[cleanairuk_news] Health Effects of Air Quality and Noise - update October 2013

Network for Clean Air contact at cleanairuk.org
Sat Nov 9 17:29:32 GMT 2013


* Health Effects of Air Quality and Noise - update October 2013 *

By Barbara Rimmington, Researcher, East End Quality of Life Initiative

(Previous edition - September 2013:  
http://cleanairuk.org/pipermail/news_cleanairuk.org/2013-September/000050.html)

*CONTENTS*

1) IARC Scientific Publication No. 161: Air Pollution and Cancer

2) Air quality in Europe — 2013 report (European Environment Agency)

3) Prenatal Exposure to Traffic-related Air Pollution and Risk of  
Early Childhood Cancers

4) Better air for better health: Forging synergies in policies for  
energy access, climate change and air pollution

5) Ambient air pollution and low birthweight: a European cohort study (ESCAPE)

6) Diesel exhaust rapidly degrades floral odours used by honeybees

7) Positional error and time-activity patterns in near-highway  
proximity studies: an exposure misclassification analysis

8) Gene expression changes in rat brain after short and long exposures  
to particulate matter in Los Angeles basin air: Comparison with human  
brain tumors

9) Diesel Exhaust Induces Systemic Lipid Peroxidation and Development  
of Dysfunctional Pro-Oxidant and Pro-Inflammatory High-Density  
Lipoprotein

10) Air pollution and lung cancer incidence in 17 European cohorts:  
prospective analyses from the European Study of Cohorts for Air  
Pollution Effects (ESCAPE)

11) DNA Hypomethylation, Ambient Particulate Matter, and Increased  
Blood Pressure: Findings From Controlled Human Exposure Experiments

12) Venous Thromboembolism in an Industrial North American City:  
Temporal Distribution and Association with Particulate Matter Air  
Pollution

13) Global premature mortality due to anthropogenic outdoor air  
pollution and the contribution of past climate change

14) Impacts of 21st century climate change on global air  
pollution-related premature mortality

15) Particulate Air Pollution, Ambulatory Heart Rate Variability, and  
Cardiac Arrhythmia in Retirement Community Residents with Coronary  
Artery Disease

16) Climate policies can help resolve energy security and air  
pollution challenges

17) Scientists link lung condition deaths to traffic pollution

- o -

1) IARC Scientific Publication No. 161: Air Pollution and Cancer

Editors: Kurt Straif, Aaron Cohen, Jonathan Samet

Estimates have been made of the burden of cancer attributable to  
environmental factors and of the contribution of air pollution to lung  
cancer specifically. Estimates have also been made for specific  
carcinogens, including radon and lung cancer. These estimates have  
been in the range of 3–5% for the fraction of lung cancer cases  
attributable to ambient air pollution. The 2004 estimates of the World  
Health Organization’s Global Burden of Disease programme covered both  
outdoor and indoor air pollution. For ambient air pollution, the  
estimated number of lung cancer deaths worldwide was 62 000 per year  
(Cohen et al., 2004). Indoor air pollution from solid fuel combustion  
was estimated to cause 16 000 lung cancer deaths per year, but  
estimates could not be made for all subregions (Smith et al., 2004).

International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2013 - Read / Download  
book (229pp) in ePub format  
(http://www.iarc.fr/en/publications/books/sp161/index.php)

- o -

2)Air quality in Europe — 2013 report (European Environment Agency)

Air quality continues to be a very important issue for public health,  
the economy and the environment. Europe has significantly cut  
emissions of several air pollutants in recent decades. Despite  
improvements, air pollution continues to damage human health and the  
environment. Particulate matter (PM), ozone (O3), reactive
nitrogen substances and some organic compounds still pose a  
significant threat. This leads to ill health, premature deaths, and  
damage to ecosystems, crops, and buildings. These constitute real  
losses for the European economy, the productivity of its
workforce, and the health of its natural systems

