N e t w o r k f o r C l e a n A i r
We distribute the publication 'Health Effects of Air Quality and Noise - Update' which is edited and compiled by Barbara Rimmington, Researcher, at the East End Quality of Life Initiative in Sheffield. It's a monthly publication listing newly published papers about health and air pollution/noise.
You can sign up to our Clean Air UK News email list to receive the Update.
Health Effects of Air Quality and Noise - Update April 2013
By Barbara Rimmington, Researcher, East End Quality of Life Initiative
Next edition - May 2013: http://cleanairuk.org/pipermail/news_cleanairuk.org/2013-June/000043.html
Index page for Health Effects of Air Quality and Noise - Update
1) Air pollution: Europe's avoidable health risk
2) Revising EU air pollution policy
3) 'Bicycle highways' help save healthcare costs in Northern Europe
4) Locally derived traffic-related air pollution and fetal growth restriction: a retrospective cohort study
5) Prenatal exposure to traffic-related air pollution and fetal growth in a cohort of pregnant women
6) Chronic burden of near-roadway traffic pollution in 10 European cities (APHEKOM network)
7) Air pollution and asthma control in the Epidemiological study on the Genetics and Environment of Asthma
8) Components of ambient air pollution affect thrombin generation in healthy humans: the RAPTES project
9) Acute nasal pro-inflammatory response to air pollution depends on characteristics other than particle mass concentration or oxidative potential: the RAPTES project
10) Activity Change in Response to Bad Air Quality, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007–2010
11) Scottish Government Annual Air Quality Seminar - Monday 18th March 2013
12) Effects of environmental noise exposure on 24-h ambulatory vascular properties in adults
13) Correlations of particle number concentrations and metals with nitrogen oxides and other traffic-related air pollutants in Glasgow and London
14) Factors influencing the number distribution and size of the particles emitted from a modern diesel vehicle in real urban traffic
15) Developing an indicator for the chronic health impact of traffic-related pollutant emissions
16) Modeling population exposure to community noise and air pollution in a large metropolitan area
17) UK air pollution: why are we only now waking up to this public health crisis?
18) Mayor’s office: keep children out of the playground when air pollution is bad
Air pollution: Europe's avoidable health risk
There is now no doubt that air pollution, and especially fine particulate matter (PM2·5), has many serious consequences for health and leads to avoidable premature deaths. A large body of evidence exists for short-term and long-term effects on cardiovascular diseases and respiratory diseases—including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, and lung cancer. Newly emerging evidence suggests possible effects on premature births, lung-function development in children, and accelerated progression of atherosclerosis and cognitive impairment. Even more worrying is that these effects may exist at low levels of air pollution and that there is no safe threshold level, rather a linear concentration-response relationship.
The Lancet, 381, 9870, p876, 16 March 2013 - read more http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736%2813%2960656-X/fulltext?elsca1=ETOC-LANCET&elsca2=email&elsca3=E24A35F
Revising EU air pollution policy
Significant additional emission reductions and accompanying environmental improvements can be achieved in the EU over the next 10-15 years. Health benefits alone far outweigh the extra costs for emission control. Moving from the baseline to the low ambition level (25% gap closure) would reduce annual health damage costs in 2030 by €15-51 billion in the EU. Going to the mid (50%) and high (75%) ambition levels would result in annual benefits of €29-102 billion and €44-154 billion, and implementing MTFR (Maximum Technically Feasible Reductions) would provide health benefits valued at €59-204 billion. The costs for the additional emission abatement measures range from €0.4 billion per year in 2030 for the lowest ambition case, €2.3 billion/yr for the mid case and up to €10 billion/yr.
