[cleanairuk_news] Health Effects of Air Quality and Noise - update August 2013

Network for Clean Air contact at cleanairuk.org
Fri Aug 30 12:09:56 BST 2013


*Health Effects of Air Quality and Noise - update August 2013*

By Barbara Rimmington, Researcher, East End Quality of Life Initiative

*CONTENTS*

1) Exposure to fine airborne particulate matter induces macrophage  
infiltration, unfolded protein response, and lipid deposition in white  
adipose tissue

2) Is urban particulate air pollution or road traffic noise  
responsible for the association of traffic proximity with subclinical  
atherosclerosis? Results from the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study

3) Fine Particulate Air Pollution and the Progression of Carotid  
Intima-Medial Thickness: A Prospective Cohort Study from the  
Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution

4) Long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and insulin  
resistance in children: results from the GINIplus and LISAplus birth  
cohorts

5) Air pollution: another cause of lung cancer

6) Air pollution and lung cancer incidence in 17 European cohorts:  
prospective analyses from the European Study of Cohorts for Air  
Pollution Effects (ESCAPE)

7) Effects of the 80 km/h and variable speed limits on air pollution  
in the metropolitan area of Barcelona

8) Five years of London’s low emission zone: Effects on vehicle fleet  
composition and air quality

9) Perinatal Air Pollutant Exposures and Autism Spectrum Disorder in  
the Children of Nurses’ Health Study II Participants

10) Associations between Fine and Coarse Particles and Mortality in  
Mediterranean Cities: Results from the MED-PARTICLES Project

11) Global premature mortality due to anthropogenic outdoor air  
pollution and the contribution of past climate change

12) Evidence on the impact of sustained exposure to air pollution on  
life expectancy from China’s Huai River policy

13) Final Report ENNAH – European Network on Noise and Health (EU  
Project no. 226442 FP-7-ENV-2008-1)

-o-


1) Exposure to fine airborne particulate matter induces macrophage  
infiltration, unfolded protein response, and lipid deposition in white  
adipose tissue

Roberto Mendez, Ze Zheng, Zhongjie Fan, Sanjay Rajagopalan, Qinghua  
Sun, Kezhong Zhang

These results provide novel insights into PM2.5-triggered cell stress  
response in adipose tissue and increase our understanding of  
pathophysiological effects of particulate air pollution on the  
development of metabolic disorders.

Am J Transl Res 2013;5(2):224-234 - read article  
(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3612517/pdf/ajtr0005-0224.pdf)

-o-

2) Is urban particulate air pollution or road traffic noise  
responsible for the association of traffic proximity with subclinical  
atherosclerosis? Results from the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study

H Kaelsch, F Hennig, S Moebus, S Moehlenkamp, N Dragano, H Jakobs, M  
Memmesheimer, R Erbel, K-H Joeckel, B Hoffmann

EuroPrevent 2013 poster presentation - read abstract  
(http://spo.escardio.org/SessionDetails.aspx?eevtid=58&sessId=10988&subSessId=2496&searchQuery=%2fdefault.aspx%3feevtid%3d58%26days%3d%26topics%3d%26types%3d8080%26rooms%3d%26freetext%3d%26sort%3d1%26page%3d1%26showResults%3dTrue%26nbPerPage%3d20%26scroll%3D0#.Ug4gUdJJFAI)

-o-

3) Fine Particulate Air Pollution and the Progression of Carotid  
Intima-Medial Thickness: A Prospective Cohort Study from the  
Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution

Sara D. Adar, Lianne Sheppard, Sverre Vedal, Joseph F. Polak, Paul D.  
Sampson, Ana V. Diez Roux, Matthew Budoff, David R. Jacobs, Jr., R.  
Graham Barr, Karol Watson, Joel D. Kaufman

This early analysis from MESA suggests that higher long-term PM2.5  
concentrations are associated with increased IMT progression and that  
greater reductions in PM2.5 are related to slower IMT progression.  
These findings, even over a relatively short follow-up period, add to  
the limited literature on air pollution and the progression of  
atherosclerotic processes in humans. If confirmed by future analyses  
of the full 10 years of follow-up in this cohort, these findings will  
help to explain associations between long-term PM2.5 concentrations  
and clinical cardiovascular events.

PLOS Medicine April 2013, 10:4 e1001430 9pp - read article  
(http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/fetchObject.action?uri=info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pmed.1001430&representation=PDF)

-o-

4) Long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and insulin  
resistance in children: results from the GINIplus and LISAplus birth  
cohorts

E. Thiering, J. Cyrys, J. Kratzsch, C. Meisinger, B. Hoffmann, D.  
Berdel, A. von Berg, S. Koletzko, C.-P. Bauer, J. Heinrich

Traffic-related air pollution may increase the risk of insulin  
resistance. Given the ubiquitous nature of air pollution and the high  
incidence of insulin resistance in the general population, the  
associations examined here may have potentially important public  
health effects despite the small/moderate effect sizes observed.