Copenhagen: European Environment Agency, 2013, 112pp - read report  
(http://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/air-quality-in-europe-2013/at_download/file)

- o -

3) Prenatal Exposure to Traffic-related Air Pollution and Risk of  
Early Childhood Cancers
Jo Kay C. Ghosh, Julia E. Heck, Myles Cockburn, Jason Su, Michael  
Jerrett, Beate Ritz

Exposure to air pollution during pregnancy has been linked to the risk  
of childhood cancer, but the evidence remains inconclusive. This study  
used land use regression modeling to estimate prenatal exposures to  
traffic exhaust and evaluate the associations with cancer risk in very  
young children. The results lend support to a link between prenatal  
exposure to traffic exhaust and the risk of acute lymphoblastic  
leukemia and bilateral retinoblastoma.

Am. J. Epidemiol. (2013) 178 (8): 1233-1239 - read abstract  
(http://aje.oxfordjournals.org/content/178/8/1233.abstract.html?etoc)

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4) Better air for better health: Forging synergies in policies for  
energy access, climate change and air pollution

Shilpa Raoa, Shonali Pachauria, Frank Dentenerb, Patrick Kinneyc,  
Zbigniew Klimonta, Keywan Riahia, Wolfgang Schoeppa

Air pollution and its related health impacts are a global concern.  
This paper addresses how current policies on air pollution, climate  
change and access to clean cooking fuels can effectively reduce both  
outdoor and household air pollution and improve human health. The  
results stress the importance of enforcing current worldwide air  
quality legislation in addressing the impacts of outdoor air  
pollution. A combination of stringent policies on outdoor air  
pollution, climate change and access to clean cooking fuels is found  
to be effective in achieving reductions in average ambient PM2.5  
exposures to below World Health Organization recommended levels for a  
majority of the world's population and results in a significant  
decline in the global burden of disease from both outdoor and  
household air pollution.

Global Environmental Change Available online 2 July 2013 - read  
abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0959378013000770)

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5) Ambient air pollution and low birthweight: a European cohort study (ESCAPE)

Marie Pedersen, Lise Giorgis-Allemand, Claire Bernard, Inmaculada  
Aguilera, Anne-Marie Nybo Andersen, Ferran Ballester, Rob M J Beelen,  
Leda Chatzi, Marta Cirach, Asta Danileviciute, Audrius Dedele, Manon  
van Eijsden, Marisa Estarlich, Ana Fernández-Somoano, Mariana F  
Fernández, Francesco Forastiere, Ulrike Gehring, Regina  
Grazuleviciene, Olena Gruzieva, Barbara Heude, Gerard Hoek, Kees de  
Hoogh, Edith H van den Hooven, Siri E Håberg, Vincent W V Jaddoe,  
Claudia Klümper, Michal Korek, Ursula Krämer, Aitana Lerchundi,  
Johanna Lepeule, Per Nafstad, Wenche Nystad, Evridiki Patelarou,  
Daniela Porta, Dirkje Postma, Ole Raaschou-Nielsen, Peter Rudnai,  
Jordi Sunyer, Euripides Stephanou, Mette Sørensen, Elisabeth Thiering,  
Derek Tuffnell, Mihály J Varró, Tanja G M Vrijkotte, Alet Wijga,  
Michael Wilhelm, John Wright, Mark J Nieuwenhuijsen, Göran Pershagen,  
Bert Brunekreef, Manolis Kogevinas, Rémy Slama

Exposure to ambient air pollutants and traffic during pregnancy is  
associated with restricted fetal growth. A substantial proportion of  
cases of low birthweight at term could be prevented in Europe if urban  
air pollution was reduced.