Acid News March 2013 - read more http://www.airclim.org/acidnews/revising-eu-air-pollution-policy
'Bicycle highways' help save healthcare costs in Northern Europe
Bicycle highways, a new transport experiment, are spreading fast across the European Union, notably in Denmark, Germany, Sweden and the UK. Lars Gaardhøj, chairman of the Environment and Green Growth Committee in the capital region of Denmark, explained that the big difference between a bicycle highway and a bike lane is that highways are maintained and prioritised just like normal roads are. This means the bike paths are as straight as possible, making them faster. The paths are also broader and, during winter, they are cleared of snow, as with regular roads. Comfort has also been thought through, with air pumps placed every 1.5 km. And when you get closer to the city centre, traffic lights have been coordinated in “green waves” so that cyclists who keep a speed of 20 kilometres per hour will only meet green lights. The bicycle network is currently saving the Danish state an estimated €40 million per year in health costs, with only a relatively small amount of money going to building and maintaining the highways. The first bicycle highway, inaugurated a year ago, has quickly generated a 10% rise in the number of commuters who choose to bike from the suburbs to Copenhagen, a distance of 15 kilometres.
Locally derived traffic-related air pollution and fetal growth restriction: a retrospective cohort study
Gavin Pereira, Angus G Cook, Fatima Haggar, Carol Bower, Natasha Nassar
An IQR increase in traffic-related air pollution in the second trimester across all women was associated with an OR of 1.31 (95% CI 1.07 to 1.60) for fetal growth restriction. Effects on fetal growth restriction (low POBW) were highest among women who subsequently delivered before 37 weeks of gestation. Effects on SGA were highest among women who did not move house: OR 1.35 (95% CI 1.08 to 1.69). Larger effect sizes were observed for low POBW than for SGA. Exposure to traffic-related air pollution in mid to late pregnancy was associated with risk of SGA and low POBW in this study.
Occup Environ Med 2012;69:815-822 - read abstract http://oem.bmj.com/content/69/11/815.abstract
Prenatal exposure to traffic-related air pollution and fetal growth in a cohort of pregnant women
Carmen Iñiguez, Ferran Ballester, Marisa Estarlich, Ana Esplugues, Mario Murcia, Sabrina Llop, Alfredo Plana, Rubén Amorós, Marisa Rebagliato
Exposure to NO2 was inversely associated with BPD, AC and EFW at week 32 and with growth in these parameters in weeks 20–32. BPD and FL were also affected earlier, at week 20. NO2 levels above the median (38 μg/m3) reduced size at week 32 by around 9% in all parameters except for FL (6%). The critical windows of exposure were in early pregnancy, before 20 weeks. Exposure in this period was also inversely associated with neonatal length and head circumference. Maternal exposure to NO2 is associated with impaired fetal growth from mid-gestation onwards.
Occup Environ Med 2012;69:736-744 - read abstract http://oem.bmj.com/content/69/10/736.abstract
Chronic burden of near-roadway traffic pollution in 10 European cities (APHEKOM network)
Laura Perez, Christophe Declercq, Carmen Iñiguez, Inmaculada Aguilera, Chiara Badaloni, Ferran Ballester, Catherine Bouland, Olivier Chanel, FB Cirarda, Francesco Forastiere, Bertil Forsberg, Daniela Haluza, Britta Hedlund, Koldo Cambra, Marina Lacasaña, Hanns Moshammer, Peter Otorepec, Miguel Rodríguez-Barranco, Sylvia Medina, Nino Künzli
Exposure to roads with high vehicle traffic, a proxy for near road traffic-related pollution, accounted for 14% of all asthma cases. When a causal relationship between near road trafficrelated pollution and asthma is assumed, 15% of all episodes of asthma symptoms were attributable to air pollution. Without this assumption, only 2% of asthma symptoms were attributable to air pollution. Similar patterns were found for coronary heart diseases in older adults.
ERJ Express, March 2013, 30pp - read full article http://erj.ersjournals.com/content/early/2013/03/20/09031936.00031112.full.pdf
Air pollution and asthma control in the Epidemiological study on the Genetics and Environment of Asthma
Bénédicte Jacquemin, Francine Kauffmann, Isabelle Pin, Nicole Le Moual, Jean Bousquet, Frédéric Gormand, Jocelyne Just, Rachel Nadif, Christophe Pison, Daniel Vervloet, Nino Künzli, Valérie Siroux, on behalf of the Epidemiological study on the Genetics and Environment of Asthma (EGEA)
Median concentrations (in micrograms per cubic metre) were 32 (IQR 25–38) for NO2 (n=465), 46 (41–52) for O3 and 21 (18–21) for PM10 (n=481). In total, 44%, 29% and 27% had controlled, partly controlled and uncontrolled asthma, respectively. The ordinal ORs for O3 and PM10 with asthma control were 1.69 (95% CI 1.22 to 2.34) and 1.35 (95% CI 1.13 to 1.64), respectively. When including both pollutants in the same model, both associations persisted. Associations were not modified by sex, smoking status, use of inhaled corticosteroids, atopy, season of examination or body mass index. Both pollutants were associated with each of the three main domains of control. The results suggest that long-term exposure to PM10 and O3 is associated with uncontrolled asthma in adults, defined by symptoms, exacerbations and lung function.
