[cleanairuk_news] Health Effects of Air Quality and Noise - update July 2013 ( East End Quality of Life Initiative - Sheffield)

Network for Clean Air contact at cleanairuk.org
Thu Jul 25 13:06:30 BST 2013


*Health Effects of Air Quality and Noise - update July 2013*

By Barbara Rimmington, Researcher, East End Quality of Life Initiative

*CONTENTS*

1) Global association of air pollution and heart failure: a systematic  
review and meta-analysis

2) Air pollution and lung cancer incidence in 17 European cohorts:  
prospective analyses from the European Study of Cohorts for Air  
Pollution Effects (ESCAPE)

3) Associations between Traffic-Related Black Carbon Exposure and  
Attention in a Prospective Birth Cohort of Urban Children

4) Traffic-Related Air Pollution Exposure in the First Year of Life  
and Behavioral Scores at 7 Years of Age

5) Airborne PM2.5 Chemical Components and Low Birth Weight in the  
Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic Regions of the United States

6) Air Pollution Exposure and Markers of Placental Growth and  
Function: The Generation R Study

7) In Vitro Investigations of Platinum, Palladium, and Rhodium  
Mobility in Urban Airborne Particulate Matter (PM10, PM2.5, and PM1)  
Using Simulated Lung Fluids

8) Near-Roadway Pollution and Childhood Asthma: Implications for  
Developing ?Win?Win? Compact Urban Development and Clean Vehicle  
Strategies

9) Association of ozone and particulate air pollution with  
out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in Helsinki, Finland: Evidence for two  
different etiologies

10) Coarse Particles and Respiratory Emergency Department Visits in California

11) Air quality impacts of a scheduled 36-h closure of a major highway

12) Life satisfaction and air quality in Europe

13) Public Health Impacts of Combustion Emissions in the United Kingdom

14) Review of evidence on health aspects of air pollution ? REVIHAAP  
Project, Technical Report

15) Europe must tackle air pollution, warn UN scientists

16) Environmental Inequality in Exposures to Airborne Particulate  
Matter Components in the United States

17) Source contributions to PM2.5 and PM10 at an urban background and  
a street location

18) The use of electrochemical sensors for monitoring urban air  
quality in low-cost, high-density networks

19) Transport infrastructure: making more sustainable decisions for  
noise reduction

-o-

1) Global association of air pollution and heart failure: a systematic  
review and meta-analysis

Anoop SV Shah, Jeremy P Langrish, Harish Nair, David A McAllister,  
Amanda L Hunter, Ken Donaldson, David E Newby, Nicholas L Mills

Air pollution has a close temporal association with heart failure  
hospitalisation and heart failure mortality. Although more studies  
from developing nations are required, air pollution is a pervasive  
public health issue with major cardiovascular and health economic  
consequences, and it should remain a key target for global health  
policy.

The Lancet, Early Online Publication, 10 July 2013,  
doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(13)60898-3 - read abstract  
(http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(13)60898-3/abstract)

-o-

2) Air pollution and lung cancer incidence in 17 European cohorts:  
prospective analyses from the European Study of Cohorts for Air  
Pollution Effects (ESCAPE)

Ole Raaschou-Nielsen, Zorana J Andersen, Rob Beelen, Evangelia Samoli,  
Massimo Stafoggia, Gudrun Weinmayr, Barbara Hoffmann, Paul Fischer,  
Mark J Nieuwenhuijsen, Bert Brunekreef, Wei W Xun, Klea Katsouyanni,  
Konstantina Dimakopoulou, Johan Sommar, Bertil Forsberg, Lars Modig,  
Anna Oudin, Bente Oftedal, Per E Schwarze, Per Nafstad, Ulf De Faire,  
Nancy L Pedersen, Claes-Göran Östenson, Laura Fratiglioni, Johanna  
Penell, Michal Korek, Göran Pershagen, Kirsten T Eriksen, Mette  
Sørensen, Anne Tjønneland, Thomas Ellermann, Marloes Eeftens, Petra H  
Peeters, Kees Meliefste, Meng Wang, Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, Timothy J  
Key, Kees de Hoogh, Hans Concin, Gabriele Nagel, Alice Vilier, Sara  
Grioni, Vittorio Krogh, Ming-Yi Tsai, Fulvio Ricceri, Carlotta  
Sacerdote, Claudia Galassi, Enrica Migliore, Andrea Ranzi, Giulia  
Cesaroni, Chiara Badaloni, Francesco Forastiere, Ibon Tamayo, Pilar  
Amiano, Miren Dorronsoro, Antonia Trichopoulou, Christina Bamia, Paolo  
Vineis, Gerard Hoek

The meta-analyses showed a statistically significant association  
between risk for lung cancer and PM10 (hazard ratio [HR] 1·22 [95% CI  
1·03?1·45] per 10 ?g/m3). For PM2·5 the HR was 1·18 (0·96?1·46) per 5  
?g/m3. The same increments of PM10 and PM2·5 were associated with HRs  
for adenocarcinomas of the lung of 1·51 (1·10?2·08) and 1·55  
(1·05?2·29), respectively. An increase in road traffic of 4000  
vehicle-km per day within 100 m of the residence was associated with  
an HR for lung cancer of 1·09 (0·99?1·21). The results showed no  
association between lung cancer and nitrogen oxides concentration (HR  
1·01 [0·95?1·07] per 20 ?g/m3) or traffic intensity on the nearest  
street (HR 1·00 [0·97?1·04] per 5000 vehicles per day).