The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, Early Online Publication, 15 October  
2013 doi:10.1016/S2213-2600(13)70192-9 - read abstract  
(http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lanres/article/PIIS2213-2600(13)70192-9/abstract)

- o -

6) Diesel exhaust rapidly degrades floral odours used by honeybees

Robbie D. Girling, Inka Lusebrink, Emily Farthing, Tracey A. Newman,  
Guy M. Poppy

Honeybees utilise floral odours when foraging for flowers; we  
investigated whether diesel exhaust pollution could interrupt these  
floral odour stimuli. A synthetic blend of eight floral chemicals,  
identified from oilseed rape, was exposed to diesel exhaust pollution.  
Within one minute of exposure the abundances of four of the chemicals  
were significantly lowered, with two components rendered undetectable.  
Honeybees were trained to recognise the full synthetic odour mix;  
altering the blend, by removing the two chemicals rendered  
undetectable, significantly reduced the ability of the trained  
honeybees to recognize the altered odour. Furthermore, we found that  
at environmentally relevant levels the mono-nitrogen oxide (NOx )  
fraction of the exhaust gases was a key facilitator of this odour  
degradation. Such changes in recognition may impact upon a honeybee’s  
foraging efficiency and therefore the pollination services that they  
provide.

SCIENTIFIC REPORTS 3:2779 DOI:10.1038/srep02779 - read article  
(http://www.nature.com/srep/2013/131003/srep02779/pdf/srep02779.pdf)

- o -

7) Positional error and time-activity patterns in near-highway  
proximity studies: an exposure misclassification analysis

Kevin J Lane, Madeleine Kangsen Scammell, Jonathan I Levy, Christina H  
Fuller, Ron Parambi, Wig Zamore, Mkaya Mwamburi, Doug Brugge

These findings indicate the potential for both differential and  
non-differential exposure misclassification due to geocoding error and  
time-activity patterns in studies of highway proximity. We also  
propose a multi-stage manual correction process to minimize positional  
error. Additional research is needed in other populations and  
geographic settings.

Environmental Health 2013, 12:75 doi:10.1186/1476-069X-12-75 - read  
article (http://www.ehjournal.net/content/pdf/1476-069X-12-75.pdf)

- o -

8) Gene expression changes in rat brain after short and long exposures  
to particulate matter in Los Angeles basin air: Comparison with human  
brain tumors

Julia Y. Ljubimova, Michael T. Kleinman, Natalya M. Karabalin, Satoshi  
Inoue, Bindu Konda, Pallavi Gangalum, Janet L. Markman, Alexander V.  
Ljubimov, Keith L. Black

Air pollution negatively impacts pulmonary, cardiovascular, and  
central nervous systems. Although its influence on brain cancer is  
unclear, toxic pollutants can cause blood–brain barrier disruption,  
enabling them to reach the brain and cause alterations leading to  
tumor development.

Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology Available online 18 May 2013 -  
read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0940299313000547)

- o -

9) Diesel Exhaust Induces Systemic Lipid Peroxidation and Development  
of Dysfunctional Pro-Oxidant and Pro-Inflammatory High-Density  
Lipoprotein

Fen Yin, Akeem Lawal, Jerry Ricks, Julie R. Fox, Tim Larson, Mohamad  
Navab, Alan M. Fogelman, Michael E. Rosenfeld, Jesus A. Araujo

Diesel Exhaust emissions induced systemic pro-oxidant effects that led  
to the development of dysfunctional High-Density Lipoprotein. This may  
be one of the mechanisms by which air pollution contributes to  
enhanced atherosclerosis.
Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology 2013; 33: 1153-1161  
- read abstract  
(http://atvb.ahajournals.org/content/33/6/1153.abstract?sid=a9c75d59-410c-495c-a9a8-e4d6344854e3)

- o -

10) Air pollution and lung cancer incidence in 17 European cohorts:  
prospective analyses from the European Study of Cohorts for Air  
Pollution Effects (ESCAPE)