J Epidemiol Community Health 2012;66:796-802 - read abstract http://jech.bmj.com/content/66/9/796.abstract
Components of ambient air pollution affect thrombin generation in healthy humans: the RAPTES project
Maciej Strak, Gerard Hoek, Maaike Steenhof, Evren Kilinc, Krystal J Godri, Ilse Gosens, Ian S Mudway, René van Oerle, Henri M H Spronk, Flemming R Cassee, Frank J Kelly, Roy M Harrison, Bert Brunekreef, Erik Lebret, Nicole A H Janssen
The study found that thrombin generation increases in the intrinsic (FXII-mediated) blood coagulation pathway in relation to ambient air pollution exposure. The associations with NO2, nitrate and sulphate were consistent and robust, insensitive to adjustment for other pollutants. The associations with tissue factor-mediated thrombogenicity were not very consistent. In conclusion, ex vivo thrombin generation was associated with exposure to NO2, nitrate and sulphate, but not PM mass, PM OP or other measured air pollutants.
Occup Environ Med 2013;70:332-340 - read abstract http://oem.bmj.com/content/70/5/332.abstract?etoc
Acute nasal pro-inflammatory response to air pollution depends on characteristics other than particle mass concentration or oxidative potential: the RAPTES project
Maaike Steenhof, Ian S Mudway, Ilse Gosens, Gerard Hoek, Krystal J Godri, Frank J Kelly, Roy M Harrison, Raymond H H Pieters, Flemming R Cassee, Erik Lebret, Bert A Brunekreef, Maciej Strak, Nicole A H Janssen
The study observed no consistent effects in two-pollutant models for PM mass concentration and OP. Instead, they found consistent associations with nasal inflammatory markers for other PM characteristics, specifically OC, endotoxin and NO2.
Occup Environ Med 2013;70:341-348 - read abstract http://oem.bmj.com/content/70/5/341.abstract?etoc
Activity Change in Response to Bad Air Quality, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007–2010
Ellen M. Wells, Dorr G. Dearborn, Leila W. Jackson
In adjusted regression models the following were significantly more likely to have changed activity compared to those who did not belong to any susceptible group: respiratory conditions (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 2.61, 95% CI: 2.03, 3.35); respiratory and cardiovascular conditions (aOR: 4.36, 95% CI: 2.47, 7.69); respiratory conditions and older age (aOR: 3.83; 95% CI: 2.47, 5.96); or all three groups (aOR: 3.52; 95% CI: (2.33, 5.32). Having cardiovascular conditions alone was not statistically significant. Some individuals, especially those with a respiratory condition, reported changing activities due to poor air quality. However, efforts should continue to educate the public about air quality and health.PLoS One Journal 2012; 7(11) e50525 - read article http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0050526
Scottish Government Annual Air Quality Seminar - Monday 18th March 2013
The latest Scottish Government Annual Air Quality Seminar was held in Edinburgh on Monday March 18th 2013. The event was attended by over seventy delegates from a range of organisations, and included the following two presentations:
Air Quality v Athletes? Development of decision support tools for the assessment of personal exposure to air pollution
Julien S Baker, Lon Kilgore, Andrew Hursthouse, John Gulliver, Yang Wang - view slides http://www.scottishairquality.co.uk/documents/reports/6_Decision_support_air_exercise_UWS_IC_Mar2013.pdf
Health Effects of Air Pollution Dr Jackie Hyland - view slides http://www.scottishairquality.co.uk/documents/reports/9_Health_Effects_of_Air_Pollution.pdf
Effects of environmental noise exposure on 24-h ambulatory vascular properties in adults
Ta-Yuan Changa, Chiu-Shong Liu, Hsiu-Hui Hsieh, Bo-Ying Bao, Jim-Shoung Lai
Exposure to environmental noise is associated with changes in vascular properties. Noise may increase arterial compliance and decrease arterial resistance at nighttime. The time-lagged noise exposure decreases arterial distensibility at daytime. Noise levels increase arterial compliance and decrease arterial resistance over 24-h.
