[cleanairuk_news] Health Effects of Air Quality and Noise - update December 2013

Network for Clean Air contact at cleanairuk.org
Sat Dec 14 18:16:49 GMT 2013


* Health Effects of Air Quality and Noise - update December 2013 *

By Barbara Rimmington, Researcher, East End Quality of Life Initiative

(Previous edition - November 2013:
http://cleanairuk.org/pipermail/news_cleanairuk.org/2013-December/000062.html)

*CONTENTS*

1) Comparison of remote sensing and fixed-site monitoring approaches  
for examining air pollution and health in a national study population

2) Prenatal ambient air pollution exposure and small for gestational  
age birth in the Puget Sound Air Basin

3) Acute effects of ambient ozone on mortality in Europe and North  
America: results from the APHENA study

4) Long-term exposure to air pollution and the incidence of asthma:  
meta-analysis of cohort studies

5) Effects of air pollution on asthma hospitalization rates in  
different age groups in metropolitan cities of Korea

6) Residential proximity to major roadways and renal function

7) Epidemiological evidence on association between ambient air  
pollution and stroke mortality

8) Exposure to particulate air pollution and long-term incidence of  
frailty after myocardial infarction

9) The effect of acute exposure to coarse particulate matter air  
pollution in a rural location on circulating endothelial progenitor  
cells: results from a randomized controlled study

10) Fine particulate air pollution and hospital admissions for  
congestive heart failure: a case-crossover study in Taipei

11) A Prospective Study of the Impact of Air Pollution on Respiratory  
Symptoms and Infections in Infants

12) Short-Term Exposure to Air Pollution and Lung Function in the  
Framingham Heart Study

13) Spatial Analysis of Air Pollution and Mortality in California

14) The impacts of short-term exposure to noise and traffic-related  
air pollution on heart rate variability in young healthy adults

15) Air pollution exposure prediction approaches used in air pollution  
epidemiology studies

16) Childhood Cancer and Traffic-Related Air Pollution Exposure in  
Pregnancy and Early Life

17) Ambient Air Pollution and Preeclampsia: A Spatiotemporal Analysis

18) Air Pollution Exposure and Lung Function in Children: The ESCAPE Project

19) Photochemically Altered Air Pollution Mixtures and Contractile  
Parameters in Isolated Murine Hearts before and after Ischemia

20) Air Pollution and Individual and Neighborhood Socioeconomic  
Status: Evidence from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

21) Small Changes, Big Impact: Exposure to Air Pollution and Reduced  
Lung Function in Children

22) Effects of long-term exposure to air pollution on natural-cause  
mortality: an analysis of 22 European cohorts within the multicentre  
ESCAPE project

23) Airway inflammation and oxidative potential of air pollutant  
particles in a pediatric asthma panel

24) Examining the effects of air pollution composition on within  
region differences in PM2.5 mortality risk estimates

25) Oxidative stress of House Sparrow as bioindicator of urban pollution

26) Residential traffic noise exposure assessment: application and  
evaluation of European Environmental Noise Directive maps

- o -

1) Comparison of remote sensing and fixed-site monitoring approaches  
for examining air pollution and health in a national study population

Genevieve Prud'homme, Nina A. Dobbin, Liu Sun, Richard T. Burnett,  
Randall V. Martin, Andrew Davidson, Sabit Cakmak, Paul J. Villeneuve,  
Lok N. Lamsal, Aaron van Donkelaar, Paul A. Peters, Markey Johnson

Remote sensing (RS) and regulatory monitoring (RM) were used to  
estimate air pollution. Pollution concentrations were assigned to  
homes in a national health study (N = 211,789). NO2 and PM2.5 were  
associated with adverse respiratory and allergic health outcomes. Risk  
estimates based on RS and RM were similar for participants living near  
monitors. RS pollutants were associated with adverse outcomes in  
remote/rural areas (p < 0.05).

Atmospheric Environment 80, December 2013, 161–171 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1352231013005414)

- o -

2) Prenatal ambient air pollution exposure and small for gestational  
age birth in the Puget Sound Air Basin

Sheela Sathyanarayana, Chuan Zhou, Carole B. Rudra, Tim Gould, Tim  
Larson, Jane Koenig, Catherine J. Karr

Our findings suggest that prenatal exposure to traffic-derived air  
pollutants has a modest effect on fetal growth in a region with low  
overall air pollutant concentrations. Given the modest associations,  
future studies in similar settings that maximize the opportunity to  
address potential residual confounding are needed.

Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health June 2013, 6, 2, 455-463 - read  
abstract (http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11869-012-0182-7)

- o -

3) Acute effects of ambient ozone on mortality in Europe and North  
America: results from the APHENA study

Roger D. Peng et al

The “Air Pollution and Health: A Combined European and North American  
Approach” (APHENA) project is a collaborative analysis of multi-city  
time-series data on the association between air pollution and adverse  
health outcomes. The findings from APHENA on the effects of O3 on  
mortality in the general population were comparable with previously  
reported results and relatively robust to the method of data analysis.  
Overall, there was no indication of strong effect modification by age  
or ecologic variables considered in the analysis.

Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health June 2013, 6, 2, 445-453 - read  
abstract (http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11869-012-0180-9)

- o -

4) Long-term exposure to air pollution and the incidence of asthma:  
meta-analysis of cohort studies

H. Ross Anderson, Graziella Favarato, Richard W. Atkinson

We quantified the association between long-term exposure to air  
pollution and the incidence of asthma by conducting a systematic  
review and meta-analysis of cohort studies. Twelve of the cohorts  
reported at least one positive statistically significant association  
between air pollution and a measure of incidence. Of the total of 99  
estimates, only a minority (29) were positive and statistically  
significant. Estimates for meta-analysis were chosen a priori using a  
protocol. For the 13 studies with estimates for nitrogen dioxide  
(NO2), the random effects odds ratio was 1.07 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.13)  
per 10 μg/m3. For five studies with estimates for particulate matter  
with aerodynamic diameter <2.5 μm (PM2.5), the random effects estimate  
was 1.16 (95% CI 0.98 to 1.37) per 10 μg/m3. These estimates were  
reduced in size and statistical significance by adjustment for  
publication bias but remained positive. The results are consistent  
with an effect of outdoor air pollution on asthma incidence. Future  
meta-analyses would benefit from greater standardisation of cohort  
methods.

Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health March 2013, 6, 1, 47-56 - read  
abstract  
(http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11869-011-0144-5)  plus  
erratum  
(http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11869-012-0184-5/fulltext.html)

- o -

5) Effects of air pollution on asthma hospitalization rates in  
different age groups in metropolitan cities of Korea

Minjeong Park, Sheng Luo, Jaymin Kwon, Thomas H. Stock, George  
Delclos, Ho Kim, Hong Yun-Chul

Using adults as the referent, the relative rate (RR) of asthma  
admissions with 10 μg/m3 increase of PM10 is 1.5 % (95 % CI 0.1–2.8 %)  
lower for children and 1.3 % (95 % CI 0.7–1.9 %) higher for the  
elderly; RR with 1 ppm increase of CO is 1.9 % (95 % CI 0.3–3.8 %)  
lower for children; RR with 1 ppb increase of NO2 (1 ppb) is 0.5 % (95  
% CI 0.3–0.7 %) higher for the elderly. No significant age group  
difference in relative rate was found for ozone or sulfur dioxide.

Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health September 2013, 6,3, 543-551 - read  
abstract (http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11869-013-0195-x)

- o -

6) Residential proximity to major roadways and renal function

Shih-Ho Lue, Gregory A Wellenius, Elissa H Wilker, Elizabeth  
Mostofsky, Murray A Mittleman

Living near a major roadway is associated with lower estimated  
glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in a cohort of patients presenting  
with acute ischaemic stroke. If causal, these results imply that  
exposures associated with living near a major roadway contribute to  
reduced renal function, an important risk factor for cardiovascular  
events.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2013;67:629-634  
doi:10.1136/jech-2012-202307 - read abstract  
(http://jech.bmj.com/content/67/8/629.abstract)

- o -

7) Epidemiological evidence on association between ambient air  
pollution and stroke mortality

Yifeng Qian, Meiying Zhu, Binxin Cai, Qing Yang, Haidong Kan, Guixiang  
Song, Wenzheng Jin, Ming Han, Chunfang Wang

This study provides new evidence for the association between exposure  
to ambient air pollution and stroke mortality. Our results also  
suggest that underlying cardiac disorder may increase the risk for  
ischaemic-stroke mortality in relation to air pollution exposure,  
especially NO2.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2013;67:635-640,  
doi:10.1136/jech-2012-201096 - read abstract  
(http://jech.bmj.com/content/67/8/635.abstract)

- o -

8) Exposure to particulate air pollution and long-term incidence of  
frailty after myocardial infarction

Vicki Myers, David M. Broday, David M. Steinberg, Yuval, Yaacov Drory,  
Yariv Gerber
An association was observed between exposure to PM2.5 and incidence of  
frailty, providing a potential intermediary between air pollution and  
post-myocardial infarction outcomes.