The Lancet Oncology, Early Online Publication, 10 July 2013,  
doi:10.1016/S1470-2045(13)70279-1 - read abstract  
(http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lanonc/article/PIIS1470-2045(13)70279-1/abstract)

-o-

3) Associations between Traffic-Related Black Carbon Exposure and  
Attention in a Prospective Birth Cohort of Urban Children

Yueh-Hsiu Mathilda Chiu, David C. Bellinger, Brent A. Coull, Shawn  
Anderson, Rachel Barber, Robert O. Wright, Rosalind J. Wright

In this population of urban children, we found associations between  
Black Carbon exposure and higher commission errors and slower reaction  
time. These associations were overall more apparent in boys than girls.

Environ Health Perspect; 121,7 (July 2013) - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1205940/)

-o-

4) Traffic-Related Air Pollution Exposure in the First Year of Life  
and Behavioral Scores at 7 Years of Age

Nicholas C. Newman, Patrick Ryan, Grace LeMasters, Linda Levin, David  
Bernstein, Gurjit K. Khurana Hershey, James E. Lockey, Manuel  
Villareal, Tiina Reponen, Sergey Grinshpun, Heidi Sucharew, Kim N.  
Dietrich

Elemental carbon attributed to traffic exposure during infancy was  
associated with higher Hyperactivity scores in children; this  
association was limited to children whose mothers had more than a high  
school education.

Environ Health Perspect 117:898?903 (June 2013) - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1205555/)

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5) Airborne PM2.5 Chemical Components and Low Birth Weight in the  
Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic Regions of the United States

Keita Ebisu and Michelle L. Bell

Most exposure levels in our study area were in compliance with U.S.  
Environmental Protection Agency air pollution standards; however, we  
identified associations between PM2.5 components and low birth weight.  
Findings suggest that some PM2.5 components may be more harmful than  
others, and that some groups may be particularly susceptible.

Environ Health Perspect 120:1746?1752 (2012) - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1104763/)

-o-

6) Air Pollution Exposure and Markers of Placental Growth and  
Function: The Generation R Study

Edith H. van den Hooven, Frank H. Pierik, Yvonne de Kluizenaar, Albert  
Hofman, Sjoerd W. van Ratingen, Peter Y.J. Zandveld, Henk Russcher,  
Jan Lindemans, Henk M.E. Miedema, Eric A.P. Steegers, and Vincent W.V.  
Jaddoe

Our results suggest that maternal air pollution exposure may influence  
markers of placental growth and function. Future studies are needed to  
confirm these findings and explore the maternal and fetal consequences.

Environ Health Perspect 120:1753?1759 (2012) - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1204918/)

-o-

7) In Vitro Investigations of Platinum, Palladium, and Rhodium  
Mobility in Urban Airborne Particulate Matter (PM10, PM2.5, and PM1)  
Using Simulated Lung Fluids

Fathi Zereini, Clare L. S. Wiseman, Wilhelm Püttmann

Environmental concentrations of platinum group elements (PGE) have  
been increasing since the introduction of automotive catalytic  
converters to control harmful emissions. Assessments of the human  
health risks of exposures to these elements, especially through the  
inhalation of PGE-associated airborne particulate matter (PM), have  
been hampered by a lack of data on their bioaccessibility. The purpose  
of this study is to apply in vitro methods using simulated human lung  
fluids [artificial lysosomal fluid (ALF) and Gamble?s solution] to  
assess the mobility of the PGE, platinum (Pt), palladium (Pd), and  
rhodium (Rh) in airborne PM of human health concern. The results  
suggest that PGE emitted from automotive catalytic converters are  
likely to undergo chemical transformations during and/or after being  
emitted in the environment. This study highlights the need to conduct  
bioaccessibility experiments using samples collected in the field to  
enable an adequate assessment of risk.