Diabetologia (2013) 56:1696–1704 - read article  
(http://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs00125-013-2925-x.pdf)

-o-

5) Air pollution: another cause of lung cancer

Takashi Yorifuji, Saori Kashima

In The Lancet Oncology, Ole Raaschou-Nielsen and  colleagues present  
the findings from individual data from 17 European cohorts and show  
that exposure to particulate matter air pollution increased the risk  
of lung cancer—particularly adenocarcinoma—with a suggestion of an  
effect even below the current European Union air pollution limit values  
(40 μg/m³ for particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <10 μm  
[PM10] and 25 μg/m³ for particulate matter with a diameter <2·5 μm  
[PM2·5]).

The Lancet Oncology 14:9 August 2013, 788-789 - read article  
(http://download.thelancet.com/pdfs/journals/lanonc/PIIS1470204513703024.pdf?id=f1b40765af4fa604:-5b5f10d9:1403e2e6ca6:8e21375435333915)

-o-

6) Air pollution and lung cancer incidence in 17 European cohorts:  
prospective analyses from the European Study of Cohorts for Air  
Pollution Effects (ESCAPE)

Ole Raaschou-Nielsen, Zorana J Andersen, Rob Beelen, Evangelia Samoli,  
Massimo Stafoggia, Gudrun Weinmayr, Barbara Hoffmann, Paul Fischer,  
Mark J Nieuwenhuijsen, Bert Brunekreef, Wei W Xun, Klea Katsouyanni,  
Konstantina Dimakopoulou, Johan Sommar, Bertil Forsberg, Lars Modig,  
Anna Oudin, Bente Oftedal, Per E Schwarze, Per Nafstad, Ulf De Faire,  
Nancy L Pedersen, Claes-Göran Östenson, Laura Fratiglioni, Johanna  
Penell, Michal Korek, Göran Pershagen, Kirsten T Eriksen, Mette  
Sørensen, Anne Tjønneland, Thomas Ellermann, Marloes Eeftens, Petra H  
Peeters, Kees Meliefste, Meng Wang, Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, Timothy J  
Key, Kees de Hoogh, Hans Concin, Gabriele Nagel, Alice Vilier, Sara  
Grioni, Vittorio Krogh, Ming-Yi Tsai, Fulvio Ricceri, Carlotta  
Sacerdote, Claudia Galassi, Enrica Migliore, Andrea Ranzi, Giulia  
Cesaroni, Chiara Badaloni, Francesco Forastiere, Ibon Tamayo, Pilar  
Amiano, Miren Dorronsoro, Antonia Trichopoulou, Christina Bamia, Paolo  
Vineis, Gerard Hoek

The results showed no association between lung cancer and nitrogen  
oxides concentration (HR 1·01 [0·95—1·07] per 20 μg/m3) or traffic  
intensity on the nearest street (HR 1·00 [0·97—1·04] per 5000 vehicles  
per day). Particulate matter air pollution contributes to lung cancer  
incidence in Europe.
The Lancet Oncology, August 2013 14:9 813-822 - read abstract  
(http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lanonc/article/PIIS1470-2045(13)70279-1/abstract)

-o-

7) Effects of the 80 km/h and variable speed limits on air pollution  
in the metropolitan area of Barcelona

Germà Bel, Jordi Rosell

Empirical estimation indicate that reducing the speed limit to 80 km/h  
causes a 1.7–3.2% increase in NOx and 5.3–5.9% in PM10. By contrast,  
the variable speed policy reduced NOx and PM10 pollution by 7.7–17.1%  
and 14.5–17.3%. As such, a variable speed policy appears to be a more  
effective environmental policy than reducing the speed limit to a  
maximum of 80 km/h.

Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment
23, August 2013, 90–97 - read abstract    
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1361920913000680)

-o-

8) Five years of London’s low emission zone: Effects on vehicle fleet  
composition and air quality
Richard B. Ellison, Stephen P. Greaves, David A. Hensher

Results presented in this paper suggest the rate of fleet turnover for  
affected vehicle classes in London increased substantially when the  
zone was first introduced before returning to the national average in  
subsequent years. Early evidence for light commercial vehicles, which  
became subject to the scheme in early 2012, shows a similar effect is  
likely. Despite an overall growth in freight vehicles operating in  
London, the number of pre-Euro III vehicles has dropped and this has  
been coupled with a switch from rigid vehicles to light commercial  
vehicles and articulated vehicles. Ambient air quality measurements  
show concentrations of particulate matter within the low emission zone  
have dropped by 2.46–3.07% compared to just over 1% for areas just  
outside the zone. However, no discernible differences are found for  
NOX concentrations.

Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment
23, August 2013, 25–33 - read abstract  
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S136192091300059X)

-o-

9) Perinatal Air Pollutant Exposures and Autism Spectrum Disorder in  
the Children of Nurses’ Health Study II Participants

Andrea L. Roberts, Kristen Lyall, Jaime E. Hart, Francine Laden, Allan  
C. Just, Jennifer F. Bobb, Karestan C. Koenen, Alberto Ascherio, Marc  
G. Weisskopf

Perinatal exposure to air pollutants may increase risk for ASD.  
Additionally, future studies should consider sex-specific biological  
pathways connecting perinatal exposure to pollutants with ASD.
Environ Health Perspect 121:978-984 (2013) - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1206187/)

-o-

10) Associations between Fine and Coarse Particles and Mortality in  
Mediterranean Cities: Results from the MED-PARTICLES Project

Evangelia Samoli, Massimo Stafoggia, Sophia Rodopoulou, Bart Ostro,  
Christophe Declercq, Ester Alessandrini, Julio Díaz, Angeliki  
Karanasiou, Apostolos G. Kelessis, Alain Le Tertre, Paolo Pandolfi,  
Giorgia Randi, Cecilia Scarinzi, Stefano Zauli-Sajani, Klea  
Katsouyanni, Francesco Forastiere; the MED-PARTICLES Study group

We found evidence of adverse effects of PM2.5 on mortality outcomes in  
the European Mediterranean region. Associations with PM2.5–10 were  
positive but smaller in magnitude. Associations were stronger for  
respiratory mortality when cumulative exposures were lagged over 0–5  
days, and were modified by season and age.

Environ Health Perspect 121:932—938 (2013) - read article  
(http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1206124/)

-o-

11) Global premature mortality due to anthropogenic outdoor air  
pollution and the contribution of past climate change

Raquel A Silva, J Jason West, Yuqiang Zhang, Susan C Anenberg,
Jean-Franc¸ois Lamarque, Drew T Shindell, William J Collins,
Stig Dalsoren, Greg Faluvegi, Gerd Folberth, Larry W Horowitz,
Tatsuya Nagashima, Vaishali Naik, Steven Rumbold, Ragnhild Skeie,
Kengo Sudo, Toshihiko Takemura, Daniel Bergmann,
Philip Cameron-Smith, Irene Cionni, Ruth M Doherty,
Veronika Eyring, Beatrice Josse, I A MacKenzie, David Plummer,
Mattia Righi, David S Stevenson, Sarah Strode, Sophie Szopa, Guang Zeng

We estimate that, at present, 470 000 (95% confidence interval, 140 000  
to 900 000) premature respiratory deaths are associated globally and  
annually with anthropogenic ozone, and 2.1 (1.3 to 3.0) million deaths  
with anthropogenic PM2:5-related cardiopulmonary diseases (93%) and  
lung cancer (7%).
Environmental Research Letters 8 (2013) 034005 (11pp) - read article  
(http://iopscience.iop.org/1748-9326/8/3/034005/pdf/1748-9326_8_3_034005.pdf)

-o-

12) Evidence on the impact of sustained exposure to air pollution on  
life expectancy from China’s Huai River policy

Yuyu Chen, Avraham Ebenstein, Michael Greenstone, Hongbin Li

This paper's findings suggest that an arbitrary Chinese policy that  
greatly increases total suspended particulates (TSPs) air pollution is  
causing the 500 million residents of Northern China to lose more than  
2.5 billion life years of life expectancy. The quasi-experimental  
empirical approach is based on China’s Huai River policy, which  
provided free winter heating via the provision of coal for boilers in  
cities north of the Huai River but denied heat to the south. Using a  
regression discontinuity design based on distance from the Huai River,  
we find that ambient concentrations of TSPs are about 184 μg/m3 [95%  
confidence interval (CI): 61, 307] or 55% higher in the north.  
Further, the results indicate that life expectancies are about 5.5 y  
(95% CI: 0.8, 10.2) lower in the north owing to an increased incidence  
of cardiorespiratory mortality.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA Early  
Edition May 2013 6pp - read article  
(http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2013/07/03/1300018110.full.pdf+html)

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13) Final Report ENNAH – European Network on Noise and Health
EU Project no. 226442 FP-7-ENV-2008-1

Editors: Jurgita Lekaviciute, Stylianos Kephalopoulos, Stephen  
Stansfeld, Charlotte Clark

Extracts from the executive summary:
One important development has been the involvement in ENNAH of  
researchers mainly working on air pollution. The aim was to jointly  
consider the impact of both transport noise and air pollution on  
health. The ENNAH meetings have provided a fruitful exchange of views  
on how air pollution and noise can be further studied jointly and the  
underlying mechanisms elucidated.
ENNAH focused on outlining new priorities and recommendations for  
research on environmental noise and related negative effects on  
health, such as: cardiovascular disease, mental health, children’s  
cognitive performance, annoyance, sleep and hearing loss, as well as  
on some cross‐cutting health related themes.

EuropeanUnion, 2013, 178pp - read full report  
(http://www.ennah.eu/assets/files/ENNAH-Final_report_online_19_3_2013.pdf)  
(may take some time to download)

-------------------------------------------------

Compiler and Editor: Barbara Rimmington, Researcher, East End Quality
of Life Initiative

10 Montgomery Terrace Road

Sheffield S6 3BU

Tel. 0114 285 9931

Fax 0114 278 7173

Email: barbara at sheffieldct.co.uk

Web: www.sheffieldeastend.org.uk

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