Environmental Research 118, October 2012, 112–117 - read abstract http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935112001910
Correlations of particle number concentrations and metals with nitrogen oxides and other traffic-related air pollutants in Glasgow and London
Araceli Sánchez Jiménez, Mathew R. Heal, Iain J. Beverland
Particle number concentration (PNC) and transition metals in particulate matter have been associated with health outcomes. PNC and metals are difficult and expensive to measure, so they are not routinely monitored. NO2 and NOx can be used as surrogates for PNC and water-soluble metal at background sites but not at street canyons. Weekly NO2 measurements derived from passive diffusion tubes could be used as metrics for long-term exposure to PNC.
Atmospheric Environment 54, July 2012, Pages 667–678 - read abstract http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1352231012000684
Factors influencing the number distribution and size of the particles emitted from a modern diesel vehicle in real urban traffic
M. Pujadas, J.R. Rubio, A. Domínguez-Sáez, C.C. Barrios
The subject was a diesel engine running in real traffic in Madrid. Particle number per kilometre is closely related with the vehicle speed profile. Particle number concentration depends significantly on topography and street type. Nanoparticle size and number distribution depends on hourly traffic intensity. Vehicle low speed and idle periods cause an increase in accumulation particle mode.
Atmospheric Environment 56, September 2012, Pages 16–25 - read abstract http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1352231012003275
Developing an indicator for the chronic health impact of traffic-related pollutant emissions
Véronique Lépicier, Mireille Chiron, Robert Joumard
The goal of the study is to develop an emission based indicator for the health impact of the air pollution caused by traffic. It is based on a literature survey of methods for evaluating health impacts related to the atmospheric pollution. We define a composite indicator based on the traffic emissions and on local data as dispersion conditions and population. The indicator is a combination of pollutant emission, dispersion, exposition factor, and substance specific toxicity factor. Applications are global (e.g. comparison of vehicle technologies) or local (e.g. comparison of populations or areas).
Environmental Impact Assessment Review 38, January 2013, Pages 35–43 - read abstract http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0195925512000388
Modeling population exposure to community noise and air pollution in a large metropolitan area
Wen Qi Gan, Kathleen McLean, Michael Brauer, Sarah A. Chiarello, Hugh W. Davies
A prediction model was used to assess community noise exposure in a large city. The correlation between modeled and measured noise levels was 0.62. Modeled noise and air pollution levels were not strongly correlated. This suggests the feasibility of separate evaluation of these two exposures in epidemiologic analysis.
Environmental Research 116, July 2012, 11–16 - read abstract http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935112001156
UK air pollution: why are we only now waking up to this public health crisis?
Traffic fumes across the country are provoking increased instances of asthma and other respiratory diseases. So what is being done about it?
The Guardian, 19 March 2013 - read more http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2013/mar/19/uk-air-pollution-health-crisis
London Mayor’s office: keep children out of the playground when air pollution is bad
The Mayor’s office have advised that London’s school children should be kept indoors for their own safety when air pollution is bad – on average once a month.This news was coupled with discussion of the irreversible impact on children’s lungs. Frank Kelly from Kings College London talked about scientific research which shows that “children who go to school or live within 500m of a busy freeway had an under-developed lung by the time they reached 18 years of age – this is very serious because it’s something they cannot regain and will carry with them through the rest of their lives.”
Compiler and Editor: Barbara Rimmington, Researcher
East End Quality of Life Initiative, 10 Montgomery Terrace Road, Sheffield S6 3BU
Tel. 0114 285 9931; Fax 0114 278 7173
Email: barbara at sheffieldct.co.uk