Annals of Epidemiology 23, 7 , 395-400, July 2013 - read abstract  
(http://www.annalsofepidemiology.org/article/S1047-2797(13)00129-4/abstract)

- o -

9) The effect of acute exposure to coarse particulate matter air  
pollution in a rural location on circulating endothelial progenitor  
cells: results from a randomized controlled study

Robert D. Brook, Robert L. Bard, Mariana J. Kaplan, Srilakshmi  
Yalavarthi, Masako Morishita, J. Timothy Dvonch, Lu Wang, Hui-yu Yang,  
Catherine Spino, Bhramar Mukherjee, Elif A. Oral, Qinghua Sun, Jeffrey  
R. Brook, Jack Harkema, Sanjay Rajagopalan

Brief inhalation of coarse PM from a rural location elicited an  
increase in endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) that persisted for at  
least 20 h. The underlying mechanism responsible may reflect a  
systemic reaction to an acute “endothelial injury” and/or a  
circulating EPC response to sympathetic nervous system activation.

Inhalation Toxicology, 2013, Vol. 25, No. 10 , Pages 587-592  
(doi:10.3109/08958378.2013.814733) - read abstract  
(http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/08958378.2013.814733)

- o -

10) Fine particulate air pollution and hospital admissions for  
congestive heart failure: a case-crossover study in Taipei

Ya-Lun Hsieh, Shang-Shyue Tsai, Chun-Yuh Yang

This study provides evidence that higher levels of PM2.5 increase the  
risk of hospital
admissions for congestive heart failure (CHF).

Inhalation Toxicology, July 2013, 25, 8, 455-460  
(doi:10.3109/08958378.2013.804609) - read abstract  
(http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/08958378.2013.804609)

- o -

11) A Prospective Study of the Impact of Air Pollution on Respiratory  
Symptoms and Infections in Infants

Georgette Stern, Philipp Latzin, Martin Röösli, Oliver Fuchs, Elena  
Proietti, Claudia Kuehni, Urs Frey

Exposure to even moderate levels of air pollution was associated with  
increased respiratory symptoms in healthy infants. Particularly in  
infants with premorbid lung function and inflammation, air pollution  
contributed to longer duration of infectious episodes with a  
potentially large socioeconomic impact.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 187, 12  
(2013), 1341-1348, doi: 10.1164/rccm.201211-2008OC - read abstract  
(http://www.atsjournals.org/doi/abs/10.1164/rccm.201211-2008OC#.UqhHU9JdWN8)

- o -

12) Short-Term Exposure to Air Pollution and Lung Function in the  
Framingham Heart Study

Mary B. Rice, Petter L. Ljungman, Elissa H. Wilker, Diane R. Gold,  
Joel D. Schwartz, Petros Koutrakis, George R. Washko, George T.  
O’Connor, Murray A. Mittleman

Short-term exposure to PM2.5, NO2, and O3 within current EPA standards  
was associated with lower lung function in this cohort of adults.

American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 188, 11  
(2013), 1351-1357, doi: 10.1164/rccm.201308-1414OC - read abstract  
(http://www.atsjournals.org/doi/abs/10.1164/rccm.201308-1414OC#.UqhGVtJdWN8)

13) Spatial Analysis of Air Pollution and Mortality in California

Michael Jerrett, Richard T. Burnett, Bernardo S. Beckerman, Michelle  
C. Turner, Daniel Krewski, George Thurston, Randall V. Martin, Aaron  
van Donkelaar, Edward Hughes, Yuanli Shi, Susan M. Gapstur, Michael J.  
Thun, C. Arden PopeIII

Using the first individualized exposure assignments in this important  
cohort, we found positive associations of fine particulate matter, O3,  
and NO2 with mortality. The positive associations of NO2 suggest that  
traffic pollution relates to premature death.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 188, 5  
(2013), 593-599, doi: 10.1164/rccm.201303-0609OC - read abstract  
(http://www.atsjournals.org/doi/abs/10.1164/rccm.201303-0609OC#.UqhEjtJdWN8)