Ole Raaschou-Nielsen, Zorana J Andersen, Rob Beelen, Evangelia Samoli,  
Massimo Stafoggia, Gudrun Weinmayr, Barbara Hoffmann, Paul Fischer,  
Mark J Nieuwenhuijsen, Bert Brunekreef, Wei W Xun, Klea Katsouyanni,  
Konstantina Dimakopoulou, Johan Sommar, Bertil Forsberg, Lars Modig,  
Anna Oudin, Bente Oftedal, Per E Schwarze, Per Nafstad, Ulf De Faire,  
Nancy L Pedersen, Claes-Göran Östenson, Laura Fratiglioni, Johanna  
Penell, Michal Korek, Göran Pershagen, Kirsten T Eriksen, Mette  
Sørensen, Anne Tjønneland, Thomas Ellermann, Marloes Eeftens, Petra H  
Peeters, Kees Meliefste, Meng Wang, Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, Timothy J  
Key, Kees de Hoogh, Hans Concin, Gabriele Nagel, Alice Vilier, Sara  
Grioni, Vittorio Krogh, Ming-Yi Tsai, Fulvio Ricceri, Carlotta  
Sacerdote, Claudia Galassi, Enrica Migliore, Andrea Ranzi, Giulia  
Cesaroni, Chiara Badaloni, Francesco Forastiere, Ibon Tamayo, Pilar  
Amiano, Miren Dorronsoro, Antonia Trichopoulou, Christina Bamia, Paolo  
Vineis, Gerard Hoek

Particulate matter air pollution contributes to lung cancer incidence  
in Europe.

The Lancet Oncology, 14:9 813 - 822, August 2013 - read abstract  
(http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lanonc/article/PIIS1470-2045(13)70279-1/fulltext)

- o -

11) DNA Hypomethylation, Ambient Particulate Matter, and Increased  
Blood Pressure: Findings From Controlled Human Exposure Experiments

Andrea Bellavia, Bruce Urch, Mary Speck, Robert D. Brook, Jeremy A.  
Scott, Benedetta Albetti, Behrooz Behbod, Michelle North, Linda  
Valeri, Pier Alberto Bertazzi, Frances Silverman, Diane Gold, Andrea  
A. Baccarelli

Our findings provide novel evidence of effects of coarse PM on blood  
pressure and confirm effects of fine PM. Our results provide the first  
experimental evidence of PM-induced DNA hypomethylation and its  
correlation to blood pressure.

Journal of the American Heart Association 2013 19:2(3)  
DOI:10.1161/JAHA.113.000212 - read article  
(http://jaha.ahajournals.org/content/2/3/e000212.full.pdf+html)

- o -

12) Venous Thromboembolism in an Industrial North American City:  
Temporal Distribution and Association with Particulate Matter Air  
Pollution

Holly H. Chiu, Peter Whittaker

The summer peak of acute VTE in Detroit indicates that low temperature  
is not a major factor in VTE pathogenesis. In contrast, concordance of  
the 10 mm diameter PM, coarse particle, and the Detroit VTE monthly  
distributions, combined with no monthly suburban VTE variation, is  
consistent with a role for PM pollution. Furthermore, divergence of  
the VTE and 2.5 mm PM distributions suggests that particle size may  
play a role.

PLOS ONE July 2013 8:7 e68829-68829 - read article  
(http://www.plosone.org/article/fetchObject.action?uri=info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0068829&representation=PDF)

- o -

13) Global premature mortality due to anthropogenic outdoor air  
pollution and the contribution of past climate change

Raquel A Silva, J Jason West, Yuqiang Zhang, Susan C Anenberg,  
Jean-François Lamarque, Drew T Shindell, William J Collins, Stig  
Dalsoren, Greg Faluvegi, Gerd Folberth
Increased concentrations of ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5)  
since preindustrial times reflect increased emissions, but also  
contributions of past climate change. Using simulated concentrations  
for 2000 and 1850 and concentration–response functions (CRFs), we  
estimate that, at present, 470 000 (95% confidence interval, 140 000  
to 900 000) premature respiratory deaths are associated globally and  
annually with anthropogenic ozone, and 2.1 (1.3 to 3.0) million deaths  
with anthropogenic PM2.5-related cardiopulmonary diseases (93%) and  
lung cancer (7%).

