term exposures (2?24 hours) versus the short- and long-term  
exposures (24 hours and 2 years) evaluated in the MESA analysis. The  
researchers found no evidence of a threshold below which changes were  
not seen, consistent with the MESA analysis and other studies.

Environmental Health Perspectives, 121, 9, September 2013, A 282 -  
read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/wp-content/uploads/121/9/ehp.121-a282.pdf)

-o-

6) Retinal Microvascular Responses to Short-Term Changes in  
Particulate Air Pollution in Healthy Adults

Tijs Louwies, Luc Int Panis, Michal Kicinski, Patrick De Boever, Tim S. Nawrot

The findings suggest that the retinal microvasculature responds to  
short-term changes in air pollution levels. These results support a  
mechanistic pathway through which air pollution can act as a trigger  
of cardiovascular events at least in part through effects on the  
microvasculature.

Environmental Health Perspectives 121, 9 September 2013, 1011-1016 -  
read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/wp-content/uploads/121/9/ehp.1205721.pdf)

-o-

7) Maternal Stress and Effects of Prenatal Air Pollution on Offspring  
Mental Health Outcomes in Mice

Jessica L. Bolton, Nicole C. Huff, Susan H. Smith, S. Nicholas Mason,  
W. Michael Foster, Richard L. Auten, Staci D. Bilbo

These results show that maternal stress during late gestation  
increases the susceptibility of offspring?particularly males?to the  
deleterious effects of prenatal air pollutant exposure, which may be  
due to a synergism of these factors acting on innate immune  
recognition genes and downstream neuroinflammatory cascades within the  
developing brain.

Environmental Health Perspectives 121, 9, September 2013, 1075-1082 -  
read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/wp-content/uploads/121/9/ehp.1306560.pdf)

-o-

8) Impact of Geocoding Methods on Associations between Long-term  
Exposure to Urban Air Pollution and Lung Function

Bénédicte Jacquemin, Johanna Lepeule, Anne Boudier, Caroline Arnould,  
Meriem Benmerad, Claire Chappaz, Joane Ferran, Francine Kauffmann,  
Xavier Morelli, Isabelle Pin, Christophe Pison,
Isabelle Rios, Sofia Temam, Nino Künzli, Rémy Slama, Valérie Siroux

The findings suggest that the choice of geocoding technique may  
influence estimated health effects when air pollution exposures are  
estimated using a fine-scale exposure model.

Environmental Health Perspectives 121, 9, September 2013, 1054-1059 -  
read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/wp-content/uploads/121/9/ehp.1206016.pdf)

-o-

9) A National Prediction Model for PM2.5 Component Exposures and  
Measurement Error?Corrected Health Effect Inference

Silas Bergen, Lianne Sheppard, Paul D. Sampson, Sun-Young Kim, Mark  
Richards, Sverre Vedal, Joel D. Kaufman, Adam A. Szpiro

The impact of correcting for measurement error on health effect  
inference is concordant with the degree of spatial correlation in the  
exposure surfaces. Exposure model characteristics must be considered  
when performing two-stage air pollution epidemiologic analyses because  
naïve health effect inference may be inappropriate.

Environmental Health Perspectives 121, 9, September 2013, 1017-1025 -  
read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/wp-content/uploads/121/9/ehp.1206010.pdf)

-------------------------------------------------

Compiler and Editor: Barbara Rimmington, Researcher, East End Quality
of Life Initiative

10 Montgomery Terrace Road

Sheffield S6 3BU

Tel. 0114 285 9931

Fax 0114 278 7173

Email: barbara at sheffieldct.co.uk

Web: www.sheffieldeastend.org.uk

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