- o -

14) The impacts of short-term exposure to noise and traffic-related  
air pollution on heart rate variability in young healthy adults

Jing Huang, Furong Deng, Shaowei Wu, Henry Lu, Yu Hao, Xinbiao Guo

Traffic-related air pollution and noise are associated with  
cardiovascular diseases, and alternation of heart rate variability  
(HRV), which reflects cardiac autonomic function, is one of the  
mechanisms. However, few studies considered the impacts of noise when  
exploring associations between air pollution and HRV. We conclude that  
noise is an important factor influencing the effects of air pollution  
on HRV.

Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology (2013) 23,  
559–564; doi:10.1038/jes.2013.21 - read abstract  
(http://www.nature.com/jes/journal/v23/n5/abs/jes201321a.html)

- o -

15) Air pollution exposure prediction approaches used in air pollution  
epidemiology studies

Halûk Özkaynak, Lisa K Baxter, Kathie L Dionisio, Janet Burke

Epidemiological studies of the health effects of outdoor air pollution  
have traditionally relied upon surrogates of personal exposures, most  
commonly ambient concentration measurements from central-site  
monitors. However, this approach may introduce exposure prediction  
errors and misclassification of exposures for pollutants that are  
spatially heterogeneous, such as those associated with traffic  
emissions (e.g., carbon monoxide, elemental carbon, nitrogen oxides,  
and particulate matter). We review alternative air quality and human  
exposure metrics applied in recent air pollution health effect studies  
discussed during the International Society of Exposure Science 2011  
conference in Baltimore, MD.This paper summarizes the research  
projects presented during the symposium

Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology (2013) 23,  
566–572; doi:10.1038/jes.2013.15 - read article  
(http://www.nature.com/jes/journal/v23/n6/full/jes201315a.html)

- o -

16) Childhood Cancer and Traffic-Related Air Pollution Exposure in  
Pregnancy and Early Life

Julia E. Heck, Jun Wu, Christina Lombardi, Jiaheng Qiu, Travis J.  
Meyers, Michelle Wilhelm, Myles Cockburn, Beate Ritz

The study estimated weak associations between early exposure to  
traffic pollution and several childhood cancers. Because this is the  
first study to report on traffic pollution in relation to  
retinoblastoma or germ cell tumors, and both cancers are rare, these  
findings require replication in other studies.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1306761 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1306761/)

- o -

17) Ambient Air Pollution and Preeclampsia: A Spatiotemporal Analysis

Payam Dadvand, Francesc Figueras, Xavier Basagaña, Rob Beelen, David  
Martinez, Marta Cirach, Anna Schembari, Gerard Hoek, Bert Brunekreef,  
Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen

The study observed increased risk of preeclampsia associated with  
exposure to fine particulate air pollution. The findings, in  
combination with previous evidence suggesting distinct pathogenic  
mechanisms for early- and late-onset preeclampsia, support additional  
research on this topic.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1206430 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1206430/)

- o -

18) Air Pollution Exposure and Lung Function in Children: The ESCAPE Project

Ulrike Gehring, Olena Gruzieva, Raymond M. Agius, Rob Beelen, Adnan  
Custovic, Josef Cyrys, Marloes Eeftens, Claudia Flexeder, Elaine  
Fuertes, Joachim Heinrich, Barbara Hoffmann, Johan C. de Jongste,  
Marjan Kerkhof, Claudia Klümper, Michal Korek, Anna Mölter, Erica S.  
Schultz, Angela Simpson, Dorothea Sugiri, Magnus Svartengren, Andrea  
von Berg, Alet H. Wijga, Göran Pershagen, Bert Brunekreef

Exposure to air pollution may result in reduced lung function in  
schoolchildren.
Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1306770 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1306770/)

19) Photochemically Altered Air Pollution Mixtures and Contractile  
Parameters in Isolated Murine Hearts before and after Ischemia

Rachel McIntosh-Kastrinsky, David Diaz-Sanchez, Kenneth G. Sexton,  
Corey M. Jania, Jose Zavala, Stephen L. Tilley, Ilona Jaspers, M. Ian  
Gilmour, Robert B. Devlin, Wayne E. Cascio, Haiyan Tong