Environ. Sci. Technol., 2012, 46 (18), 10326?10333 - read abstract  
(http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/es3020887)

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8) Near-Roadway Pollution and Childhood Asthma: Implications for  
Developing ?Win?Win? Compact Urban Development and Clean Vehicle  
Strategies

Laura Perez, Fred Lurmann, John Wilson, Manuel Pastor, Sylvia J.  
Brandt, Nino Künzli, Rob McConnell

Our findings suggest that there are large and previously unappreciated  
public health consequences of air pollution in Los Angeles County and  
probably in other metropolitan areas with dense traffic corridors. To  
maximize health benefits, compact urban development strategies should  
be coupled with policies to reduce near-roadway pollution exposure.?

Environ Health Perspect 120:1619?1626 (2012) - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1104785/)

-o-

9) Association of ozone and particulate air pollution with  
out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in Helsinki, Finland: Evidence for two  
different etiologies

Frank S Rosenthal, Markku Kuisma, Timo Lanki, Tareq Hussein, James  
Boyd, Jaana I Halonen, Juha Pekkanen

The results suggest that air pollution triggers out-of-hospital  
cardiac arrest via two distinct modes: one associated with  
particulates leading to acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and one  
associated with O3 involving etiologies other than AMI, for example,  
arrhythmias or respiratory insufficiency.

Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology 23, 281-288  
(May/June 2013) - read abstract  
(http://www.nature.com/jes/journal/v23/n3/full/jes2012121a.html)

-o-

10) Coarse Particles and Respiratory Emergency Department Visits in California

Brian J. Malig, Shelley Green, Rupa Basu, Rachel Broadwin

Significant associations between respiratory emergency department  
visits and coarse particle levels were observed. Asthma visits showed  
associations (for 2-day lag, excess risk per 10 ?g/m3 = 3.3%, 95%  
confidence interval: 2.0, 4.6) that were robust to adjustment by other  
common air pollutants (particles <2.5 ?m in diameter, ozone, nitrogen  
dioxide, carbon monoxide, and sulfur dioxide). Pneumonia and acute  
respiratory infection visits were not associated, although some  
suggestion of a relationship withchronic obstructive pulmonary disease  
visits was present. Our results indicate that coarse particle exposure  
may trigger asthma exacerbations requiring emergency care, and  
reducing exposures among asthmatic persons may provide benefits.

American Journal of Epidemiology 178,1 58-69 (2013) - read abstract  
(http://aje.oxfordjournals.org/content/178/1/58.abstract.html?etoc)

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11) Air quality impacts of a scheduled 36-h closure of a major highway

David C. Quiros, Qunfang Zhang, Wonsik Choi, Meilu He, Suzanne E.  
Paulson, Arthur M. Winer, Rui Wang, Yifang Zhu

Air pollutants were examined around the time of a major planned  
freeway closure. On the closure day, particle number concentration  
(PNC) downwind of the freeway was reduced by 83%. On the closure day,  
PM2.5 decreased by 18?36% across the South Coast Air Basin. Weekday  
downwind PNC decreased by 60% between 2001 and 2011.

Atmospheric Environment 67 (March 2013) 404?414 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1352231012009843)

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12) Life satisfaction and air quality in Europe

Susana Ferreira, Alpaslan Akay, Finbarr Brereton, Juncal Cuñado, Peter  
Martinsson, Mirko Moro, Tine F. Ningal

Concerns for environmental quality and its impact on people's welfare  
are fundamental arguments for the adoption of environmental  
legislation in most countries. In this paper, we analyze the  
relationship between air quality and subjective well-being in Europe.  
We use a unique dataset that merges three waves of the European Social  
Survey with a new dataset on environmental quality including SO2  
concentrations and climate in Europe at the regional level. We find a  
robust negative impact of SO2 concentrations on self-reported life  
satisfaction.

Ecological Economics 88, 1?10, (April 2013) - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921800913000050)

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13) Public Health Impacts of Combustion Emissions in the United Kingdom

Steve H. L. Yim and Steven R. H. Barrett

We find that UK combustion emissions cause  13,000 premature deaths in  
the UK per year, while an additional  6000 deaths in the UK are caused  
by non-UK European Union (EU) combustion emissions. The leading  
domestic contributor is transport, which causes  7500 early deaths per  
year, while power generation and industrial emissions result in  2500  
and  830 early deaths per year, respectively.The total monetized life  
loss in the UK is estimated at £6?62bn/year or 0.4?3.5% of gross  
domestic product. In Greater London, where PM concentrations are  
highest and are currently in exceedance of EU standards, we estimate  
that non-UK EU emissions account for 30% of the  3200 air  
quality-related deaths per year. In the context of the European  
Commission having launched infringement proceedings against the UK  
Government over exceedances of EU PM air quality standards in London,  
these results indicate that further policy measures should be  
coordinated at an EU-level because of the strength of the  
transboundary component of PM pollution.