Environmental Research Letters doi:10.1088/1748-9326/8/3/034005 - read  
article  
(http://iopscience.iop.org/1748-9326/8/3/034005/article?fromSearchPage=true)

- o -

14) Impacts of 21st century climate change on global air  
pollution-related premature mortality

Yuanyuan Fang, Denise L. Mauzerall, Junfeng Liu, Arlene M. Fiore,  
Larry W. Horowitz

Climate change modulates surface concentrations of fine particulate  
matter (PM2.5) and ozone (O3), indirectly affecting premature  
mortality attributed to air pollution. Resulting changes in 21st  
century climate alone lead to an increase in simulated PM2.5  
concentrations globally, and to higher (lower) O3 concentrations over  
populated (remote) regions. Global annual premature mortality  
associated with chronic exposure to PM2.5 increases by approximately  
100 thousand deaths (95 % confidence interval, CI, of 66–130 thousand)  
with corresponding YLL increasing by nearly 900 thousand (95 % CI,  
576–1,128 thousand) years. The annual premature mortality due to  
respiratory disease associated with chronic O3 exposure increases by  
+6,300 deaths (95 % CI, 1,600–10,400).

Climatic Change August 2013, - read article  
(http://download.springer.com/static/pdf/582/art%253A10.1007%252Fs10584-013-0847-8.pdf?auth66=1380978626_5004e62846f81a2e763db21bc144e8d3&ext=.pdf)

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15) Particulate Air Pollution, Ambulatory Heart Rate Variability, and  
Cardiac Arrhythmia in Retirement Community Residents with Coronary  
Artery Disease

Scott M. Bartell, John Longhurst, Thomas Tjoa, Constantinos Sioutas,  
Ralph J. Delfino

Although these data support the hypothesis that particulate exposures  
may increase the risk of ventricular tachycardia for elderly people  
with coronary artery disease, HRV was not associated with exposure in  
most of our participants. These results are consistent with previous  
findings in this cohort for systemic inflammation, blood pressure, and  
ST segment depression.

Environmental Health Perspectives 121:10 October 2013 1135-1141 - read  
article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/wp-content/uploads/121/10/ehp.1205914.pdf)

- o -

16) Climate policies can help resolve energy security and air  
pollution challenges

David L. McCollum, Volker Krey, Keywan Riahi, Peter Kolp, Arnulf  
Grubler, Marek Makowski, Nebojsa Nakicenovic

Novel aspects of this paper include an explicit quantification of the  
health-related co-benefits of present and future air pollution control  
policies; an analysis of how future constraints on regional trade  
could influence energy security; a detailed assessment of energy  
expenditures showing where financing needs to flow in order to achieve  
the multiple energy sustainability objectives; and a quantification of  
the relationships between different fulfillment levels for energy  
security and air pollution goals and the probability of reaching the 2  
°C climate target.

Climatic Change July 2013, 119:2, 479-494 - read abstract  
(http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10584-013-0710-y)

- o -

17) Scientists link lung condition deaths to traffic pollution

Study presented in Barcelona this week established link between poor  
air quality and bronchiectasis-related fatalities. Road traffic  
pollution is associated with a higher risk of death for people living  
with bronchiectasis, a study has found. Presenting their findings to  
the European Respiratory Society (ERS) Annual Congress in Barcelona  
(September 8, 2013), researchers concluded that living near a busy  
road was more likely to exacerbate the disease -

read more  
(http://www.airqualitynews.com/2013/09/12/scientists-link-lung-condition-deaths-to-traffic-pollution/)

-------------------------------------------------

Compiler and Editor: Barbara Rimmington, Researcher, East End Quality
of Life Initiative

10 Montgomery Terrace Road

Sheffield S6 3BU

Tel. 0114 285 9931

Fax 0114 278 7173

Email: barbara at sheffieldct.co.uk

Web: www.sheffieldeastend.org.uk

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