Exposure to photochemically altered urban air pollution appears to  
affect cardiac mechanics in isolated perfused hearts. Inhalation of  
acute multipollutant mixtures decreases LVDP and cardiac contractility  
in isolated non-ischemic murine hearts, prolongs ischemic contracture,  
increases postischemic recovery of LVDP, and reduces infarct size.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1306609 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1306609/)

- o -

20) Air Pollution and Individual and Neighborhood Socioeconomic  
Status: Evidence from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

Anjum Hajat, Ana V. Diez-Roux, Sara D. Adar, Amy H. Auchincloss, Gina  
S. Lovasi, Marie S. O’Neill, Lianne Sheppard, Joel D. Kaufman

The study found statistically significant associations of SES  
(socioeconomic status) measures with predicted air pollutant  
concentrations, demonstrating the importance of accounting for  
neighborhood- and individual-level SES in air pollution health effects  
research.

Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1206337 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1206337/)  (http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1206337/)

- o -

21) Small Changes, Big Impact: Exposure to Air Pollution and Reduced  
Lung Function in Children

Julia R. Barrett

Based on two earlier studies that investigated exposure at more than  
one time point, an association between later lung function and  
early-life exposure might have been expected, says Ulrike Gehring, the  
study’s lead author and an assistant professor at the Institute for  
Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University. However, she also  
highlights other evidence that the effects of air pollution on  
children’s lung function may be reversible. Although small, the  
changes reported in the current study could have a disproportionate  
impact on public health, says Gehring. “These small changes result in  
a considerable increase in the number of children with a clinically  
low lung function. Further, a lower lung function in childhood may  
predispose children for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary  
disease later in life,” she says.
Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.121-A341 - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/121-A341/)

- o -

22) Effects of long-term exposure to air pollution on natural-cause  
mortality: an analysis of 22 European cohorts within the multicentre  
ESCAPE project

Rob Beelen, Ole Raaschou-Nielsen, Massimo Stafoggia, Zorana Jovanovic  
Andersen, Gudrun Weinmayr, Barbara Hoffmann, Kathrin Wolf, Evangelia  
Samoli, Paul Fischer, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen, Prof Paolo Vineis, Wei W  
Xun, Klea Katsouyanni, Konstantina Dimakopoulou, Anna Oudin, Bertil  
Forsberg, Lars Modig, Aki S Havulinna, Timo Lanki, Anu Turunen, Bente  
Oftedal, Wenche Nystad, Per Nafstad, Ulf De Faire, Nancy L Pedersen,  
Claes-Göran Östenson, Laura Fratiglioni, Johanna Penell, Michal Korek,  
Göran Pershagen, Kirsten Thorup Eriksen, Kim Overvad, Thomas  
Ellermann, Marloes Eeftens, Petra H Peeters, Kees Meliefste, Meng  
Wang, Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, Dorothea Sugiri, Ursula Krämer, Joachim  
Heinrich, Kees de Hoogh, Timothy Key, Annette Peters, Regina Hampel,  
Hans Concin, Gabriele Nagel, Alex Ineichen, Emmanuel Schaffner, Nicole  
Probst-Hensch, Nino Künzli, Christian Schindler, Tamara Schikowski,  
Martin Adam, Harish Phuleria, Alice Vilier, Françoise Clavel-Chapelon,  
Christophe Declercq, Sara
Grioni, Vittorio Krogh, Ming-Yi Tsai, Fulvio Ricceri, Carlotta  
Sacerdote, Claudia Galassi, Enrica Migliore, Andrea Ranzi, Giulia  
Cesaroni, Chiara Badaloni, Francesco Forastiere, Ibon Tamayo, Pilar  
Amiano, Miren Dorronsoro, Michail Katsoulis, Antonia Trichopoulou,  
Bert Brunekreef, Gerard Hoek

Long-term exposure to fine particulate air pollution was associated  
with natural-cause mortality, even within concentration ranges well  
below the present European annual mean limit value.

The Lancet, Early Online Publication, 9 December 2013,  
doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(13)62158-3 - read abstract  
(http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(13)62158-3/abstract)

- o -

23) Airway inflammation and oxidative potential of air pollutant  
particles in a pediatric asthma panel

Ralph J Delfino, Norbert Staimer, Thomas Tjoa, Daniel L Gillen, James  
J Schauer, Martin M Shafer

Airborne particulate matter (PM) components from fossil fuel  
combustion can induce oxidative stress initiated by reactive oxygen  
species (ROS). Reported associations between worsening asthma and  
PM2.5 mass could be related to PM oxidative potential to induce airway  
oxidative stress and inflammation (hallmarks of asthma pathology).  
Findings suggest that future research in oxidative stress-related  
illnesses such as asthma and PM exposure would benefit from  
assessments of PM oxidative potential and composition.

Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology (2013) 23,  
466–473; doi:10.1038/jes.2013.25 - read abstract  
(http://www.nature.com/jes/journal/v23/n5/abs/jes201325a.html)

- o -

24) Examining the effects of air pollution composition on within  
region differences in PM2.5 mortality risk estimates

Lisa K Baxter, Rachelle M Duvall, Jason Sacks

Multi-city population-based epidemiological studies have observed  
significant heterogeneity in both the magnitude and direction of  
city-specific risk estimates, but tended to focus on regional  
differences in PM2.5 mortality risk estimates. Interpreting  
differences in risk estimates is complicated by city-to-city  
heterogeneity observed within regions due to city-to-city variations  
in the PM2.5 composition and the concentration of gaseous pollutants.  
We evaluate whether variations in PM2.5 composition and gaseous  
pollutant concentrations have a role in explaining the heterogeneity  
in PM2.5 mortality risk estimates observed in 27 US cities from 1997  
to 2002. The difference in risk estimates between cities in the same  
region may be attributed to a group of pollutants, possibly those  
related to local sources such as traffic.
Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology (2013) 23,  
457–465; doi:10.1038/jes.2012.114 - read abstract  
(http://www.nature.com/jes/journal/v23/n5/abs/jes2012114a.html)

- o -

25) Oxidative stress of House Sparrow as bioindicator of urban pollution

Amparo Herrera-Dueñas, Javier Pineda, María Teresa Antonio, José I. Aguirre

Air pollution in urban areas constitutes a threat for human health and  
wildlife. For this reason the effect of these pollutants on living  
organisms must be monitored accurately. Analysis of oxidative stress  
generated by exposure to pollutants can be used as a reliable  
biomarker; and House Sparrow (Passer domesticus) may be used as an  
ecological indicator due to its worldwide distribution, non-migratory  
status and its association with anthropic areas. In this study,  
several markers of oxidative stress have been evaluated in blood of  
House Sparrow using a non-invasive sampling method. Populations from  
urban and rural areas with differential pollution levels were  
analyzed. Results showed significant differences in two oxidative  
stress markers: haemoglobin (Hb) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC),  
both lower in urban populations. Environment pollution degree may  
affect oxidative stress status of erythrocytes, therefore these  
biomarkers could be a useful tool to evaluate the effects of  
pollutants on living organisms.

Ecological Indicators, in press - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1470160X13003130)

- o -

26) Residential traffic noise exposure assessment: application and  
evaluation of European Environmental Noise Directive maps

Charlotta Eriksson, Mats E Nilsson, Dag Stenkvist, Tom Bellander Göran  
Pershagen
Digital noise maps produced according to the European Environmental  
Noise Directive (END) could provide valuable exposure information in  
noise and health research. However, their usefulness in  
epidemiological studies has not been evaluated. The objective of this  
study was to apply and evaluate Swedish END maps for assessments of  
residential traffic noise exposure. Noise maps based on the END appear  
useful for assessing residential traffic noise exposure, particularly  
if combined with survey data on dwelling location.

Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology (2013) 23,  
531–538; doi:10.1038/jes.2012.60 - read abstract  
(http://www.nature.com/jes/journal/v23/n5/abs/jes201260a.html)

---------------------------------------------------------------------

Compiler and Editor: Barbara Rimmington, Researcher, East End Quality
of Life Initiative

10 Montgomery Terrace Road

Sheffield S6 3BU

Tel. 0114 285 9931

Fax 0114 278 7173

Email: barbara at sheffieldct.co.uk

Web: www.sheffieldeastend.org.uk

Follow us/like us on facebook
http://www.facebook.com/#!/pages/East-End-Quality-of-Life-Initiative/267727273318601

Join our Yahoo Group http://uk.groups.yahoo.com/group/eeqol/?yguid=292875649

LGC & HSJ Sustainable Communities -

Winner of Community Project Award 2007

Beacon Partner 2007-2008 Delivering Cleaner Air




More information about the news mailing list