Environ. Sci. Technol., 2012, 46 (8), pp 4291?4296 - read abstract  
(http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/es2040416)

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14) Review of evidence on health aspects of air pollution ? REVIHAAP  
Project, Technical Report

This document presents answers to 24 questions relevant to reviewing  
European policies on air pollution and to addressing health aspects of  
these policies. The answers were developed by a large group of  
scientists engaged in the WHO project ?Review of evidence on health  
aspects of air pollution ? REVIHAAP?. The experts reviewed and  
discussed the newly accumulated scientific evidence on the adverse  
effects on health of air pollution, formulating science-based answers  
to the 24 questions. Extensive rationales for the answers, including  
the list of key references, are provided. The review concludes that a  
considerable amount of new scientific information on the adverse  
effects on health of particulate matter, ozone and nitrogen dioxide,  
observed at levels commonly present in Europe, has been published in  
recent years. This new evidence supports the scientific conclusions of  
the WHO air quality guidelines, last updated in 2005, and indicates  
that the effects in some cases occur at air pollution concentrations  
lower than those serving to establish these guidelines. It also  
provides scientific arguments for taking decisive actions to improve  
air quality and reduce the burden of disease associated with air  
pollution in Europe.

World Health Organization 2013, 302pp - read full report  
(http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0004/193108/REVIHAAP-Final-technical-report.pdf)  (it takes some time to  
download)

-o-

15) Europe must tackle air pollution, warn UN scientists

John Vidal

The health effects of air pollution have been underestimated and  
Europe should review its laws to tackle the problem, UN scientists  
have concluded after the World Health Organization review of new  
evidence. "Air pollution causes 29,000 early deaths a year in the UK ?  
more than obesity and alcohol combined. This shows the UK is not just  
on the wrong side of the law, but also on the wrong side of the  
science. All the evidence tells us we need much stricter legal  
standards, yet the UK is fighting tooth and nail in the courts to  
avoid them and lobbying the EU to weaken them," said Alan Andrews of  
campaign group Client Earth.

The Guardian 4 July 2013 - read article  
(http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2013/jul/04/europe-tackle-air-pollution-un?INTCMP=SRCH)

-o-

16) Environmental Inequality in Exposures to Airborne Particulate  
Matter Components in the United States

Michelle L. Bell and Keita Ebisu

Exposures to PM2.5 components differed by race/ethnicity, age, and SES  
(socioeconomic status). If some components are more toxic than others,  
certain populations are likely to suffer higher health burdens.  
Demographics differed between populations covered and not covered by  
monitors.

Environ Health Perspect 120:1699?1704 (2012) - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/ehp.1205201.pdf)

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17) Source contributions to PM2.5 and PM10 at an urban background and  
a street location

M.P. Keuken, M. Moerman, M. Voogt, M. Blom, E.P. Weijers, T. Röckmann,  
U. Dusek

Urban PM emissions contribute less than 15% to the urban background.  
Factor 2?3 higher EC, heavy metals and re-suspension concentrations in  
street canyons. 14C analysis indicates increasing contribution of  
biomass and biofuel to EC. It is concluded that in particular the  
urban population living in street canyons with intense road traffic  
has potential health risks.

Atmospheric Environment 71 (June 2013) 26?35 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1352231013000575)

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18) The use of electrochemical sensors for monitoring urban air  
quality in low-cost, high-density networks

M.I. Mead, O.A.M. Popoola, G.B. Stewart, P. Landshoff, M. Calleja, M.  
Hayes, J.J. Baldovi, M.W. McLeod, T.F. Hodgson, J. Dicks, A. Lewis, J.  
Cohen, R. Baron, J.R. Saffell, R.L. Jones

Suitably configured electrochemical sensors can be used for air  
quality studies. Evidence of performance of electrochemical sensors at  
parts-per-billion levels. Sensors are sensitive, low noise, highly  
linear and generally highly selective. Measurement density (space and  
time) unachievable using current methods. Show low-cost air quality  
sensor networks are now feasible for widespread use.

Atmospheric Environment 70, May 2013, 186?203 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1352231012011284)

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19) Transport infrastructure: making more sustainable decisions for  
noise reduction

Crina Oltean-Dumbrava, Greg Watts, Abdul Miah

Sustainability is not well supported in the transport noise reduction  
device industry. No formalized sustainability assessment procedure  
exists for this industry. A tailor made sustainability assessment tool  
has been developed. Multi-criteria analysis tools are recommended  
based on end user needs. A transparent, user friendly decision making  
process is presented.

Journal of Cleaner Production March 2013, 42, 58?68 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0959652612005409)


-------------------------------------------------

Compiler and Editor: Barbara Rimmington, Researcher, East End Quality  
of Life Initiative

10 Montgomery Terrace Road

Sheffield S6 3BU

Tel. 0114 285 9931

Fax 0114 278 7173

Email: barbara at sheffieldct.co.uk

Web: www.sheffieldeastend.org.uk

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